Growth and structure of the English language

Growth and structure of the English language

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V»s.and;rowth structurethe english language)fBYph.d., lit.d.,JESPERSEN,OTTOPROFESSOR IN THE UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN,LANGUAGE",AUTHOR OF "progress IN"lehrbuch der phonetik", "phonetische grundfragen",teach foreign language","how to a"a modern english grammar", etc.VOLNEY PRIZEAWARDED THEOF THE INSTITUT DE FRANCE 1906EDITION REVISEDSECONDLEIPZIGPUBLISHED BY B. TEUBNERG.1912RESERVED.RIGHTSALLLEIPZIGBY B.G.TEUBNER,PRINTED-10-76"^I^PREFACE.have been setscope and plan of this volumeTheintroductory paragraph. Ihave endeavouredforth in thewrite at once popularly and so as to be of sometophilologist. In some cases I haveprofit to the expertspaceadvanced new views without having enough toreasons for deviating from commonlygive all myaccepted theories, but I hope to find an opportunitymore learned character to arguein future works of aout the most debatable points.I I can say to numerous predecessorsowe more thanin the fields of my investigations, most of all to theDictionary. The dates givenauthors of the New Englishfor the first and last appearance of a word are nearlyalways splendid monument of Englishtaken from thatscholarship, and it is hardly necessary to warn thereader dates too literally. When I say,not to take thesefor instance, th^it was in use from 1 tofenester 290 1548,I do the word was actually heardnot mean to say thatfor the first and for the last time in those two years,but only that no earlier or later quotations have ...

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V »s. and;rowth structure the english language)f BY ph.d., lit.d.,JESPERSEN,OTTO PROFESSOR IN THE UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN, LANGUAGE",AUTHOR OF "progress IN "lehrbuch der phonetik", "phonetische grundfragen", teach foreign language","how to a "a modern english grammar", etc. VOLNEY PRIZEAWARDED THE OF THE INSTITUT DE FRANCE 1906 EDITION REVISEDSECOND LEIPZIG PUBLISHED BY B. TEUBNERG. 1912 RESERVED.RIGHTSALL LEIPZIGBY B.G.TEUBNER,PRINTED -10-76"^I^ PREFACE. have been setscope and plan of this volumeThe introductory paragraph. Ihave endeavouredforth in the write at once popularly and so as to be of someto philologist. In some cases I haveprofit to the expert spaceadvanced new views without having enough to reasons for deviating from commonlygive all my accepted theories, but I hope to find an opportunity more learned character to arguein future works of a out the most debatable points. I I can say to numerous predecessorsowe more than in the fields of my investigations, most of all to the Dictionary. The dates givenauthors of the New English for the first and last appearance of a word are nearly always splendid monument of Englishtaken from that scholarship, and it is hardly necessary to warn the reader dates too literally. When I say,not to take these for instance, th^it was in use from 1 tofenester 290 1548, I do the word was actually heardnot mean to say that for the first and for the last time in those two years, but only that no earlier or later quotations have been discovered the painstaking authors that dictionary.by of I have departed a common practice in retainingfrom the spelling all I see no reason whyof authors quoted. in so spelling ismany English editions of Shakespeare the modernized while other Elizabethanin quotations from authors fromthe old spelling is followed. Quotations Shakespeare in the spelling ofare here regularly given the First theFoHo The only point where, for(1623). convenience readers, I regulate the old usage,of modern 236288 IV Preface. capital letters printing,is with regard to and «, z', z*, /, —for instance, us and love instead of vs and loue. To avoid misunderstandings, I must here expressly state that by Old English (O. E.) I always understand the still often termed Anglo-Saxon.language before 1150, Dr.I want to thank Mr. A. E. Hayes of London, Cooper of Cornell University, and especially Pro-Lane University, whofessor G. C. Moore Smith of Sheffield greathas in many ways given me the benefit of his Englishknowledge of the English language and of literature. In the second edition I have here and there modi- expression, fresh illustration, andfied an added a that was per-removed a remark or an example not haps very felicitously chosen; but in the main the work remains unchanged. Gentofte (Copenhagen), September 191 1. O.J. CONTENTS. ^*^® IChapter Sketch ^Preliminary IIChapter ^^ BeginningsThe Chapter III 33Old English Chapter IV 59ScandinaviansThe VChapter 84FrenchThe VIChapter iHGreekLatin and VIIChapter 152SourcesVarious VIIIChapter ^7^Grammar Chapter IX of Poetry . 210the Language .Shakespeare and Chapter X 234Conclusion Symbols. Abbreviations . . . 249Phonetic 250Index