The Art of Hardcore Corrective Training: Ten Lessons to Keep ...

The Art of Hardcore Corrective Training: Ten Lessons to Keep ...

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The Art of Hardcore Corrective Training: Ten Lessons to Keep Athletes Healthy Eric Cressey
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nfeaTure:BadgERs and TB BoRnottobE? It’s been a momentous year for brItaIn’s badgers, wIth the court of appeal upholdIng an appeal to stop a cull planned by the welsh assembly, but further culls are set to take place elsewhere. why? In an attempt to clarIfy decades of badger controversy, we askedmike hughes,dIrector of theBadger TrusT,to answersome tImely questIons.
The word ‘cull’ comes from the LatinCOLLiGERE, meaning to collect. Strictly speaking, a cull is a subset of animals (or other objects) removed from the rest on the basis of a specific characteristic. In the case of animals, this is usually an undesirable trait or a weakness. Because we can’t easily tell if a live badger is infected with bTB, it’s impossible to cull a population selectively, so the term is not wholly appropriate in this case. However it is less inflammatory than alternatives such as ‘slaughter’, so we have followed the established practice of using it here.
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To REad a faRMIng PERsPECtIVE on thE ContRoVERsy, yoU Can VIsIt thE wEbsItE of thE NatIonaL FaRMERs unIon www.nfUonLInE.CoM/oUR-woRk/aPh/boVInE-tb/
VEnts thIs yEaR CoULd affECt thE Long-tERM e fUtURE of BRItaIn’s badgERs. Thanks to a sUCCEssfUL LEgaL ChaLLEngE by thE BadgER TRUst, thE coURt of APPEaL RULEd that a badgER CULL PLannEd by thE WELsh AssEMbLy GoVERnMEnt, PRInCIPaLLy In pEMbRokEshIRE, was ILLEgaL and thE LIVEs of hUndREds of badgERs wERE saVEd. BUt sInCE thEn thE coaLItIon GoVERnMEnt has annoUnCEd, thRoUgh FaRMIng mInIstER JIM paICE, that It PLans ‘a CaREfULLy ManagEd, sCIEnCE-LEd’ CULL of badgERs In bTB hotsPots In engLand. ThoUsands MoRE badgERs CoULd bE faCIng a dEath sEntEnCE. ThE sUsPEnsIon of thE WELsh CULL was wELCoME to Many, bUt why doEs thE ContRoVERsy oVER badgERs and TB and thE thREat of CULLIng nEVER sEEM to go away? WE askEd mIkE HUghEs to shEd soME LIght on thIs CoMPLEx IssUE by answERIng oUR qUEstIons.
Q: how Màny bàDGERS àRE tHERE In tHE uk? a:ThE bEst EstIMatE Is 300 000 to 350 000. ThERE’s nEVER bEEn a natIonaL badgER CoUnt, and If yoU’VE EVER watChEd a LaRgE sEtt and tRIEd to dECIdE how Many badgERs It hoLds yoU’LL know how dIffiCULt a natIonaL CEnsUs woULd bE. That saId, thERE’s bRoad agREEMEnt, basEd In PaRt on ExtRaPoLatIons fRoM thE Most RECEnt natIonaL sURVEy of sEtts In 1997, fUndEd by thE pTeS, that thosE figUREs aRE soUnd. ThE PoPULatIon Is at a hEaLthIER LEVEL than In RECEnt dECadEs, PossIbLy dUE to LEgaL PRotECtIon of badgERs and thEIR sEtts, bUt CLaIMs of a badgER PoPULatIon ExPLosIon aRE UnsUbstantIatEd and aRE UsUaLLy PREsEntEd as PaRt of a jUstIfiCatIon foR kILLIng badgERs. HaRd wIntERs and Long, dRy Months In sPRIng and EaRLy sUMMER aRE bad nEws foR badgERs and nUMbERs tEnd to faLL at sUCh tIMEs.
Q: WHàt IS bovInE tUbERcUloSIS (bTB) ànD How DoES It RElàtE to tHE HUMàn vERSIon? a:TB In CattLE Is a dEbILItatIng, hIghLy InfECtIoUs and PRogREssIVE REsPIRatoRy InfECtIon, VERy sIMILaR to hUMan tUbERCULosIs. ThE CattLE VERsIon Is CaUsEd by thE oRganIsM Mycobacterium bovis, whICh foRMs LEsIons oR ‘tUbERCULEs’ (hEnCE thE naME) In thE REsPIRatoRy tRaCt, Most
oftEn In thE LUngs. cLInICaL sIgns of thE dIsEasE aRE RaRELy VIsIbLE In thE EaRLy stagEs so dEtECtIon RELIEs on RoUtInE sCREEnIng UsIng thE tUbERCULIn ‘LIVE tEst’. BEfoRE MILk was PastEURIsEd, boVInE TB was CoMMon In hUMans, and oftEn fataL. Today It’s RaRE. ThE hUMan foRM of TB Is MoRE UsUaLLy CaUsEd by a dIffEREnt oRganIsM, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. WhEn TB doEs oCCUR In PEoPLE, It Can bE tREatEd UsIng a CoURsE of sPECIfiC antIbIotICs oVER a PERIod of Many Months, bUt sUCh Long tERM tREatMEnt Is IMPRaCtICaL In a wILdLIfE oR faRM ContExt. FaRMIng REgULatIons REqUIRE that InfECtEd CattLE (REaCtoRs) aRE kILLEd.
Q: WHàt DoES bTB Do to càttlE? a:GRossLy InfECtEd anIMaLs bECoME EMaCIatEd, wEak, LEthaRgIC and EVEntUaLLy dIE. BUt In CoUntRIEs wIth EstabLIshEd tEst-and-sLaUghtER ERadICatIon PoLICIEs, sUCh as thE uK, thIs doEsn’t haPPEn bECaUsE thE dIsEasE Is dEtECtEd In Its RELatIVELy EaRLy stagEs. TB In waRM-bLoodEd MaMMaLs Is a woRLd-wIdE PRobLEM. cattLE aRE thE MaIn hosts – hEnCE thE naME, boVInE TB – bUt thE dIsEasE affECts Many othER MaMMaLs, fRoM bIson In canada, to bRUsh-taILEd PossUMs In AUstRaLIa and NEw ZEaLand, bUffaLo In soUthERn AfRICa and whItE-taILEd dEER In thE unItEd StatEs.StatEs.
Q: how Do càttlE càtcH TB? a:FRoM CLosE assoCIatIon wIth InfECtEd anIMaLs, whICh May bE othER CattLE oR wILdLIfE, InCLUdIng badgERs. infECtEd anIMaLs ExPEL baCILLI as tIny aERosoL dRoPLEts whEn thEy snoRt and snUfflE, and thEsE Can bE bREathEd In by othER anIMaLs that haPPEn to bE CLosE by. TB May aLso bE sPREad thRoUgh ContaMInatIon of fEEdIng and watERIng sItEs. ThE RIsk of dIsEasE sPREad Is gREatEst In EnCLosEd, PooRLy VEntILatEd aREas – oVER-wIntERIng baRns and shEds whERE CattLE sPEnd Months ConfinEd togEthER Can bE a PRobLEM thIs way – bUt any ContaCt bEtwEEn CattLE, foR ExaMPLE at shows and MaRkEts, In LIVEstoCk LoRRIEs oR at sIngLE-fEnCE faRM boUndaRIEs Is an obVIoUs PotEntIaL tRansMIssIon PoInt. On Its wEbsItE DEfRa says: ‘cattLE-to-CattLE tRansMIssIon Is a sERIoUs CaUsE of dIsEasE sPREad’. ThE indEPEndEnt
Cattle habitually investigate their world using large snorts to inhale scents. This makes it relatively easy for them to breathe in bTB bacteria from the breath of other animals, as well as ingesting them along with contaminated grass or other feed.
nfeaTure:BadgERs and TB
SCIEntIfiC GRoUP (iSG) In Its finaL REPoRt dEsCRIbE CattLE-to-CattLE tRansMIssIon as VERy IMPoRtant In hIgh InCIdEnCE aREas and ‘thE MaIn CaUsE of dIsEasE sPREad to nEw aREas’. ThIsIsn’t to say that CattLE aRE thE onLy IMPoRtant RoUtE of InfECtIon – PotEntIaL wILdLIfE RoUtEs, InCLUdIng thosE InVoLVIng badgERs, Cannot bE IgnoREd. HowEVER dEsPItE yEaRs of REsEaRCh, nonE of thE PotEntIaL tRansMIssIon RoUtEs fRoM CattLE to badgER oR badgER to CattLE aRE yEt PRoPERLy UndERstood.
Q: how Do bàDGERS càtcH TB? a:FRoM EaCh othER, fRoM CattLE (PRobabLy thRoUgh InfECtEd URInE and faECEs In PastUREs oR PEns whICh thE badgERs Pass thRoUgh oR VIsIt to fEEd) and PossIbLy fRoM othER InfECtEd faRM anIMaLs and wILdLIfE. BadgERs sPEnd Most of thEIR LIfE bELow gRoUnd, shaRIng thE saME aIR sPaCE, tUnnELs and ChaMbERs wIth othER badgERs, bUt dECadEs of REsEaRCh at WoodChEstER paRk (by what was thE cEntRaL SCIEnCE laboRatoRy, now PaRt of FERa, thE nEw Food and enVIRonMEnt rEsEaRCh AgEnCy) has shown that InfECtEd badgERs and TB-fREE badgERs oftEn shaRE thE saME sEtts. At thIs stagE wE don’t know why – It CoULd bE that soME badgERs aRE LEss sUsCEPtIbLE to thE InfECtIon, oR sIMPLy that badgERs do not EasILy InfECt EaCh othER.
Q: so not àll bàDGERS àRE InFEctED? a:FaR fRoM It. most badgERs aRE hEaLthy. ThE wIdELy REPoRtEd randoMIsEd BadgER cULLIng TRIaLs (rBcT), whICh bEgan In 1997, foRMEd thE basIs of thE iSG’s finaL
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nfeaTure:BadgERs and TB
Bovine TB
mYCOBàCTERiUM BàCTERià, as seen with a scanning electron microscope. Each cell is between one and two thousandths of a millimetre long. The cells reproduce every 20 hours – relatively slow by bacterial standards.
REPoRt and RECoMMEndatIons. ThE tRIaL data showEd that EVEn In bTB hotsPots, fEwER than onE In sEVEn badgERs wERE InfECtEd and whEn Road-kILLEd badgERs fRoM sEVEn hotsPot CoUntIEs wERE ExaMInEd thE figUREs wERE aLMost thE saME (15% InfECtEd).
Q: WHàt DoES TB Do to bàDGERS? a:ThE dIsEasE ChIEfly affECts thE LUngs and kIdnEys. infECtEd badgERs LosE wEIght and body CondItIon and ExPERIEnCE bREathIng PRobLEMs. ThoUgh bTB Can bE dEbILItatIng, InfECtEd IndIVIdUaLs oftEn sURVIVE qUItE wELL and ContInUE to bREEd sUCCEssfULLy. BadgERs sUffERIng fRoM thE adVanCEd stagEs of bTB – soMEthIng whICh Is RELatIVELy UnCoMMon – bECoME sEVERELy EMaCIatEd. BoVInE TB LEVELs In CattLE and badgERs In hotsPot aREas jUMPEd shaRPLy IMMEdIatELy foLLowIng thE foot and MoUth oUtbREak In 2001–2002, whEn thE RoUtInE bTB
CASE NOTES Pathogen:Mycobacterium bovis Epidemiology:infects a variety of mammal hosts worldwide, including humans, causing severe respiratory & kidney problems. Transmission: through ingestion of bacteria excreted in milk, saliva or respiratory aerosol. Treatment: responds very slowly to specialist antibiotics in humans, infected animals are usually culled.
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tEst-and-sLaUghtER PRogRaMME foR CattLE was stoPPEd. So thERE’s good EVIdEnCE to sUggEst that MEasUREs to ContRoL bTB In CattLE aLso REdUCE bTB LEVELs In badgERs.
Q: WHy IS So MUcH àttEntIon FocUSED on bàDGERS In tHE bTB DEbàtE ànD So lIttlE on otHER wIlDlIFE, SUcH àS DEER? a:That’s REaLLy a qUEstIon foR DEfRa and faRMIng IntEREsts to answER. ThE BadgER TRUst has aLways takEn thE VIEw that thE aLMost ExCLUsIVE foCUs on thE aLLEgEd RoLE of badgERs has dIstRaCtEd attEntIon away fRoM MoRE IMPoRtant REsEaRCh and CattLE ManagEMEnt IssUEs. As to yoUR sPECIfiC qUEstIon: foxEs, sUIRRELs, Rats and aLL sIx sPECIEs of foUnd In BRItaIn aRE aMo wILdLIfE that Can bE InfECtEd wIth TB. BUt In 2008 DEfRa saId two REsEaRCh PRojECts had ConCLUdEd that ExCEPt foR two sPECIEs of dEER, thE LIkELIhood of othER
Crinkly hairs caught on fences are a classic badger field sign, and one that also illustrates the ease with which the species is able to penetrate many types of stock fencing. The husbandry approach to preventing the spread of bTB must include badger-proof fencing.
Badgers favour well drained soils close to good feeding areas, such as woodlands, gardens and pasture. The latter provide opportunities for hunting earthworms but also bring the badgers into contact with livestock.
MaMMaLs (ExCLUdIng badgERs) bEIng a sIgnIfiCant soURCE of InfECtIon to CattLE was ExtREMELy Low. it thEn PRoPosEd two fURthER REsEaRCh PRojECts woULd attEMPt to qUantIfy thE RIsk to CattLE fRoM wILd dEER.
Q: WHy àRE So Màny FàRMERS In FàvoUR oF cUllInG bàDGERS? a:ThEy aRgUE that bTB won’t bE bEatEn UntIL aLL sIgnIfiCant soURCEs of thE dIsEasE aRE taCkLEd and ELIMInatEd. ThE NatIonaL FaRMERs’ unIon, a kEy soURCE of InfoRMatIon foR Many faRMERs, has bEEn EsPECIaLLy InsIstEnt In CaLLIng foR a CULL. eVERyonE InVoLVEd In thE bTB dEbatE, whICh has now RagEd foR dECadEs, aCCEPts that thE dIsEasE Can haVE a dEVastatIng IMPaCt on faRMERs. That’s not thE IssUE. ThE dIsagREEMEnt Is aboUt thE PaRt PLayEd by badgERs In sPREadIng oR MaIntaInIng TB In CattLE, and whEthER kILLIng badgERs Is nECEssaRy to bEat thE dIsEasE. ThE BadgER TRUst has aLways aRgUEd that dECIsIons MUst bE basEd not on anECdotaL EVIdEnCE, CERtaInLy not on PREjUdICE and RUMoUR, bUt on sCIEnCE. ThE CoUntRy has InVEstEd thE bEst PaRt of £50 MILLIon In thE CULLIng tRIaLs CondUCtEd and anaLysEd by thE iSG. its finaL REPoRt RECoMMEndEd a sERIEs of CattLE-basEd MEasUREs, whICh It saId wERE LIkELy to REVERsE thE InCREasIng tREnd In CattLE dIsEasE InCIdEnCE, and whICh In addItIon MIght aLso REdUCE dIsEasE In badgERs. YEs, thE iSG dId say that ‘…badgERs do ContRIbUtE sIgnIfiCantLy to thE dIsEasE In CattLE’ bUt It wEnt on to say: ‘it Is UnfoRtUnatE that agRICULtURaL and VEtERInaRy LEadERs ContInUE to bELIEVE, In sPItE of oVERwhELMIng sCIEntIfiC EVIdEnCE to thE ContRaRy, that thE MaIn aPPRoaCh to CattLE TB ContRoL MUst InVoLVE soME foRM of badgER PoPULatIon ContRoL.’ cRUCIaLLy, In Its sUMMaRy findIngs and RECoMMEndatIons, thE iSG saId: ‘GIVEn Its hIgh Costs and Low bEnEfits wE thEREfoRE ConCLUdE that badgER CULLIng Is UnLIkELy to ContRIbUtE UsEfULLy to thE ContRoL of CattLE TB In BRItaIn, and RECoMMEnd that TB ContRoL EffoRts foCUs on MEasUREs othER than badgER CULLIng.’
Q: fàRMInG mInIStER JIM PàIcE SàID REcEntly ‘THERE’S no coUntRy In tHE woRlD tHàt’S Got RID oF TB wItHoUt àDDRESSInG tHE pRoblEM
In wIlDlIFE’. how Do yoU RESponD? a:HERE In thE uK a bTB EPIdEMIC that bEgan In thE 1930s sPIRaLLEd oUt of ContRoL and by 1960 was stILL InfECtIng 16 000 of thE uK’s CattLE. it was bRoUght UndER ContRoL and aLL bUt ERadICatEd by thE kInd of CattLE-basEd ContRoLs that thE iSG RECoMMEnds. No badgERs had bEEn kILLEd oR IMPLICatEd. mR paICE’s CoMMEnt was VERy dIsaPPoIntIng.
Q: it’S bEEn SàID tHàt làRGE nUMbERS oF DISEàSED bàDGERS àRE DyInG In àGony ànD tHàt cUllInG woUlD EnD tHàt MISERy ànD lEàD to HEàltHy bàDGERS lIvInG àlonGSIDE HEàltHy càttlE. a:pURE fiCtIon. ThE BadgER TRUst sEEs thIs as a bIt of CLUMsy PUbLIC RELatIons to jUstIfy a CULL. ThERE’s no EVIdEnCE to sUPPoRt thE CLaIM that bTB Is kILLIng a Lot of badgERs. As wE’VE aLREady saId, badgERs oftEn sEEM to sURVIVE TB qUItE wELL. FURthER, It Is not PossIbLE to IdEntIfy and kILL onLy dIsEasEd badgERs. NoR Is It PossIbLE to IdEntIfy and takE oUt dIsEasEdsEtts.pcr(poLyMERasEchaIn rEaCtIon), a tEChnIqUE UsEd In DNA fingERPRIntIng, Is CURREntLy ConsIdEREd UnsUItEd to thE task by DEfRa, thoUgh It’s PossIbLE that fUtURE REfinEMEnts May ChangE that. ThERE aRE no othER aLtERnatIVEs. ThE dIsEasE Can onLy bE RELIabLy dIagnosEd In badgERs by a Post MoRtEM ExaMInatIon. So a CULL woULd haVE to bE non-sELECtIVE, and It woULd bE MostLy hEaLthy, non-InfECtEd badgERs that woULd dIE.
Q: WHàt ElSE HàvE wE lEàRnt àboUt cUllInG? a:ThE rBcT PRojECt showEd CLEaRLy that LoCaLIsEd (REaCtIVE) CULLIng,
Badgers are implicatedin the spread of bovine TB between cattle herds, but through no fault of their own. The difficulty in developing an effective and publicly acceptable policy for dealing with the disease comes in preventing its spread without punishing this charismaticand legallyprotected species.
oftEn faVoUREd by faRMERs as thE way to CUt dIsEasE In hERds, Is LIkELy to MakE MattERs woRsE. BadgERs LIVE In soCIaL gRoUPs. SUCCEssIVE gEnERatIons oCCUPy thE saME sEtts and shaRE thE saME foRagIng aREas. ThIs soCIaL bond Is stRong and whILE InCURsIons Into othER badgER tERRItoRIEs do haPPEn thEy aRE not thE noRM. rEaCtIVE CULLIng dEstRoyEd soCIaL gRoUPs, bEhaVIoUR PattERns ChangEd, badgERs RoaMEd Into nEw aREas and (PossIbLy bECaUsE of thE stREss InVoLVEd, tURnEd InfECtEd badgERs Into InfECtIoUs ‘ExCREtoRs’ of thE dIsEasE). bTB LEVELs InCREasEd by aRoUnd 20% oUtsIdE thE tRIaL aREa and thE REsULts wERE so dIsastRoUs that REaCtIVE CULLIng was abandonEd.
Q: aS à vERy SERIoUS DISEàSE wItH à MàjoR IMpàct on FàRMInG, bTB HàS to bE DEàlt wItH. WHàt’S tHE wày FoRwàRD? a:ThE iSG’s nEaR10-yEaR REsEaRCh stUdy PoInts thE way: CULLIng badgERs hasn’t woRkEd. indEEd, LoCaL CULLIng CoULd wELL MakE MattERs woRsE. ThE bEnEfits fRoM whoLEsaLE (PRoaCtIVE) CULLIng aRE MaRgInaL and UnEConoMIC. StRIngEnt, sUstaInEd CattLE-basEd ContRoLs woRkEd In thE 60s and wILL woRk agaIn. An EffECtIVE CattLE
nfeaTure:BadgERs and TB
VaCCInE, aCCEPtabLE to thE eu, whICh aLLowEd uK CattLE ExPoRts to ContInUE woULd bE thE sILVER bULLEt. A badgER VaCCInE CoULd hELP to REdUCE thE dIsEasE In hotsPot aREas. OnLy Last Month, REsEaRChERs at unIVERsIty coLLEgE DUbLIn annoUnCEd a VaCCInE that Can bE dELIVEREd oRaLLy, MakIng It PotEnIaLLy MUCh MoRE Cost EffECtIVE to tREat badgERs In thE wILd. HowEVER at PREsEnt thE bEst oPtIon Is IMPRoVEd CattLE-basEd ContRoLs. ThE iSG says thEsE shoULd InCLUdE thE IntRodUCtIon of MoRE thoRoUgh ContRoLs on CattLE MoVEMEnt; stRatEgIC UsE of thE iFN tEst; qUaRantInE of PURChasEd CattLE; shoRtER tEstIng IntERVaLs; attEntIon to bREakdowns In Low RIsk aREas; and whoLE hERd sLaUghtER foR ChRonICaLLy affECtEd hERds. ThE REfEREnCE to thE iFN (oR gaMMa IntERfERon) tEst Is IMPoRtant, foR thE iSG has shown that thE CURREnt ‘LIVE tEst’ MIssEs LaRgE nUMbERs of InfECtEd CattLE, wIth sERIoUs IMPLICatIons foR dIsEasE sPREad wIthIn and bEtwEEn hERds.
Q: so wHàt àboUt tHE govERnMEnt’S làtESt bàDGER cUll plànS? a:BadgERs aREn’t thE Root PRobLEM. KILLIng thEM Isn’t thE answER. WE aRE waItIng foR thE GoVERnMEnt to annoUnCE dEtaILs of a fURthER ConsULtatIon. WE hoPE It won’t bE a MEanIngLEss gEstURE, and that CaREfUL sCIEnCE and a ConsIdERatIon of thE bIg PICtURE wILL PREVaIL. WE MUst waIt and sEE. eVERyonE who CaREs aboUt badgERs shoULd MakE thEIR VoICE hEaRd by REsPondIng to thE ConsULtatIon. YoU Can find oUt MoRE and haVE yoUR say at www. dEfRa.goV.Uk/CoRPoRatE/ConsULt/tb-ContRoL-MEasUREs .
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