Music Technology Lecture 3 Sound Synthesis 2

Music Technology Lecture 3 Sound Synthesis 2

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  • cours magistral
  • cours magistral - matière : technology
1 Music Technology Lecture 3 Sound Synthesis 2 Lecturer: Matthew Yee-King Contact: URL: 1 2 Last week's lecture Timbre What is sound synthesis? Synth graphs Analogue sound synthesis Subtractive synthesis Oscillators, filters and envelope generators Digital sound synthesis Wavetable synthesis 2 3 Lecture 3 summary Synths in the 80s – Wavetable synths – Cheap analogue synths – FM synths Synthesis techniques – FM synthesis – Additive synthesis 4 Commercial synths in the 80s - overview Wavetable synths Cheap analog synths – subtractive synthesis FM synthesis RAM becoming cheaper - sample+synthesis Sound modules MIDI controlled synths Samplers
  • additive synthesis
  • data to the frequency domain
  • synth graphs
  • frequency above the base frequency
  • high frequency partials with the data for low frequency partials
  • manual oscillator control
  • inversion - control
  • wavetable synths
  • partials

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Lecture 4: PRELIMINARY CONCEPTS OF
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Introduction
The flexibility and stiffness methods are the principle subjects of this course. The concepts
are applicable to structures of all types. We will concentrate in this course on beams and
framed structures.
All of the structural elements utilized in this course are usually components of framed
structures. They are classified as follows:
• Beams
• Plane trusses
• Space trusses
• Plane frames
• Grids
• Space frames
FramedFramed structural elements are longlong in comparison to their crosscross sectional areasareas. Loads onon
these elements consist of concentrated forces, distributed loads and/or couples.Lecture 4: PRELIMINARY CONCEPTS OF
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Continuous Beam
A
Loads are applied in a plane containing an axis of symmetry
BeamsBeams havehave oneone or more points ofof supportsupport referredreferred toto asas jointsjoints – points A,B,C,DD.
Beams deflect in the plane of of the loads. Internal forces consist of shear forces, bending
moments (no torques – take CVE 513), and axial loads
Shear Moment Axial load
V M A
yy θ x DDisplacementsisplacementsLecture 4: PRELIMINARY CONCEPTS OF
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Plane Truss
All structural compenents are in same plane.
ForcesForces act in thethe planeplane ofof structure.
Assume hinged joints - no bending moments through joint and absolutely no twisting
moments through joint (consider a gusset plate).
Loads acting on members are replaced by statically equivalent forces at the joints.Lecture 4: PRELIMINARY CONCEPTS OF
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Space Truss
Forces and structural elements may have arbitrary directions.
Couple onon a membermember must have moment vector perpendicular toto thethe axisaxis of member. A trusstruss
member is incapable of supporting a twisting moment.Lecture 4: PRELIMINARY CONCEPTS OF
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Plane Frame
Joints are rigid
Forces and ddeflectioneflection areare contained inin thethe plane X-Y.
All couples have moment vectors parallel to Z-axis.
Internal resultants consist of bending moments, shearing forces and axial forces.
Joints may transfer momentLecture 4: PRELIMINARY CONCEPTS OF
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Grid
Elements can intersect (rigid connection) or cross (hinged connection) one another
All forces are normal to the plane of the structure.
All couples have their vectors in the plane of the grid. Torques can be supported.
Each member is assumed to have two axes of symmetry so that bending and torsion can
occur independently of one another (see unsymmetrical bending in CVE 513)Lecture 4: PRELIMINARY CONCEPTS OF
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Space Frame
Most ggyeneral typpe of framed structure.
No restrictions on location of joints, directions of members, or directions of loads.
Members are assumed to have two axes of syyymmetry for the same reason grids have two
axes of symmetry.Lecture 4: PRELIMINARY CONCEPTS OF
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Deformation And Displacements
When a structure is subjjqected to loads it deforms and as a consequence points in the
original configuration displace to new positions (the mathematics describing this
process are discussed in detail in CVE 513 and CVE 604)Lecture 4: PRELIMINARY CONCEPTS OF
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Actions And Displacements
TheThe ttermserms “actionaction” and “displacement” are uusedsed ttoo ddescribeescribe ttwowo fundamental concepts to
this course. An action is most commonly a single force (generalized force) or couple.
AnAn action maymay also be aa combinationcombination ofof forces,forces, couples,couples, oror distributeddistributed loads. ItIt is necessary
that the forces, couples and distribution loads be related to corresponding displacements in a
unique manner
The two external forces can be considered as an action. Also the two reactive forces R and
A
R can be considered as an action. The entire system of forces P, P, R and R could also be
B A B
considered as an actionLecture 4: PRELIMINARY CONCEPTS OF
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Internal actions are present in framed structures
Shear (V), bending moment (M)
and axial force (N) are possible
ilinternal actiions