Crime & Disorder & Drugs Audit 2004 - Introduction & all Crime  Analysis

Crime & Disorder & Drugs Audit 2004 - Introduction & all Crime Analysis

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Broadland Crime and Disorderand Drugs Audit 2004Introduction & All Crime Analysisxxxxxxxxxxx1 IntroductionThe Crime and Disorder Act 1998, amended by the Police Reform Act 2002, places astatutory duty on the following responsible authorities to work in partnership to reducecrime, disorder and drug misuse.Norfolk Fire AuthorityNorfolk Police AuthorityNorfolk ConstabularyLocal AuthoritiesCounty CouncilHealth – Primary Care TrustsThe Act requires:That an audit be carried out every three years, on the level and patterns of crime,disorder and drug misuse. To publish the findings of the audit with potential priorities for action.Consult with communities and stakeholders on those priorities. Formulate and implement a three-year strategy for the reduction of crime, disorder anddrug misuse, taking into account the views of the local community.Submit an annual report on the implementation of the strategy. Broadland Community Safety Partnership (i.e. Broadland Crime & Disorder ReductionPartnership, or CDRP) was formed in 1999, and has a strong working relationshipbetween the responsible authorities, probation and other agencies. This audit builds on the existing Crime and Disorder Strategy and annual audits that havetaken place since 1998. Any comments about the present audit will be used to produce anew 3-year strategy for reducing crime, disorder and drug misuse in 2005 -2008. It is based on police crime statistics, local and national ...

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Broadland Crime and Disorder
and Drugs Audit 2004
Introduction & All Crime Analysisx
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1 Introduction
The Crime and Disorder Act 1998, amended by the Police Reform Act 2002, places a
statutory duty on the following responsible authorities to work in partnership to reduce
crime, disorder and drug misuse.
Norfolk Fire Authority
Norfolk Police Authority
Norfolk Constabulary
Local Authorities
County Council
Health – Primary Care Trusts
The Act requires:
That an audit be carried out every three years, on the level and patterns of crime,
disorder and drug misuse.
To publish the findings of the audit with potential priorities for action.
Consult with communities and stakeholders on those priorities.
Formulate and implement a three-year strategy for the reduction of crime, disorder and
drug misuse, taking into account the views of the local community.
Submit an annual report on the implementation of the strategy.
Broadland Community Safety Partnership (i.e. Broadland Crime & Disorder Reduction
Partnership, or CDRP) was formed in 1999, and has a strong working relationship
between the responsible authorities, probation and other agencies.
This audit builds on the existing Crime and Disorder Strategy and annual audits that have
taken place since 1998. Any comments about the present audit will be used to produce a
new 3-year strategy for reducing crime, disorder and drug misuse in 2005 -2008.
It is based on police crime statistics, local and national research, information from a wide
range of local authority and county council services, government statistics, drug and
alcohol data through the Drug and Alcohol Action Team, data from the criminal justice field
and treatment providers, and the experience of local communities. It identifies the main
problems faced by Broadland area and a range of other significant issues that may not
always show up in police figures.
The complete report provides extensive graphical and mapping information as well as
discussion of the findings and recommendations for future research and action.
1.1 Contributors
The analysis of drugs and alcohol in Section 4 was supplied by Norfolk Drug and Alcohol
Action Team (DAAT). Lucy Pascoe provided the analysis of domestic violence in Section
CDRP Analyst, Eastern, April 2005 23.5, and Sue Lambert, Norfolk Community Safety Coordinator, the discussion of the
Prolific and Priority Offender Strategy in Section 5.1. Broadland District Council supplied
most of the socio-economic profile of Broadland in Section 2.2, and also the district-
specific analysis of the results of the Consultation on Priorities in Section 6.2.
1.2 Socio-economic profile of Broadland
Unless otherwise stated, all figures in Sections 2.2.1 to 2.2.5 are derived from the Norfolk
Census Explorer online tool at www.norfolkcensusexplorer.net [Source: NCC].
1.2.1 Economic Information
Beyond the northern suburbs of Norwich, Broadland is predominantly rural in character,
although less than 2.5% of the residents work in agriculture or related industries. The
largest source of employment is the wholesale and retail trade sector (18.2%), followed by
manufacturing industries. Approximately a third of Broadland residents work within the City
of Norwich, which also provides many with shopping and recreational facilities. Only 1.9%
of the working-age people remain unemployed.
1.2.2 Transport
The sparsity of population and geographical remoteness of parts of Broadland is
reinforced by the transport network. Apart from the A47 and the A140 most journeys within
the area must be completed on B and C class roads. Bus transport is limited, especially in
the rural parts of the area, and the rail network serves only a few places to the east and
across the centre of the District. As a result, car ownership is the highest in the County.
Norwich airport lies to the south of the District and is increasingly used by Broadland
residents.
13.13% of households do not have access to a car or van, and 38.4% of households have
access to 2 or more cars or vans.
1.2.3 Population
The resident population of Broadland Area is 118,513.
The age range is as follows:
People aged 0-24 31215
People aged 25-64 64456
People aged over 65 22842
People of working age 70591
People of pensionable age 26409
The corresponding population pyramid is given in Fig. 1.
CDRP Analyst, Eastern, April 2005 3Fig. 1 Broadland po pulation pyramid, 2001 census [Source: ONS]
1.2.4 Deprivation
Broadland has only 1 ward in the top 100 deprived wards in Norfolk (Plumstead), and 1
more in the top 200 deprived wards (Eynesford).
1.2.5 Ethnicity
According to the 2001 Census, the largest ethnic group in Broadland is White, accounting
for 98.8% of the population, compared to the average for England and Wales of 91.3%.
The largest minority ethnic group is Mixed White and Asian (0.2%) [Source: ONS]. Fig. 2
offers a more detailed breakdown of minority ethnic origins of people in the Broadland
area.
CDRP Analyst, Eastern, April 2005 4x
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Minority ethnic origins of people in Broadland Area as a % of the total
1.20
1.06
1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.40
0.17 0.17 0.170.20 0.14
0.12
0.10
0.07 0.07 0.050.04 0.04
0.02 0.01
0.00
Fig. 2 Minority ethn ic origins of people in Broadland area as a percentage of the total
[Source: NCC]
1.3 Methodology
The Broadland Crime and Disorder and Drugs Audit 2004 aims to provide, as far as the
available data allows, a strategic overview of crime and disorder and drugs issues
affecting Broadland CDRP as a whole, and in-depth analysis of certain problems in
specific localities. The report includes a discussion of how the new Prolific and Priority
Offender Strategy is planned to have an impact in Norfolk and Broadland, and an analysis
of factors associated with offending behaviour amongst offenders living in Broadland. The
results of the Consultation – consisting of the Confidence Survey carried out in Autumn
2004, and the Consultation on Priorities carried out in late 2004/ early 2005 – are also
presented.
There are two main sections in the body of the report. The first, crime and disorder, has 9
main sub-sections:
All crime
Vehicle crime
Burglary
Violence against the person
Domestic violence
Anti-social behaviour – CAD incidents
Anti-social behaviour – crimes of criminal damage
Hate crime
Shoplifting
CDRP Analyst, Eastern, April 2005 5
Irish
Other White
White and Black Caribbean
White and Black African
White and Asian
Other Mixed
Indian
Pakistani
Bangladeshi
Other Asian
Caribbean
African
Other Black
Chinese
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Analysis of each of these 9 themes follows a common pattern, though there are some
variations depending on the availability of data. The first stage aims to establish volume,
trends, comparative incidence and costs in the Broadland CDRP area as a whole, and to
evaluate progress made in relation to quantifiable targets set in the previous Broadland
Strategy for 2002-5. For each theme except ‘all crime’, a ward analysis then suggests a
focus for crime reduction efforts on specific localities within the CDPR area, and examines
possible links between patterns of crime and disorder and deprivation. Based on the
identification of priority wards for each theme, a single ward is chosen for in-depth analysis
in the present study, using a problem-solving approach.
The second main section explores issues relating to drugs and alcohol from 6 main
angles:
Safer communities
Criminal justice
Availability - reducing the supply of illegal drugs
Young people
Treatment
Drugs and diversity
A comprehensive list of sources used in the Audit and the purpose for which they were
used, together with references used in running text and captions, is given in Section 7.
1.3.1 Volume and trends
For volume of recorded crime in Broadland, Norfolk Constabulary ‘SQL Crime’ replica
crime database was queried via Watson analytical software. For CAD (Computer Aided
Dispatch) incidents, Norfolk Constabulary ‘CADREP’ database was queried, again via
Watson analytical software. These queries were run in May to December 2004. Figures
are subject to minor variations over time due to continuous updates/ reclassifications.
The basic unit of time used in this study is the CDRP year, which runs from 1 April each
year until 31 March the following year. As far as possible, the 4 CDRP years from 1 April
2000 to 31 March 2004 were studied in relation to each main theme.
For trends in volume in Broadland, the time of occurrence of recorded crimes was defined
according to the field ‘date and time from’, i.e. the earliest time when that crime is thought
to have occurred. Recorded crimes with a status of ‘no crime’ or ‘no crime attempt’ were
excluded from the analysis. The time of occurrence of CAD incidents was defined
according to the field ‘date from’. Crimes and CAD incidents occurring within the
Broadland CDRP area were defined as those recorded for police Sectors B4 and C3. It
should be noted that in the case of a small number of crimes close to the border between
Broadland and other districts, the recorded beat and the geocode grid reference place the
crime in different districts.
For volume of domestic violence incidents, the source was Norfolk Constabulary Domestic
Violence database. For racist and homophobic incidents, the sources were Norfolk
Constabulary Racist Incident database and Norfolk Constabulary paper-based database of
homophobic incidents. Further details of how these sources were used are given in the
relevant sections of the body of the report.
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1.3.2 The impact of NCRS
A summary of the National Crime Recording Standard, NCRS, is given on the Home Office
website ‘Crime Statistics for England and Wales’:
In April 2002, the National Crime Recording Standard was introduced across police forces in
England & Wales. Its purpose is:
To promote greater consistency in how police record crime
To take a more victim-led approach in recording crime - by recording alleged offences, as
well as evidence-based ones
Previously, the police may quite legitimately not have recorded an alleged offence if there was no
evidence to support it had occurred.
According to the same Home Office source, NCRS has had “a huge impact on police
recorded crime figures”:
In many cases, the NCRS has led to an increase in police recorded crime figures, making it look like
more crimes were committed, when that might not be the case.
For example, we estimate that the total figure for ALL CRIME in 2002/03 was 10% higher than it
would have been under pre-NCRS recording, reflecting a change in recording practice, not a real
increase in crime.
Not all crime types are equally affected. For example, in 2002/03:
Burglary in a dwelling was inflated by an estimated 3%, whereas
Violence against the person was inflated by an estimated 23% in 2002/03
The Home Office Report ‘National Crime Recording Standard (NCRS): An Analysis of the
Impact on Recorded Crime, Companion Volume to Crime in England and Wales
2002/2003’ supplies the chart shown in Fig. 3 as a guide to the inflation of figures due to
NCRS for some categories of recorded crime.
Fig. 3 National estimates of the NCRS impact for the full year 2002/3 by offence type (Home Office)
[Source: HO2]
CDRP Analyst, Eastern, April 2005 7The same Home Office report also offers an estimate, reproduced in Table 1, of the
percentage impact of recording changes on recorded crime in Norfolk. In the case of total
crime, violence against the person, burglary dwelling, all theft and criminal damage, the
‘inflationary’ effect of NCRS on figures of recorded crime is estimated to be greater in
Norfolk than in England and Wales as a whole.
Table 1 Percentage impact of recording changes on recorded crime in Norfolk
[Source: HO2]
When considering chronological trends of recorded crime which relate to periods both
before and after April 2002, it is crucial to bear in mind the inflationary effect of NCRS.
1.3.3 Comparative incidence
The term ‘incidence’ in the present study refers to rate per 1000 population or, in the case
of burglary dwelling, to rate per 1000 households.
Benchmarks used for Broadland are Norfolk, Eastern region (i.e. the 6 counties of
Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Essex, Hertfordshire, Norfolk and Suffolk), England and
Wales, CDRP Family 9 (i.e. the group of 48 CDRPs with similar characteristics to which
Broadland has belonged during the period covered by the Audit), and Broadland’s new
family group of 15 ‘most similar’ CDRPs, instituted in Summer 2004. The ranking of
Broadland within its new family group for the quarter 1 January to 31 March 2004 is
included, where available.
For benchmarking of crime in Broadland, with the exception of shoplifting, Home Office
figures for 2003-4, obtained from various sources (please see Section 7 for details), were
used. For benchmarking of shoplifting in Broadland, Home Office figures for 2002-3 were
the most recent available.
All 2003-4 crime rates quoted in connection with benchmarking of Broadland are based on
or re-based to the version of the Office for National Statistics mid-2002 population
estimates used in the additional table ‘Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships -
Recorded Crime for Key Offences 2002/03 to 2003/04’ supplied with Home Office
Statistical Bulletin ‘Crime in England and Wales 2003/ 2004’. By this measure, the
population of Broadland is 119,048, and there are 50,011 households.
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The 2002-3 shoplifting rates quoted in connection with benchmarking of Broadland are
based on the revised mid-2001 census population figures. By this measure, the population
of Broadland is 118,800, and there are 50,000 households.
1.3.4 Cost estimates
The ‘total recorded value’ listed in police records is quoted for each crime type. In many
cases, however, particularly where violence entails significant ‘intangible’ costs, this figure
is a gross underestimate of the true costs to the individual and the community of crime and
disorder. Decision-makers need a true picture of the relative impact of different crime
types.
In 2000, Home Office Research Study 217, ‘The Economic and Social Costs of Crime’,
sought to address this issue. A ‘multiplier’, derived in most cases from the British Crime
Survey 1998 or the Commercial Victimisation Survey 1994, was applied to police recorded
crime figures to estimate the total number of crimes including those not reported to the
police. The average unit cost for a given crime category was then estimated, including all
economic and social costs: costs of security expenditure, property stolen and damaged,
the emotional and physical impact on victims, lost output, victim and health services, and
the cost to the criminal justice system (including police). All estimates were in 1999 prices.
The resulting estimated unit costs for each crime category are used in the present study.
Certain factors relating to the validity of this extrapolation should be borne in mind:
On the one hand, the suggested multipliers may be too high: due to NCRS and other
changes, the scope of recorded crime is now wider than in 2000.
On the other hand, prices have increased since 1999
Furthermore, precisely for the reason that the scope of recorded crime is now wider,
unit costs may have increased, since a reported crime entails higher costs than one not
reported.
Overall, these considerations tend to balance one another out.
HORS 217 dealt only with the major crime types. Our estimate of the costs of CAD
incidents and crimes involving anti-social behaviour in Broadland draws on Home Office
research at a national level undertaken in 2003, which sought to estimate only the cost to
agencies rather than the total cost to individuals and the community. There is a major
difficulty in trying to use these Home Office estimates for the present study, since our
definition of anti-social behaviour differs in some respects from that used in the Home
Office work. Nevertheless, an attempt has been made to achieve at least a rough
approximation of the costs to agencies of some types of ASB in Broadland. Details of how
the Home Office findings have been applied are given in Section 3.6.
The total cost to society of reported and unreported domestic violence in Broadland,
including both crimes and non-crime incidents, is estimated using the findings and
methodology of the September 2004 Women and Equality Unit report “The Cost of
Domestic Violence”. Full details of how this model has been applied are given in Section
3.5.
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1.3.5 Ward analysis
The primary purpose of the ward analysis is to identify priority areas within Broadland for
crime reduction interventions. The methodology has been adapted in part from Police
Research Series Paper 119, ‘Vehicle Crime Reduction: Turning the Corner’, Home Office,
1999. The underlying idea is that crime reduction interventions may be targeted for
maximum impact in areas where a high volume of crime and a high rate of crime coincide.
Firstly, a choropleth map of numbers of recorded crimes or incidents by ward, generated
using the Blue8World mapping application from geocoded police data, gives a snapshot of
the distribution across Broadland. This is a quintile mapping, in which approximately 20%
of the wards are allocated to each of the 5 classifications.
A table then shows, for each ward, figures and District rankings for volume and incidence.
High, medium and low bandings are used to facilitate the identification of priority wards as
those where high volume and high incidence coincide. For each indicator, the 3 bandings
correspond to the top 20% of wards, the middle 60% of wards and the bottom 20% of
wards respectively. This definition of bandings seems to yield an appropriate number of
priority wards.
A ‘crime reduction matrix’, again adapted from Police Research Series Paper 119, shows
what proportion of a given type of crime and disorder in the district would be addressed by
focussing attention on the priority wards identified.
Including deprivation scores for each ward alongside crime levels and rates allows for a
test of the hypothesis that there is a correlation between crime and deprivation. Again,
high, medium and low bandings are used to facilitate comparison.
1998 wards are used throughout. There have been changes to ward boundaries since
1998, and Super Output Areas are now becoming more widely used; however, a full range
of data relating to these other geographic areas was not readily available. Population
figures for wards used in the calculation of incidence are mid-2001 estimates by Norfolk
County Council Demographic Services.
Deprivation scores are taken from the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2000, which is
composed of six domain indices:
Income
Employment
Health deprivation and disability
Education, skills and training
Housing
Geographical access to services
1.3.6 Deep analysis of a single ward
For each main theme of crime and disorder, a single ward is chosen for more in-depth
analysis in the present study. It is envisaged, however, that other wards identified as
priority areas in the ward analysis will be analysed in depth in future in response to
requests from the CDRP.
CDRP Analyst, Eastern, April 2005 10