The CSCE and the Process of Confidence Building
43 Pages
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The CSCE and the Process of Confidence Building


Downloading requires you to have access to the YouScribe library
Learn all about the services we offer
43 Pages


CONFIDENCE BUILDING MATIERS The CSCE and the Process of Confidence Building Owen Greene & Dennis Sammut September 1994
  • confidence building
  • international measures between states impact on conflicts within states
  • secretary general
  • csce
  • european security
  • member states
  • member-states
  • conflicts
  • confidence
  • research



Published by
Reads 12
Language English


Examinations from 2009
English Literature

WJEC AS GCE in English Literature
WJEC A Level GCE in English Literature

First AS Award - Summer 2009
First A level Award - Summer 2010


Entry Codes and Availability of Units 2

Summary of Assessment 3
Introduction 5
Aims 8
Assessment Objectives 9
Specification Content 10
Scheme of Assessment 18

Key Skills 23
Performance Descriptions 24
Internal Assessment Guidelines 27


GCE English Literature

Subject/Option Entry Codes

AS "Cash in” entry 2171
3171 A Level "Cash in" entry
LT1: Poetry and Drama 1 1171
LT2: Prose Study & Creative Reading 1172
LT3: Period and Genre Study 1173
LT4: Poetry and Drama 2 1174

Availability of Assessment Units
Unit January June January June
2009 2009 2010 & each 2010 & each
subsequent subsequent
year year

Qualification Accreditation Numbers

Advanced Subsidiary: 500/2931/9
Advanced: 500/2929/0


This specification is divided into a total of 4 units, 2 AS units and 2 A2 units. Weightings
noted below are expressed in terms of the full A level qualification.



AS (2 units)

LT1 30% 2½ hour Written Paper (open text)
60 marks (120 UMS)
Poetry and Drama 1
Section A: Poetry post-1900
Two texts: choice of 1 from 2 questions (30 marks)
Section B: Drama post-1990
One text: choice of 1 from 2 questions (30 marks)

LT2 20% Internal Assessment
80 marks (80 UMS)
Prose Study & Creative Reading
Section A: Prose Study 1800-1945
Two texts: one piece of extended writing (40 marks)
Section B: Creative Reading
One text: one piece of extended creative writing in response to
wider reading of prose (20 marks) + commentary (20 marks)

A Level (the above plus a further 2 units)

LT3 20% Internal Assessment
40 marks (80 UMS)
Period and Genre Study
3 texts: one piece of extended writing on texts from different
periods and genres, including poetry and prose (40 marks)

LT4 30 % 2½ hour Written Paper (closed text)
80 marks (120 UMS)
Poetry and Drama 2
Section A: Critical Reading of Poetry
One text: pre-1800 poetry + unseen poetry
choice of 1 from 5 questions (40 marks)
Section B: Shakespeare and Related Drama
Two texts: choice of 1 from 2 questions (40 marks)



1. 1 Criteria for AS and A Level GCE

This specification has been designed to meet the general criteria for GCE AS and A
level and the subject criteria for AS/A English Literature as issued by the regulators
[July 2006]. The qualifications will comply with the grading, awarding and
certification requirements of the Code of Practice for 'general' qualifications (including

The AS qualification will be reported on a five-grade scale of A, B, C, D, E. The A
level qualification will be reported on a six-grade scale of A*, E. The
award of A* at A level will provide recognition of the additional demands presented by
the A2 units in term of 'stretch and challenge' and 'synoptic' requirements.
Candidates who fail to reach the minimum standard for grade E are recorded as U
(unclassified), and do not receive a certificate. The level of demand of the AS
examination is that expected of candidates half way through a full A level course.

The AS assessment units will have equal weighting with the second half of the
qualification (A2) when these are aggregated to produce the A level award. AS
consists of two assessment units, referred to in this specification as LT1 and LT2. A2
also consists of two units and these are referred to as LT3 and LT4.

Assessment units may be retaken prior to certification for the AS or A level
qualifications, in which case the better result will be used for the qualification award.
Individual assessment unit results, prior to certification for a qualification, have a
shelf-life limited only by the shelf-life of the specification.

1.2 Prior learning

There is no specific requirement for prior learning, although many candidates will
have already gained a knowledge and understanding of relevant areas through their
study of English and English Literature at GCSE. This specification may be followed
by any candidate, irrespective of their gender, ethnic, religious or cultural
background. It should engage students from both traditional and more vocational
modes of learning. This specification is not age specific and, as such, provides
opportunities for candidates to extend life-long learning.

1.3 Progression

The four-part structure of this specification (2 units for AS, and an additional 2 for the
full Advanced) allows for both staged and end-of-course assessment and thus allows
candidates to defer decisions about progression from AS to the full A level

This specification provides a suitable foundation for the study of English Literature or
a variety of other courses in higher education; progression to the next level of
vocational qualifications; or direct entry into employment. In addition, the specification
provides a coherent, satisfying and worthwhile course of study for candidates who do
not progress to further study in this subject. GCE AS/A ENGLISH LITERATURE 6

1.4 Rationale

This specification is based on a conviction that the study of literature should
encourage enjoyment of literary studies based on an informed personal response to
a range of texts.

The AS specification has been designed to serve both as the first half of a full A
level course and also as a discrete course for those wishing to follow just one year of

It provides students with an introduction to the discipline of advanced literary studies
and presents opportunities for reading widely and for making creative and informed
responses to each of the major literary genres of poetry, prose and drama. The
specification requires students to show knowledge and understanding of:

• the functions and effects of structure, form and language in texts;
• some of the ways in which individual texts are interpreted by different readers;
• some of the ways in which texts relate to one another;
• some of the contexts in which they are written and read.

The A level specification extends these studies in breadth and depth, developing
and enhancing students' techniques of analysis, evaluation and comparison of
literary texts in the context of a wider range of texts of cultural and literary
significance. The specification requires students to show knowledge and
understanding of the significance of:

• the ways in which writers use and adapt language, form and structure in texts;
• the interpretation of texts by different readers, including over time;
• how texts relate to literary traditions, movements and genres;
• the cultural and contextual influences on readers and writers.

Each unit, whether internally or externally assessed, offers a choice of texts for study.
Consideration has been given to offering a wide range, including texts that have a
Welsh dimension. In the internally assessed unit, centres are invited to nominate
their own texts for study following the guidelines printed in this specification.

Following QCA/DELLS requirements for candidates to be examined in different ways,
the A2 externally assessed unit within this specification will be examined without
texts being available to candidates during the examination. For the AS externally
assessed unit candidates will be expected to have access to the texts studied, and
thus will be in a position to support their line of argument with a wider range of
precise reference than would be possible from memory alone. Having access to the
texts in the examination allows candidates the opportunity to display their close
reading skills in response to the questions set. The texts must be clean copies, with
no annotation.

Opportunities are provided throughout the specification for candidates to develop key
skills, especially those in Communication.

1.5 The Wider Curriculum

English Literature is a subject that by its nature requires candidates to consider
individual, moral, ethical, social, cultural and contemporary issues. The specification
provides a framework for exploration of such issues and includes specific content
through which individual courses may address these issues. For example, in
meeting the assessment objective AO4, students are engaged in considering the
significance and influence of contexts in which literary texts are written and received.
Spiritual, moral, ethical, social and cultural aspects are pertinent to such contexts.

1.6 Prohibited combinations and overlap

Every specification is assigned a national classification code indicating the subject
area to which it belongs. Centres should be aware that candidates who enter for
more than one GCE qualification with the same classification code will only have one
grade (the highest) counted for the purpose of the School and College Performance
Tables. The classification code for this specification is 5110.

In view of the degree of overlap in content and skills, neither WJEC AS nor A level
English Literature may be taken at the same time as WJEC AS or A level English
Language and Literature. However, there are no other prohibited combinations with
other qualifications at Level 3 of the National Qualifications framework. For example,
AS/A English Literature could be studied alongside AS/A English Language.

1.7 Equality and Fair Assessment

AS/A levels often require assessment of a broad range of competences. This is
because they are general qualifications and, as such, prepare candidates for a wide
range of occupations and higher level courses.

The revised AS/A level qualification and subject criteria were reviewed to identify
whether any of the competences required by the subject presented a potential barrier
to any disabled candidates. If this was the case, the situation was reviewed again to
ensure that such competences were included only where essential to the subject.
The findings of this process were discussed with disability groups and with disabled

In GCE English Literature, reading independently may be problematic for some
students but should not be a barrier to assessment.

Reasonable adjustments are made for disabled candidates in order to enable them to
access the assessments. For this reason, very few candidates will have a complete
barrier to any part of the assessment. Information on reasonable adjustments is
found in the Joint Council for Qualifications document Regulations and Guidance
Relating to Candidates who are eligible for Adjustments in Examinations. This
document is available on the JCQ website (

Candidates who are still unable to access a significant part of the assessment, even
after exploring all possibilities through reasonable adjustments, may still be able to
receive an award. They would be given a grade on the parts of the assessment they
have taken and there would be an indication on their certificate that not all of the
competences have been addressed. This will be kept under review and may be
amended in future. GCE AS/A ENGLISH LITERATURE 8


• To encourage AS and A level students to develop their interest in and enjoyment
of literature and literary studies through reading widely and independently both
set texts and others that they have selected for themselves.

• To encourage students to engage creatively with a range of texts and ways of
responding to them.

• To enable students to develop and apply effectively their knowledge of literary
analysis and evaluation in speech and writing.

• To encourage students to explore the contexts of the texts they are reading and
others' interpretations of them.

• To help students deepen their understanding of the changing traditions of
literature in English.

• To encourage students to explore comparisons and connections between texts.



Candidates must meet the following assessment objectives in the context of the
content detailed in Section 4 of the specification:


Articulate creative, informed and relevant responses to literary texts, using
appropriate terminology and concepts, and coherent, accurate written expression.


Demonstrate detailed critical understanding in analysing the ways in which structure,
form and language shape meanings in literary texts.


Explore connections and comparisons between different literary texts, informed by
interpretations of other readers.


Demonstrate understanding of the significance and influence of the contexts in which
literary texts are written and received.


Assessment objective weightings shown as % of AS and A2 (full A-level in brackets)

UNIT % AO1% AO2% AO3% AO4%
LT1 60 (30) (10) 20 (10) 20 (5) 10 (5) 10
LT2 40 (20)(7.5)15 (7.5)15 (2.5)5 (2.5) 5
TOTAL AS 100 (50) 35 (17.5) 35 (17.5) 15 (7.5) 15 (7.5)
LT3 40 (20) (2.5) 5 (7.5) 15 (5) 10 (5) 10
LT4 60 (30)(7.5)15 (7.5)(7.5)15 (7.5)15
TOTAL A2 100 (50) 20 (10) 30 (15) 25 (12.5) 25 (12.5) A
100 27.5% 32.5% 20% 20% LEVEL