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Dossier 14 octobre 11

jérémie

Lessons From History

ISS Technology Communications

Peter R. and B. Rosemary Grant lecture - Darwin's Finches

ISS Technology Communications

Darwin Distinguished Lecture Series vol 06 - Topic: Darwin’s ...

ISS Technology Communication

Doylestown, PA 18901 267-528-7212 http://www.darkaynu.org ...

HP ISS Technology Communications

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Districtwide Curriculum Standards 43

High School

Because of variation among students’ four-year plans, high school courses have been grouped by subject

rather than by grade.

that information, write in response to the High School English information, and accurately cite sources.

Determine the reliability, validity, and accuracy

of sources, including Internet sources. English I

Support ideas and responses with “text

evidence” from sources. Prerequisites:

Use appropriate, complete, varied sentence

Before entering English I,

structures.

students should be able to Use grammatical elements correctly (subject-

Read alone from materials on grade level or verb agreement, pronoun-antecedent agreement,

above. and verb forms).

Recognize and apply standard grammar and Produce accurate work that shows correct

usage. spelling and punctuation.

Construct clear, complete sentences within Use technology to create, revise, edit, and

organized paragraphs. publish writing, interpret media messages, and

Show skills in speaking, listening, and viewing. produce a multimedia presentation.

Locate a variety of reference sources to Complete selected compositions to the final-

produce research projects. draft stage of the writing process (18+ pieces per

Use the writing process to produce well-written year).

and organized compositions. Practice in-class timed writings on selected

Utilize proofreading skills to evaluate writing. topics, such as current events, personal issues,

and aspects of assigned readings.

Competencies:

Prepare and give informative presentations that

During English I, students will meet the needs of purpose, audience, occasion,

Study world literature, including classic and and task.

contemporary works, such as Homer's The Apply the conventions of standard English

Odyssey, William Shakespeare's Romeo and when making presentations.

Juliet, and a variety of short stories, poems, and Listen carefully to give useful feedback to other

nonfiction selections. speakers, such as asking relevant questions to

Practice and use a variety of reading strategies. clarify understanding.

Study vocabulary from a variety of sources. Work productively with other students in

Recognize a variety of literary elements (such teams.

as setting, point of view, character, and conflict)

Outside of School: and their contributions to meaning.

Recognize and interpret poetic elements like As parents, you can provide opportunities

metaphor, simile, and personification. for your English I student to

Use the writing process to create, revise, edit, Know that you support and encourage

and publish written work, focusing especially on independent reading.

the development of organized, fluent paragraphs.

Write in a variety of forms, including narrative

and expository writing.

Engage in research on a topic: gather sources,

determine the relevance of information, organize

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Districtwide Curriculum Standards 44

Write in a variety of forms, including English II

expository and literary forms.

Support ideas and responses with “text

Prerequisites: evidence” from sources.

Before entering English II, Produce clear, effective writing that uses the

students should be able to correct spelling, conventions, and mechanics of

standard English. Read independently for a long time on grade-

Use sentences of varied type and length in level or above.

writing. Recognize and interpret literary and poetic

Use technology to create, revise, edit, and elements and their contribution to meaning.

publish writing, to interpret media messages, and Apply the writing process to develop

to produce a multimedia presentation. organized, fluent pieces of writing.

Complete selected compositions to the final- Show accuracy in spelling and punctuation.

draft stage of the writing process (18+ pieces per Use proper sentence structures (with no

year). fragments or run-ons).

Practice in-class, timed writing on essay exams. Use proper grammar, such as subject-verb

Create non-literary research projects on topics agreement, pronoun-antecedent agreement, and

such as areas of career exploration, citing sources verb forms.

appropriately. Write in a variety of forms, including narrative

Practice speaking and listening skills through and expository writing.

class discussions, presentations, and critiques. Research a topic, support ideas with “text

Work productively with other students in evidence,” and cite sources appropriately.

teams. Show basic knowledge of the research process.

Use technology to create and revise writing,

Outside of School: produce multimedia presentations, and conduct

As parents, you can provide opportunities research.

for your English II student to Show skill in giving presentations, listening,

and working productively with peers. Improve his or her independent reading skills

by providing materials at home (examples:

Competencies: newspapers, newsmagazines).

During English II, students will

Study world literature, including classic and English III

contemporary works, such as versions of the

Arthurian legends, William Shakespeare's Julius Prerequisites:

Caesar, and Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird. Before entering English III,

Use a variety of reading strategies.

students should be able to Study vocabulary through a variety of methods.

Read alone for a long time at grade-level or Study literary forms, such as drama, poetry,

above. nonfiction and fiction.

Recognize and interpret literary and poetic Study literary elements and their contributions

elements. to meaning, such as methods of plot development,

Use correct spelling and proper punctuation. mood, and theme.

Write sentences with well-developed structure Study the language, form, and rhythm of

and accurate grammar. selected literature (such as poetry) from a variety

Apply the writing process to produce effective of time periods.

pieces of writing. Determine the reliability, validity, and accuracy

Write in a variety of forms, paying special of sources, including Internet sources.

attention to narrative, expository, and literary Use the writing process to create, revise, edit,

forms. and publish written work.

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Districtwide Curriculum Standards 45

Research a topic, support ideas with “text Practice speaking and listening skills through

evidence,” and cite sources appropriately. class presentations and critiques of others and

Use technology to create and revise writing, through group discussions.

produce a multimedia presentation, and conduct

Outside of School: research.

As parents, you can provide opportunities Show effective skills in making presentations,

listening, and working productively with others. for your English III student to

Read a variety of materials at home (examples:

Competencies: newspaper, newsmagazines).

During English III, students will

Study American literature, including classic English IV

and contemporary works, such as Arthur Miller's

The Crucible and John Steinbeck's Of Mice and Prerequisites:

Men.

Before entering English IV,

Analyze and critically evaluate culturally

students should be able to diverse written texts, visual representations, and

Read alone for a long time at grade level or media messages.

above. Use a variety of reading strategies.

Recognize and interpret literary and poetic Study selected vocabulary words from various

elements. readings and from words on study lists for the

Write using correct English. SAT and ACT (college entrance tests).

Write sentences of varied length and type with Study literary and poetic elements and forms

well-developed structure, accurate grammar, and and their contributions to the meaning of the text.

apt vocabulary. Evaluate whether information sources

Write effectively in a variety of forms, (including Internet sources) are reliable, valid,

including personal, expository, literary, and and accurate.

business forms. Apply the writing process to create narrative,

Apply the writing process. persuasive, literary, descriptive, argumentative,

Conduct research on an assigned topic with and expository writing, paying special attention to

proper use of “text evidence” and documentation the organization of the essay and to the editing

of sources. and revision processes.

Use technology as a tool to create and revise Support ideas and responses with “text

writing, produce a multimedia presentation, and evidence” and cite sources appropriately.

conduct research. Write in a variety of forms, including work-

Perform in-class, timed writing on an assigned related documents such as business letters,

topic. memos, and résumés.

Use effective communication skills in making Write clearly, using correct English and proper

presentations, listening, viewing and working structure of sentences of varied length and type.

productively with others. Use technology as a tool to create, revise, edit,

and publish writing, interpret media messages,

Competencies:

and produce multimedia presentations.

During English IV, students will Complete selected compositions to the final-

Study British literature and selected world draft stage of the writing process (18+ pieces per

literature, including classic and contemporary year).

works, such as the Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf, Prepare for TAKS, SAT, and THEA exams by

Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, doing in-class, timed writings on assigned topics.

William Shakespeare's Macbeth or Hamlet, and Create research projects related to authors and

modern British poetry and prose. works of American literature.

Use a variety of reading strategies.

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Districtwide Curriculum Standards 46

Study selected vocabulary words from various High School Math sources.

Evaluate literary elements and forms and ways

they contribute to meaning. Algebra I

Interpret media messages.

Compare and contrast texts by considering Prerequisites:

elements such as themes, conflicts, and allusions

Before entering Algebra I, both within and across selections.

students should be able to Consider organization, syntax, author stance,

Add, subtract, multiply and divide integers. and diction to analyze the style and language

Understand the idea of a variable. elements of prose writing.

Simplify expressions using the correct order of Apply the writing process to create, revise, and

operations. edit written work.

Solve one- and two-step equations. Support ideas and responses with “text

Solve problems using ratio and proportion. evidence” from sources.

Set up and solve simple word problems, Evaluate the reliability, validity, and accuracy

including translation of simple phrases and of sources (including Internet sources).

sentences into algebraic expressions and Write in a variety of forms.

equations. Use vocabulary, organization, rhetorical

Interpret exponential expressions in expanded devices, and sentence structure to express

form and vice versa. meanings and achieve a desired effect.

Write clearly, using correct English and proper

Competencies: structure of sentences of varied length and type.

During Algebra I, students will Use technology as a tool to create, revise, edit,

Develop the concept of a function (a and publish writing, interpret media messages,

mathematical cause-and-effect relationship). and produce multimedia presentations.

Use linear, quadratic and other non-linear Complete selected compositions to the final-

functions to find relationships between quantities. draft stage of the writing process (18+ pieces per

Analyze data to make and interpret scatter plots year).

and best-fit lines. Complete in-class, timed writing on a given

Solve and graph linear equalities or inequalities topic.

with real-world applications. Create research projects using “text evidence”

Know the difference between sketches of linear and citing sources appropriately.

and quadratic parent functions. Apply speaking and listening skills through

Find reasonable domain and range values for class presentations and critiques of others.

given situations. Work productively with others.

See proportional change as a direct variation

Outside of School: and as a linear function.

Interpret linear equations, inequalities and As parents, you can provide opportunities

systems, and judge whether their solutions make for your English IV student to

sense. Read a variety of materials.

Solve linear equations involving distributive

property, combining like terms and variables on

both sides.

Search for patterns, when given data in various

forms, by using variables to represent situations

algebraically.

Perform operations with polynomials and factor

polynomials in problem situations.

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Districtwide Curriculum Standards 47

Graph and write linear equations, given specific Describe patterns that exist in geometric figures

characteristics. (both two- and three-dimensional).

Recognize the effects of parameter changes on Formulate and prove conjectures using a

linear and quadratic functions. variety of methods.

Solve and analyze quadratic equations. Describe the relationships between three-

Write and solve systems of linear equations. dimensional objects and their two-dimensional

Develop the concept of slope as a rate of representations.

change. Use inductive and deductive reasoning to

Extend operations with exponents by looking at justify conjectures about geometric figures and

patterns in problem-solving situations. their properties.

Use the graphing calculator. Compare and contrast Euclidean and non-

Euclidean geometry.

Outside of School: Study the historical development of geometric

As parents, you can provide opportunities systems to recognize that mathematics is used for

a wide variety of purposes. for your Algebra I student to

Solve problems involving similar figures, Find practical applications of mathematical

parallel and perpendicular lines, polygons, and concepts.

circles and the lines that intersect them. Look to you as a positive role model for

Use the relationship between a two-learning math.

dimensional net and a three-dimensional figure to

solve problems. Geometry

Compute surface area and volume of three-

dimensional figures and area and perimeter of Prerequisites:

two-dimensional figures.

Before entering Geometry,

Predict the effects on area, perimeter, and

students should be able to volume when one of the dimensions of the solid

Use basic tools and units of measurement. is changed.

Use the graphing calculator. Solve problems by using the Cartesian

Draw two- and three-dimensional figures. Coordinate System to represent geometric

Analyze algebraically, and solve word figures.

problems. Understand congruency as related to geometric

Use the Pythagorean Theorem and irrational figures.

numbers to solve triangle problems.

Outside of School: Solve equations, both linear and quadratic.

Understand the concept of function. As parents, you can provide opportunities

Understand the concept of slope. for your Geometry student to

Understand and apply the concept of symmetry. Find practical applications of mathematical

Know and use basic transformations. concepts.

Use table-building as a mathematical tool to Use a scientific or graphing calculator as a

investigate patterns and relationships. standard school-supply item.

Graph a linear function in the coordinate plane. Observe your positive attitude about math and

Multiply and factor polynomials. the need for learning math.

Solve systems of equations.

Competencies:

During Geometry, students will

Use a variety of symbols (concrete, pictorial,

graphical, algebraic) to solve real-world

geometric problems.

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Districtwide Curriculum Standards 48

Algebra II Outside of School:

As parents, you can provide opportunities

Prerequisites: for your Algebra II student to

Before entering Algebra II, Recognize practical applications of

mathematical concepts. students should be able to

See you as a positive role model for learning Use the graphing calculator.

and using mathematics. Multiply and factor polynomial expressions.

Own a graphing calculator. Tell the difference between a relation and a

function. More Advanced Math Courses Find the domain and range of a relation and a

function. A number of students complete

Solve and graph linear equations and

Precalculus and Calculus before inequalities.

graduating from high school. Write equations of a line.

Solve systems of equations with two variables.

Recognize the effects of parameter changes on High School Science linear and quadratic functions.

Analyze data to make and interpret scatter plots

and best-fit lines. Integrated Physics &

Chemistry (IP&C) Competencies:

During Algebra II, students will

Prerequisites: Use concrete, numerical, algorithmic, and

Before entering IP&C, graphical representations of functions and

relations to model mathematical situations and students should be able to

solve meaningful problems. These functions and Create and interpret charts and graphs using

relations include the linear, quadratic, square root, collected data.

rational, exponential, and logarithmic functions Identify and use metric units, including

and conic sections. converting within the metric system.

Collect, record, and organize data representing Conduct scientific investigations, including the

mathematical situations. identification of a dependent variable, an

Graph functions or relations, using parameter independent variable, and a control.

changes. Measure using graduated cylinders,

Determine the domain and range of a function thermometers, meter sticks, and balances.

and relation and their reasonableness to an Identify the structure of an atom.

application. Recognize parts of the periodic table, such as

Use laws of exponents to simply expressions. element symbols, atomic number, and atomic

Represent and analyze situations, and formulate mass.

and solve equations, inequalities, and systems of Manipulate variables in an algebraic equation.

equations. Read, interpret, and solve word problems.

Determine and graph the inverse of a function.

Solve linear, quadratic, square root, rational, Competencies:

exponential, and logarithmic equations and In IP&C, students will

inequalities in and out of problem situations. Continue to conduct safe field and laboratory

investigations using scientific methods to solve

problems.

Create and interpret charts and graphs using

collected data.

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Districtwide Curriculum Standards 49

Understand concepts of force and motion in Biology

everyday life, such as speed, power, inertia, and

acceleration.

Prerequisites: Identify types of waves, such as

Before entering Biology, electromagnetic, microwave, and sound.

students should be able to Describe the subatomic particles, and know

how they are related to atomic number and mass Conduct scientific investigations, including the

number. identification of a dependent variable, an

Identify the different forms of energy, and independent variable, and a control.

recognize energy transformations in everyday Construct and interpret graphs, charts, and

life, such as electricity or mechanical systems. tables from data.

Identify and relate the properties and makeup Manipulate units of measurement (convert units

of matter to the elements on the periodic table. using dimensional analysis).

Learn the symbols for the first 20 elements. Understand and recognize different types of

Describe the differences between physical and chemical bonding and properties of water.

chemical properties and changes, such as changes Understand the pH scale.

in states of matter, nuclear reactions, and Relate forms of energy to living systems.

digestion of food. Solve problems using ratios and proportions.

Describe the formation and characteristics of Read and comprehend independently from text.

different types of chemical bonds.

Competencies: Describe how solutions are formed and how

they are used in everyday life. In Biology, students will

Explain the importance of water as the Continue to conduct safe field and laboratory

universal solvent. investigations using scientific methods to solve

Describe the properties and interactions of problems.

acids and bases (including pH). Use a variety of methods and tools, such as

Understand the difference between heat and CBL probes, graphing calculators, microscopes,

temperature, and describe the applications of and inoculating loops, to conduct scientific

thermal energy. inquiry.

Know about the metabolic processes and

Outside of School: energy transfers that occur in living things.

As parents, you can provide opportunities Understand that cells, which are the basic

for your IP&C student to structures of all living things, have specialized

parts that perform specific functions. Discuss practical applications of science

Understand the role viruses and bacteria play in concepts.

causing disease and in maintaining health. Complete assignments and projects on time.

Understand stimulus, response, and Attend class regularly, and complete makeup

maintenance of homeostasis. assignments.

Understand how a multicellular organism Read the text for IP&C.

grows and how specialized cells, tissues, and Discuss current issues in science with you.

organs develop. Watch the Discovery Channel, PBS, and nature

Compare the interrelationship of organ systems and science programs on television.

to each other and to the body as a whole.

Know the structures and functions of DNA and

RNA in the mechanisms of genetics.

Understand the theory of biological evolution

by identifying how species adapt in order to

prevent extinction.

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Districtwide Curriculum Standards 50

Collect and classify organisms using taxonomy Competencies:

and dichotomous keys.

In Chemistry, students will Identify characteristics of kingdoms including

Continue to use safe lab practices in collecting monerans, protists, fungi, plants, and animals.

data and making precise measurements, while Explain the interactions within an ecosystem,

conducting investigations to solve problems. including food chains, food webs, and food

Use dimensional analysis, scientific notation, pyramids.

and significant figures in calculations. Describe the changes in molecules that take

Use both manual and technological methods to place in the energy flow in plants and animals.

construct graphs.

Use the software program Graphical Analysis. Outside of School:

Describe characteristics of matter and changes As parents, you can provide opportunities

that occur, including physical, chemical, and for your Biology student to

nuclear changes and their accompanying energy

Visit science-oriented exhibits such as Moody

transformations.

Gardens, the Houston Zoo, and the Museum of

Describe the structure of an atom, including

Natural Science. subatomic particles, isotopes, and electron

Watch science-oriented programs such as configuration.

NOVA or documentaries on the Discovery

Describe how variables influence the behavior

Channel.

of gases.

Read and discuss scientific current events.

Compare and contrast characteristics of ionic,

covalent, and metallic bonding. Chemistry

Identify oxidation-reduction processes and their

applications.

Prerequisites: Write formulas for chemical and nuclear

Before entering Chemistry, changes, and balance the equations.

Identify factors that affect solubility of solutes students should be able to

in a solvent. Use metric units and prefixes.

Describe solution properties such as Construct and interpret graphs, charts, and

concentration, electrical conductivity, and tables from data.

colligative properties. Identify subatomic particles, and explain how

Identify properties of acids and bases and their they are related to atomic number and mass

reactions, including environmental effects. number.

Identify factors that affect reaction rate and Differentiate between chemical and physical

equilibrium. properties and changes.

Draw a conclusion from lab data.

Outside of School: Know the symbols for the first 20 elements.

As parents, you can provide opportunities Use a calculator to perform basic math

for your Chemistry student to operations.

Rearrange algebraic equations to solve for a Use a scientific calculator.

variable. Discuss scientific events and technology.

Read and comprehend course textbooks and Read scientific publications.

supplementary materials. Watch the Discovery Channel, PBS, and nature

and science programs on television.

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Districtwide Curriculum Standards 51

Cite specific examples of conservation of Physics

energy and momentum.

Identify the properties and characteristics of

Prerequisites: waves.

Before entering Physics, Observe and describe the interaction between

students should be able to waves and matter.

Compare and contrast mechanical and Add, subtract, multiply, and divide fractions.

electromagnetic waves. Rearrange algebraic equations to solve for a

Differentiate between series and parallel single variable.

circuits. Solve systems of equations with two variables.

Analyze simple circuits. Understand how to use scientific notation and

Describe the relationship between electricity how to convert numbers to and from scientific

and magnetism. notation.

Perform basic arithmetic (addition, subtraction,

Outside of School: multiplication, and division) with numbers in

As parents, you can provide opportunities scientific notation.

for your Physics student to Use metric units and prefixes, and be able to

convert from one unit to another. Use a scientific/graphing calculator.

Draw and measure angles with a protractor. Discuss scientific events and technology.

Use a balance to find the mass of an object. Read scientific publications.

Use a scientific calculator for basic arithmetic, Watch the Discovery Channel, PBS, and nature

scientific notation, and trigonometric functions and science programs on television.

and their inverses.

Calculate the slope of a line, and recognize the More Advanced

characteristics of a slope. Science Courses Use both manual and technological methods to

Before graduating from high school, a construct graphs.

Use the software program Graphical Analysis. number of students will choose to further

their studies in science by taking some of

Competencies:

the following courses.

In Physics, students will

Chemistry AP

Use critical thinking and scientific problem- Physics AP

solving to make informed decisions. Biology AP

Use a variety of tools and methods to conduct Anatomy and Physiology of Human Systems

scientific investigations. Aquatic Science

Know the laws governing motion in one and Astronomy

two dimensions. Environmental Systems

Define motion-related terms. Scientific Research and Design

Analyze graphs of motion.

Compare and contrast accelerated and non-

accelerated motion.

Understand the relationship between frames of

reference and relative motion.

Add vectors graphically and mathematically.

Understand and solve problems that apply

Newton's Laws of Motion to real-life situations.

Identify the relationships between mass/charge

and distance for gravitational and electrical

forces.

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Districtwide Curriculum Standards 52

resource distribution—amount and location of High School resources;

economic activities—developing resources to Social Studies create businesses; and

human settlement—why people move to an

area or away from an area. World Geography

Describe and map the locations of the four

different types of economic activities (industries), Prerequisites:

including primary, secondary, tertiary, and

Before entering World Geography,

quaternary (see glossary).

students should be able to Use a variety of reading strategies to increase

Demonstrate basic geographic knowledge such understanding of textbook reading assignments.

as the seven continents, five oceans, 50 U.S. Use on-level social studies terminology

states, TODALS, latitude and longitude, and correctly.

landforms. Use critical-thinking skills appropriate to

Analyze characteristics of various content and grade level, including problem-

contemporary cultures and societies. solving and decision-making skills.

Explain how changes in technology, Organize and interpret information from a

communication, and transportation have variety of sources, including databases.

influenced societies of select regions of the Transfer information from statistical to written

world. or visual forms, and from written to visual forms

Identify and analyze ways people have adapted (using computer software as appropriate).

to and modified the physical environment. Locate and use a variety of primary and

Read and comprehend on grade level. secondary sources to create oral, written, and

Write for a variety of audiences and purposes, visual presentations on social studies topics.

using on-level standard grammar, spelling, Include an annotated bibliography (works

sentence structure, and punctuation. cited) in all research projects.

Determine the main idea and supporting details. Prepare a research project utilizing geography

Create and interpret information from maps, skills, including asking and answering geographic

charts, and graphs. questions; acquiring, organizing, and analyzing

Locate and use a variety of primary and geographic information; and communicating the

secondary sources to acquire information and results.

create written and oral presentations.

Outside of School: Demonstrate basic computer proficiency.

As parents, you can provide opportunities

Competencies:

for your World Geography student to

In World Geography, students will

Attend cultural activities and festivals.

Study people in a geographic area and their Visit museums.

interaction with the environment. Visit ethnic restaurants.

Describe the influence of geography on history, Do research by going to a public library,

culture, politics, economics, and physical conducting interviews, using the home computer,

processes such as climate, plate tectonics, and etc.

earthquakes. See you perform civic duties such as voting,

Explain the interrelationships between and serving on a jury, or working on a civic

among the five themes of geography, which are committee.

place, location, human-environment interaction, Watch and discuss the news and documentaries

region, and movement (see glossary). about geography with you.

Examine the relationships between and among Read and discuss newspapers, news magazines,

these three factors: and other geographical periodicals with you.

© 2009 Cypress-Fairbanks Independent School District

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