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  • cours magistral - matière potentielle : rooms
  • cours - matière potentielle : enthusiastic study
  • revision
  • expression écrite
1THE WORLD AS I SEE IT Albert Einstein PREFACE TO ORIGINAL EDITION Only individuals have a sense of responsibility. --Nietzsche This book does not represent a complete collection of the articles, addresses, and pronouncements of Albert Einstein; it is a selection made with a definite object-- namely, to give a picture of a man. To-day this man is being drawn, contrary to his own intention, into the whirlpool of political passions and contemporary history.
  • political unity
  • fellow-men
  • development of the individual personality without the nourishing soil of the community
  • whirlpool of political passions
  • man of such views
  • pronounced freedom from the need for direct contact
  • human society
  • sense
  • life
  • time



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XVIII. Biology, High SchoolHigh School Biology Test
The spring 2009 high school MCAS Biology test was based on learning standards in the Biology content
strand of the Massachusetts Science and Technology/Engineering Curriculum Framework (2006). These
learning standards appear on pages 54–58 of the Framework.
The Science and Technology/Engineering Curriculum Framework is available on the Department website
In test item analysis reports and on the Subject Area Subscore pages of the MCAS School Reports and
District Reports, Biology test results are reported under the following fve MCAS reporting categories:
■ Biochemistry and Cell Biology
■ Genetics
■ Anatomy and Physiology
■ Ecology
■ Evolution and Biodiversity
Test Sessions
The MCAS high school Biology test included two separate test sessions, which were administered on
consecutive days. Each session included multiple-choice and open-response questions.
Reference Materials and Tools
The high school Biology test was designed to be taken without the aid of a calculator. Students were
allowed to have calculators with them during testing, but calculators were not needed to answer questions.
The use of bilingual word-to-word dictionaries was allowed for current and former limited English profcient
students only, during both Biology test sessions. No other reference tools or materials were allowed.
Cross-Reference Information
The table at the conclusion of this chapter indicates each item’s reporting category and the Framework
learning standard it assesses. The correct answers for multiple-choice questions are also displayed in the
SeSSion 1
This session contains twenty-one multiple-choice questions and two open-response questions. Mark
your answers to these questions in the spaces provided in your Student Answer Booklet. You may
work out solutions to multiple-choice questions in the test booklet.
ID:208042 C Common EQ ID:235175 D Common EQ
If an animal cell is placed in distilled In which of the following ways does a 1 3● ●
water, it will swell and burst. The bacterial cell differ from an animal cell?
bursting of the cell is a result of which
A. A bacterial cell is much larger than biological process?
an animal cell.
A. active transport B. A bacterial cell has more
B. enzyme activity mitochondria than an animal cell.
C. osmosis C. A bacterial cell has RNA for its
genetic material, whereas an animal D. respiration
cell does not.
D. A bacterial cell does not have
membrane-bound organelles, whereas
ID:208113 A Common EQ an animal cell does.
Which of the following lists identifes 2●
organisms that are producers in
food webs?
ID:208134 D Common EQ
A. algae, ferns, sunfowers Which of the following best explains 4●
why enzymes are necessary for many B. mushrooms, bacteria, earthworms
cellular reactions?
C. termites, red foxes, shrews
D. woodpeckers, cardinals, grasshoppers A. Enzymes supply the oxygen
necessary for the reactions.
B. Enzymes change reactants
from solid to liquid during
the reactions.
C. The reactions take up too much space
in the cell if enzymes are missing.
D. The reactions are too slow to meet
the needs of the cell if enzymes
are missing.
266Biology Session 1
ID:248893 happyfacespiders.eps D Common EQ ID:209032 cell_options.eps [opt_a01 C Common EQ
Hawaiian happy face spiders from Scientists believe that the frst organisms 5 7● ●
the island of Maui can have different that appeared on Earth were prokaryotic.
markings, as shown below. A single gene Which of the following best represents
determines the markings on the spiders. what the cell structure of these
organisms may have looked like?
Plain Spider Patterned Spider
Contractile vacuole
A plain spider is crossed with a
patterned spider. The patterned spider
is homozygous. The pattern allele is
dominant to the plain allele.
What percentage of the offspring from
this cross are expected to be patterned
instead of plain? Chloroplast
A. 0%
C. B. 25%
C. 50%
D. 100%
ID:243372 B Common EQ
Nerve cells use which of the following 6●
to communicate with each other?
A. antibodies
B. electrochemical signals Nucleus
C. enzymes
D. simple sugars
267Biology Session 1
The following section focuses on different lemur species of Madagascar.
Read the information below and use it to answer the four multiple-choice questions and one
open-response question that follow.
ID:219811 Map_Madagascar.eps, lemur Common EQ
Madagascar is an island located off the east coast of Africa, as shown on the map below.
Madagascar has a unique animal community. Lemurs are one of the animal groups that have diversified
extensively on Madagascar. Lemurs are primates, which is an order of mammals that also includes monkeys
and apes. Lemur species vary widely in habitat, diet, size, and color. Lemurs only live on the island of
Madagascar. However, fossil evidence shows that lemur ancestors existed on Africa’s mainland. Scientists
hypothesize that lemur ancestors reached Madagascar by floating across the Mozambique Channel on
matted clumps of vegetation.
268Biology Session 1
Four different lemur species are shown in figures 1–4 below.
Figure 1. Mouse lemur Figure 2. Verreaux’s sifaka
Length: 12.5 cm Length: 45 cm–55 cm
Habitat: Rain forest and deciduous forest Habitat: Spiny deciduous forest and
evergreen forest
Copyright © Konrad Wothe/Minden Pictures Copyright © Frans Lanting/Minden Pictures
Figure 3. Ring-tailed lemur Figure 4. Red-bellied lemur
Length: 38 cm–46 cm Length: 36 cm–54 cm
Habitat: Deciduous forest and Habitat: Rain forest
scrub forest
Copyright © Gerry Ellis/Minden Pictures Copyright © Frans Lanting/Minden Pictures
269Biology Session 1
Mark your answers to multiple-choice questions 8 through 11 in the spaces provided in your Student
Answer Booklet. Do not write your answers in this test booklet, but you may work out solutions to
multiple-choice questions in the test booklet.
ID:219822 Map_Madagascar.eps, lemur A Common EQ ID:219826 Map_Madagascar.eps, lemur C Common EQ
Lemurs’ bodies are adapted to effciently There are at least 88 species of lemurs in 8 10● ●
store energy for times when food is existence today. Which of the following
scarce. This adaptation may help to conditions most likely existed and made it
explain how lemur ancestors survived possible for Madagascar’s original lemur
the trip across the Mozambique Channel ancestors to evolve into many species on
from mainland Africa to Madagascar. the island?
Which of the following types of
A. presence of a deadly virus that
molecules are primarily used for
infected only lemurs
long-term energy storage in
B. complete isolation from other the lemur?
small mammal species
A. lipids C. new niches to adapt to in the
B. monosaccharides absence of a large number of
competitorsC. nucleic acids
D. climatic conditions that were D. proteins
very different from those on
mainland Africa
ID:219815 Map_Madagascar.eps, lemur C Common EQ
Lemur body types can vary widely. 9●
ID:219827 Map_Madagascar.eps, lemur A Common EQIn addition to fossils and comparative
Which of the following lemurs would be 11●anatomy, which of the following types
classifed as a secondary consumer?of evidence can scientists reliably use
to study the evolution of the variety of
A. a mouse lemur eating insects
lemur body types?
B. a Verreaux’s sifaka eating leaves
A. lifespan C. a ring-tailed lemur eating fruits
B. population sizes D. a red-bellied lemur eating fowers
C. DNA sequences
D. male-to-female ratio
270Biology Session 1
Question 12 is an open-response question.
• Show all your work (diagrams, tables, or computations) in your Student Answer Booklet.
• If you do the work in your head, explain in writing how you did the work.
Write your answer to question 12 in the space provided in your Student Answer Booklet.
ID:219830 Map_Madagascar.eps, lemur Common EQ
The lemurs shown in fgures 1 –4 all have prominent body features, such as eyes, fngers, legs, 12●
tails, and coats.
a. Choose three of the lemurs in the fgures.
b. Using the fgures, identify one prominent, visible feature for each of the lemur species you
chose. Then describe a likely scenario in which natural selection favored the evolution of
this feature. Be sure to discuss a different feature for each lemur.
271Biology Session 1
Mark your answers to multiple-choice questions 13 through 22 in the spaces provided in your Student
Answer Booklet. Do not write your answers in this test booklet, but you may work out solutions to
multiple-choice questions in the test booklet.
ID:266423 B Common EQ ID:209033 C Common EQ
A builder is proposing a new housing Mallory has four aquatic plants of the 13 14● ●
development in an area of western same size and species. She submerges
Massachusetts. Construction of the each plant in a separate beaker flled
housing development will destroy the with 200 mL of water. She then sets
wetland habitat in the area. each beaker under a different intensity
of light. Mallory observes that, of the Which of the following would be
four plants, the plant in the beaker under the most likely consequence of the
the most intense light gives off the most wetland’s destruction?
gas bubbles in a 20 min period.
A. The wetland plant species would Which of the following statements best
disperse to adjacent meadow habitats. explains Mallory’s observations?
B. The populations of wetland animals
A. Cells decompose most quickly under would be unable to survive in that
the most intense light.area.
B. Water evaporates from plants fastest C. The wetland animal species would
under the most intense light.survive by interbreeding with
non-wetland species. C. Photosynthesis occurs at the highest
rate under the most intense light.D. The populations of wetland plants
would evolve to disperse seeds by D. Gases in the leaves of plants expand
wind rather than water. most under the most intense light.
272Biology Session 1
ID:273807 A Common EQ ID:261181 RB07_Psquare.eps D Common EQ
During DNA replication, the wrong A partial Punnett square is shown below. 15 17● ●
nucleotide was inserted in the DNA
sequence. Which of the following terms
AA AAdescribes this situation?
Aa AaA. mutation
B. regeneration
Which of the following statements C. transcription
describes the parental genotypes that D. translation
would result in this Punnett square?
A. Both parents are heterozygous.
B. Both parents are homozygous ID:244288 B Common EQ
dominant. In the human body, fbrinogen is necessary 16●
for sealing cuts and stopping the loss of C. One parent is homozygous recessive
blood. Since fbrinogen is made of chains and the other parent is heterozygous.
of amino acids, it is an example of which
D. One parent is homozygous dominant
type of organic molecule?
and the other parent is
A. carbohydrate
B. protein
D:261414 D Common EQC. fatty acid
Which of the following relationships is 18●D. nucleic acid
an example of mutualism?
A. A lion eats a gazelle.
B. A virus uses both a bird and a
horse as hosts.
C. A bacterium breaks down dead
plant materials.
D. A bird eats food particles from a
crocodile’s teeth.