Lesson 2 Brief history of plant ecology
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Lesson 2 Brief history of plant ecology


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Learn all about the services we offer
8 Pages


Lesson 2 Brief history of plant ecology • Key historical personalities  Major phases in the development of plant ecology concepts – European biogeographical phase – European plant community classification phase – American concepts of succession, continuum, and individualistic response of plants – Ecophysiology, population dynamics, and ecosystem modelling phase – “Big ecology” and current focus on global change
  • big ecology
  • similar vegetation
  • biogeographic phase betula
  • modelling phase
  • similar plant forms
  • expedition camp on the orinoco r.



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Information Literacy  EPMO 1
How Information Literacy Influences Scholarship, Practice, and Leadership
in the Enterprise Program Management Office (EPMO)
Robert Symonds, MBA, CPM
University of Phoenix School of Advanced Studies
Content copyright © 2009. Robert Symonds. All rights reserved.
Information Literacy  EPMO 2
Information Literacy;the ability to identify what information is needed, understand how the
information is organized, identify the best sources of information for a given need, locate those
sources, evaluate the sources critically, and share that information(University of Idaho, 2009).
influences Scholarship, Practice, and Leadership (Universitty of Phoenix, n.d.). in the Enterprise
Program Management Office (EPMO), by initiating literary work as a body-of-knowledge that
describes recent and current methods and practices, along with theoretical postulation. Once
documented, further critique evolves and matures these works as they are applied to practice.
Leadership provides the discerning eye regarding whether theory-to-practice fulfills the EPMO’s
characteristic value proposition. Applying maturation models closes the cycle. Information
Literacy acts as the overarching tenet within Scholarship, Practice, and Leadership as much as
their collective outcome. This paper discusses that singular influence, and its influence to the
collective, under the auspices of maturity models that evolve best practice.
Information Literacy  EPMO 3
How Information Literacy Influences Scholarship, Practice, and Leadership in the Enterprise
Program Management Office (EPMO)
The influence of Information Literacy in the EPMO is in its infancy. EPMO are initiated by,
and evolve from,their parent organization’s escalating need for operational rigor; coupled with
the current maturity of their “application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project
activities to meet project requirements.”(Project Management Institute, 2004). Information
Literacy influences the EPMO functional effectiveness (value proposition) to the parent
organization by formalizing its compliance to industry standards and maturation models.
Maturity models rely on closing gaps to standard technique and process as well as skill
deficiencies. Information Literacy should be addressed within these models to augment their
breadth and depth in closing these gaps.
EPMO Character
EPMO is an organizational construct with a focus to formalize and mature applied project
management skill and evolve the collective skill in its ability to most effectively serve its parent
organization in optimizing its value proposition. It operates at the enterprise level as a business
unitwithin its parent’s businessmodel; a subsidiary of sorts, to advance the parentcompany’s
agenda for revenue, profit, product development-to-market, and cost efficiency. Information
Literacy as described in Scholarship, Practice, and Leadership (University of Phoenix, n.d.).
postulates that;
Integrating scholarship and practice means that leaders must obtain theoretical
understanding of core leadership principles through scholarly research and study.
Integrating scholarship and practice also means that leaders must be able to convert their
theoretical understanding into daily, observable leadership behaviors and practices.
Information Literacy  EPMO 4
Applying this to EPMO discipline suggests a self-aware organization; internally deriving its
operational theory, applying that theory in practical effectiveness through its usage model, and
evolving that model maturity while documenting its evolution for the profession at-large to learn
from. While similar maturity models exist within the profession and are embraced as standards
indicating the profession’s readiness to be influenced by Information Literacy, they do not
include Information Literacy rigors of scholarly research or advancement. One such maturity
model; Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3) (Project Management
Institute, 2003) is embraced as a professional standard indicating the profession’s readiness to
be influenced by Information Literacy.
Lauer and Yodanis (2004) suggest that in sociological learning, broadening student
comparative perspective through international context provide “a natural,universal pattern of
human behavior.”(Lauer & Yodanis, 2004, p 308). Applying this concept to EPMO illustrates
evolving standards with international perspective including training curriculum across multi-
national cultures.
Zabel (2004) suggests the importance of accredited curriculum in Information Literacy in
higher-education (Zabel, 2004, p 18). Applying this concept to EPMO we see added attention in
literature research, advancement, and applications maturing the EPMO in its effective
contribution to the business model.
EPMO Scholarship
Scholarship; a noun defined as the“learning of a high level”(Oxford University Press,
n.d.). describes result. For the EPMO, Information Literacy influences scholarship by virtue of its
constituent actions to obtain available relevant literary works. The profession of project
management through professional organizations such as the Project Management Institute
(PMI), and subordinate organizations such as the PMO Special Interest Group (SIG) recognizes
Information Literacy  EPMO 5
the importance of scholarship through funded university grants to explore, research, and create
relevant topics to the profession (Pennypacker, 2008)(Program Management Institute’s
Program Management Office SIG, 2008). Until such body of literature proliferates, this
professionThis condition is recognized at-large by the Americans scholarship remains hobbled.
Library Association, whereby stating;Textbooks, workbooks, and lectures must yield to a
learning process based on the information resources available for learning.(American Library
Association, 1989) Clearly, once scholarship, as defined, is set in motion to create and evolve
literary works of observation, study, and experiment, the EPMO will benefit from its influence.
EPMO Practice
Information Literacy influences EPMO Practice by the relevant application of literary works
currently available to fulfill theorganization’s value proposition toThisthe parent organization.
begins by recognizing and discerning how, what relevant theory described in literary works
applies to fulfilling its value proposition. The skill and ability to exercise such recognition and
discernment comes from scholarship, experience, and leadership. Organizational maturity of
best practices is a well known tenet within business, and promoted by universities (e.g. the
University of Pennsylvania’s affiliated Software Engineering Institute’s Capability Maturity Model
(SEI-CMMI)) and professional organizations (e.g. International Electrical and Electronic
Engineers (IEEE)). In project management, organizations assess and articulate their current
maturity level through observed behavior and practice. They progress from this known maturity
level to a next level through the application of advanced practices.
EPMO Leadership
The Project Management Institute recognizes the connection between continuous
improvement (best practice maturation vis-à-vis OPM3) and achieving true leadership potential
(Project Management Institute, 2009).The Project Management Institute’s journal publication
Information Literacy  EPMO 6
directly exemplifies how Information Literacy influences leadership, by reporting it. Those
leadership subjects provide that initial stimulus from which others who research, reference, and
cite these publications evolve theory and applied-practice through their relevant discernment.
Information Literacy influences scholarship, practice, and leadership unto their own right
as well as their collective in the EPMO much the way the gears of a watch perform their unique
work (such as moving a date indicator, synonymous to scholarship as a single subject) while
also contributing the overall function of the watch to tell time/day/date (e.g. the collective inter-
relationship between the three subjects). For Information Literacy to have this influence
however, it needs initial stimulus; motivation to document current practice as a point of
departure to begin its maturity. Once documented, further scholarly advancement stimulates
critical thinking as natural evolution. As evolved theory is re-applied, it matures in its practice.
The cycle not only sustains itself through the leadership of those who take the initial action that
begins the stimulus, but evolves and matures it with each practical application; turn publication;
found by others in research; and, re-applied through relevant discernment. Nielsen (2006)
recognized thisneed in execution “of … projects (that bring) greater need of project
management development and standardization.”(Nielsen, 2006, p 61) considering the risk of
the international nature and composition of inter-continental pipeline projects. Broadening
international perspective and deepening the skills of those who manage illustrate maturing
influence of Information Literacy to the EPMO. Deming (1993) states; "Knowledge is theory. We
should be thankful if action of management is based on theory. Knowledge has temporal
spread. Information is not knowledge. The world is drowning in information but is slow in
acquisition of knowledge. There is no substitute for knowledge." (Deming, 1993).
Information Literacy  EPMO 7
American Library Association. (1989).Presidential committee on information: Final report.
Chicago: American Library Association.
Deming, W. E. (1993).The new economics for industry, government, education, Second
Lauer, S. R., & Yodanis, C. L. (2004). The international social survey programme (ISSP): A tool
for teaching with an international perspective.Teaching Socialogy, 304-313. Retrieved July 8,
2009, from the University of Phoenix School of Advanced Studies Electronic Reserve
Readings Web site: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdf?vid=1&hid=3&sid=d58c040f-5240-
Nielsen, K. R. (2006). Risk management: Lessons from six continents.Journal of Management
in Engineering, 32, 61-67.
Oxford University Press. (n.d.).AskOxford.com: scholarship. Retrieved July 10, 2009, from
Oxford Dictionary Online: http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/scholarship?view=uk
Pennypacker, J. (2008). The state of the PMO: Priorities for advancing maturity.PMO
Symposium; Advancing the PMO(pp. 1-27). San Antonio: PMI Publications.
ProjectManagement Institute’s Program Management Office SIG. (2008).PMO SIG ACCORD,
First Edition.Newtown Square: PMI Publications.
Project Management Institute. (2004).A guide to the project management body of knowledge
(PMBOK Guide), Third Edition.newton Square: PMI Publications.
Project Management Institute. (2003).An executive guids to OPM3.Newtown Square: PMI
Project Management Institute. (2009). Leadership through project management.Leadership
Through Project Management.
Information Literacy  EPMO 8
University of Idaho. (2009).Information literacy. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from Core
Information: http://www.webs.uidaho.edu/info_literacy/
University of Phoenix. (n.d.).COM705 classroom.Retrieved July 10, 2009, from University of
Phoenix OLS for Advanced Studies: http://classroom.phoenix.edu/afm212/secure/view-
Universitty of Phoenix. (n.d.).Week 1 Lecture - Scholarship, Practice, and Leadership.Retrieved
July 9, 2009, from University Course Materials:
Zabel, D. (2004). A reaction to "Information literacy and higher education".The Journal of
Academic Librarianship, 17-21. Retrieved July 8, 2009, from the University of Phoenix School
of Advanced Studies Electronic Reserve Readings Web site: