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A case control study on psychiatric disorders in Hashimoto disease and euthyroid goitre: not only depressive but also anxiety disorders are associated with thyroid autoimmunity

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Objective To evaluate the association between mood and anxiety disorders in Hashimoto disease and Euthyroid Goitre in a case control study. Methods Cases included 19 subjects with Hashimoto disease in euthyroid phase, 19 subjects with euthyroid goitre, 2 control groups each of 76 subjects matched (4/1) according to age and sex drawn from the data base of a community based sample. Psychiatric diagnoses were formulated using the International Composite Diagnostic Interview Simplified, according to DSM-IV criteria. All subjects underwent a complete thyroid evaluation including physical examination, thyroid echography and measure of serum free T4 (FT4), free T3 (FT3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and anti-thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (anti-TPO). Results: Subjects with Hashimoto disease showed higher frequencies of lifetime Depressive Episode (OR = 6.6, C.L. 95% 1.2–25.7), Generalized Anxiety Disorders (OR = 4,9 Cl 95% 1.5–25.4) and Social Phobia (OR = 20.0, CL 95% 2.3–153.3) whilst no differences were found between subjects with goitre and controls. Conclusion The study seems to confirm that risk for depressive disorders in subjects with thyroiditis is independent of the thyroid function detected by routine tests and indicates that not only mood but also anxiety disorders may be associated with Hashimoto disease.

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Published 01 January 2005
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Language English
Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health
BioMedCentral
Open Access Research A case control study on psychiatric disorders in Hashimoto disease and euthyroid goitre: not only depressive but also anxiety disorders are associated with thyroid autoimmunity 1 1 1 Mauro Giovanni Carta* , Maria Carolina Hardoy , Bernardo Carpiniello , 1 1 1 2 Andrea Murru , Anna Rita Marci , Fiora Carbone , Luca Deiana , 1 2 Mariangela Cadeddu and Stefano Mariotti
1 2 Address: Division of Psychiatry, Department of Public Health, University of Cagliari, Italy and Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cagliari, Italy Email: Mauro Giovanni Carta*  mgcarta@tiscali.it; Maria Carolina Hardoy  bcarpini@iol.it; Bernardo Carpiniello  bcarpini@iol.it; Andrea Murru  andreamurru@tin.it; Anna Rita Marci  mariangelacadeddu@aliceposta.it; Fiora Carbone  fiora.carbone@libero.it; Luca Deiana  mariotti@pacs.unica.it; Mariangela Cadeddu  mariangelacadeddu@aliceposta.it; Stefano Mariotti  mariotti@pacs.unica.it * Corresponding author
Published: 10 November 2005 Received: 02 October 2005 Accepted: 10 November 2005 Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health2005,1:23 doi:10.1186/17450179123 This article is available from: http://www.cpementalhealth.com/content/1/1/23 © 2005 Carta et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
AutoimmunityAnxiety disordersGoitre Hashimoto diseaseMood disordersThyroid antibodies
Abstract Objective:To evaluate the association between mood and anxiety disorders in Hashimoto disease and Euthyroid Goitre in a case control study. Methods:Cases included 19 subjects with Hashimoto disease in euthyroid phase, 19 subjects with euthyroid goitre, 2 control groups each of 76 subjects matched (4/1) according to age and sex drawn from the data base of a community based sample. Psychiatric diagnoses were formulated using the International Composite Diagnostic Interview Simplified, according to DSMIV criteria. All subjects underwent a complete thyroid evaluation including physical examination, thyroid echography and measure of serum free T4 (FT4), free T3 (FT3), thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH) and antithyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (antiTPO). Results: Subjects with Hashimoto disease showed higher frequencies of lifetime Depressive Episode (OR = 6.6, C.L. 95% 1.2–25.7), Generalized Anxiety Disorders (OR = 4,9 Cl 95% 1.5–25.4) and Social Phobia (OR = 20.0, CL 95% 2.3–153.3) whilst no differences were found between subjects with goitre and controls. Conclusion:The study seems to confirm that risk for depressive disorders in subjects with thyroiditis is independent of the thyroid function detected by routine tests and indicates that not only mood but also anxiety disorders may be associated with Hashimoto disease.
Introduction Clinical and epidemiological studies seem to indicate that an association between high levels of thyroid autoanti
bodies may be implicated in the increased frequencies of mood disorders observed in thyroid disease, independ ently of impairment of thyroid function [13]. A study car
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