A manual of the Malay language. With an introductory sketch of the Sanskrit element in Malay

A manual of the Malay language. With an introductory sketch of the Sanskrit element in Malay

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\ERKEIEY 1SRARY OFUVERSITY J A MANUAL OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. PAUL LISTFROM KEGAN CO:S.dragon, may S., Bat., Mak., Bu., naga).(J., The a list ofvegetable kingdom supplies trees, plants,long and flowers which are known to the SanskritMalays by names. Some these are with anotherof connectedclosely of words to be noticed those whichgroup presently, namely, to the of The use of sweet-belong department religion. flowers is a noticeable in thefeature worshipsmelling religious of the and the fact that flowers held themHindus, many by to be sacred to the of are calledworship particular gods by the same in the ofnames which bearMalays by they temples is a remarkable of an historical lesson latent inIndia, example It otherwords. to thepoints fact, abundantly proved by that Brahmanism once held where it hasevidence, sway long been the of thatwordswhich havefaith andIslam,superseded by no for the modern Muhammadan Malayspecial significance were with for his distant ancestors.fraught mystic solemnity 1 amore derivation isfrom the Tamul amale lion,Perhaps plausible ari-md, 2 J. and S. Mak.garuda ; guruda. 21 MANUAL OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. In the Sanskrit names have beencases,many indeed, ap- the to different from thoseplied by Malays plants designated the same in India. In other names un-by expressions cases, known in classical but ofSanskrit, obviously compounded Sanskrit have been the or Javanese.words, given by Malays The common native term for "flower" is sdriMalay biXnga; Sansk.

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\ERKEIEY
1SRARY
OFUVERSITY
JA
MANUAL OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE.PAUL LISTFROM KEGAN CO:S<$
THE MALAY forHANDBOOK OF LANGUAGE,
the Use of Tourists and Residents. Kelly andBy
Walsh. 3s. net. Printed in Roman characters only.
It contains an and anelementary grammar English-
Malay vocabulary.
MALAY withPRACTICAL GRAMMAR, Reading
and Translation Exercises. W. G. Shellabeak.By
Third Edition. 5s. net. All words areMalay printed
in Roman characters.
ENGLISH AND MALAY for UseVOCABULARY,
Pringle.in Schools. A. E. Edition. 2s. net.By Eighth
-MALAY ENGLISH containing
I W. G. Shellarkak.wordjfand phrases.Malay By
(is. net. Printed in Roman characters.
ENGLISH-MALAY DICTIONARY, containing 10,000
words. the same. Ia theBy press.
MALAY -ENGLISH DICTIONARY. R. J.By
Wilkinson. 4to. 2. 10s. 3s.Unbound, ; bound, 3,
The words are in Arabic ana in RomanMalay printed
characters.
ENGLISH-MALAY VOCABULARY. Sir F. A.By
Swettenham. Tenth Edition. cloth. 8s. Gd. net.8vo,
MALAY-ENGLISH Sir F. A.By Edition. 8vo. 8s. 6d. net.Eighth
words both in Arabic and Roman%* Malay printed
characters.
TRAVELLER'S MALAY PRONOUNCING HAND-
BOOK. Tenth Edition. cloth. 5s. Printed in12mo,
Roman characters.
VOCABULARY OF MALAY MEDICAL TERMS.
P. N. B.A. M.D. 12s. net. Printed inBy Gerrard, ,
Roman characters.
LONDON :
KEGAN TRUBNER & CO. LTD.PAUL, TRENCH,A MANUAL
OF THE
MALAY LANGUAGE.
WITH
oflln SanskritSftetclj tijeIittrotructorg
(Element in jHalag*
BY
WILLIAM EDWARD MAXWELL,
OF THE INNER BARRISTER-AT-LAWTEMPLE, ;
MALAYASSISTANT PERAK, PENIN8DLA.RESIDENT,
TENTH EDITION.
LONDON:
KEGAN TRUBNER & CO. LPAUL, TRENCH,
BROADWAY CARTERHOUSE, 08-74 LANE, E.C.
1914Je n'en refuis aulcune de s'usent les rues ceux
;phrases qui emmy
veulent combattre la sel'usage par grammaire mocquent.qui
Montaigne.114
PREFACE.
to illustrate inThe lansmasre which I have endeavoured
is the of the British Settlementsthe Malayfollowing pages
in the Straits of some of which I haveMalacca, knowledge
ser-had the of sixteenopportunity acquiring during years'
andvice in Province Wellesley, Malacca, Singapore,Penang,
Perak.
in that itDialectical are so abundantpeculiarities Malay
of theis to teach the colloquial language peopleimpossible
awithout to the lesson the distinct marks ofimparting
it is saidIn of Indiaparticular locality. parts proverbially
1that in there is a variation in thetwelve kos language,every
Peninsulaand much the same be said of thevery might Malay
the andand islands. The construction ofadjacent language
the of words of the butcourse, same,body remain,general
in state or subdivision of a state there areevery peculiar
variations of accent andwords and and pronun-expressions
ciation which to it. Words common indistinctivelybelong
itone district sound in another, or, be,strangely may they
different in the two Even words ofplaces.convey meanings
"I"such constant occurrence as the andpersonal pronouns
The Kedah accent isto"you" vary according locality.
from that of and that fromPatani, againeasily distinguished
the of and Certainspeech Trengganu Pahang. expressions
in Malacca andcommon in are almostPenang unintelligible
and vice In Perak it is not difficult toversd. saySingapore,
1 Grammar of the ioi.Beames, Comparative Aryan Languages, p.PREFACE.VI
from the or lower readies ofwhether a man comes theupper
words in his conversation.river, by particularmerely noting
Even individual and districts have theirvillages peculiar
their tricks of not found elsewhere. Inortwang expression
and other islands eastward in whichJava, Sumatra, Malay
and character of theis thespoken, pronunciation language
are much influenced the other current there.by languages
inis in where theMalay only spoken perfection places
natives no otherspeak tongue.
Native has endeavoured to variouspedantry classify styles
as theof court the well-bredspeaking, style (bahasa dalam),
the trader'sstyle bangsawan), language(bahasa (bahasa dagang),
and the mixed but all that canlanguage (bahasa kachau-kan),
be said that a limited number of words are usedcorrectly is,
in intercourse with that
;exclusively royal personages persons
of birth and in the Eastern aseducation,good Archipelago,
select their more than theelsewhere, expressions carefully
thelower and that of commerce doesclasses; vocabulary
not trouble itself with the of and thestylegraces copious
use of Arabic words which commend themselves to native
writers.
The written is more stilted and less terse andlanguage
idiomatic than the and even wherecolloquial dialect; pure
is the influence of Arabic isMalay employed, compositions
marked. Whole clothedvery sentences, sometimes, though
of Arabicin excellent are translationsMalay, unacknowledged
This be verified one wellby any acquaintedphrases. may
with who will look into aMalay literary compositions really
translation of an Arabic work for Lane's trans-
; instance,good
lation of the "Thousand and One TheNights." Malay speaks
his commandmuch better than he and has atwrites, quan-
tities of words which never find their into his litera-way
but into dictionariesture, and, therefore, rarely compiled by
Europeans.
The of words in the native character isspelling Malay
the has beenPerso-Arabicfixed,hardly yet though alphabet