Adaptation of Wireless Access MAC Protocol for Real Time Packet Flows ; Bevielės prieigos MAC protokolo adaptacija realaus laiko duomenų srautams
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Adaptation of Wireless Access MAC Protocol for Real Time Packet Flows ; Bevielės prieigos MAC protokolo adaptacija realaus laiko duomenų srautams

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VILNIUS GEDIMINAS TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY Lukas Pavilanskas Adaptation of Wireless Access MAC Protocol for Real Time Packet Flows Doctoral dissertation Technological Sciences, Electrical Engineering and Electronics – 01T Vilnius, 2007 VILNIAUS GEDIMINO TECHNIKOS UNIVERSITETAS Lukas Pavilanskas Beviel ės prieigos MAC protokolo adaptacija realaus laiko duomen ų srautams Daktaro disertacija Technologijos mokslai, elektros ir elektronikos inžinerija – 01T Vilnius, 2007 Doctor dissertation was prepared at Vilnius Gediminas Technical University in 2003–2007. Scientific Supervisor: Prof Dr Habil Algimantas Kajackas (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Electrical Engineering and Electronics – 01T) In memory of my Grandfather Bp. Jonas Viktoras Kalvanas (1914–1995), and my Uncle Jnr. Bp. Jonas Jonas Kalvanas (1948–2003) Content iiiContent Abbreviations and Acronyms ....................................................................................................vi Principal Symbols......................................................................................................................ix Lists of Figures and Tables....xi 1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................1 2. General Features of the IEEE 802.11 Networking ...............................................................

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Published 01 January 2007
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VILNIUS GEDIMINAS TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY


Lukas Pavilanskas
Adaptation of Wireless Access MAC Protocol for Real
Time Packet Flows
Doctoral dissertation
Technological Sciences, Electrical Engineering and Electronics – 01T

Vilnius, 2007
VILNIAUS GEDIMINO TECHNIKOS UNIVERSITETAS


Lukas Pavilanskas
Beviel ės prieigos MAC protokolo adaptacija realaus laiko
duomen ų srautams
Daktaro disertacija
Technologijos mokslai, elektros ir elektronikos inžinerija – 01T


Vilnius, 2007 Doctor dissertation was prepared at Vilnius Gediminas Technical University in 2003–2007.
Scientific Supervisor:
Prof Dr Habil Algimantas Kajackas (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University,
Technological Sciences, Electrical Engineering and Electronics – 01T)













In memory of
my Grandfather Bp. Jonas Viktoras Kalvanas (1914–1995),
and my Uncle Jnr. Bp. Jonas Jonas Kalvanas (1948–2003) Content iii
Content
Abbreviations and Acronyms ....................................................................................................vi
Principal Symbols......................................................................................................................ix
Lists of Figures and Tables....xi
1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................1
2. General Features of the IEEE 802.11 Networking .................................................................6
2.1. Introduction......................................................................................................................6
2.2. Essentials and Related Works..........................................................................................8
2.3. Research IEEE 802.11 in Lithuania...............................................................................16
2.4. Classified Conclusions...................................................................................................17
3. Technological Expenditures of Common WLAN Model.....................................................19
3.1. Introduction....................................................................................................................19
3.2. Model of Technological Expenditures in MAC Level ..................................................21
3.2.1. Components of Expenditures in IEEE 802.11 MAC..............................................22
3.2.2. The Interlayer Components of IEEE 802.3 LLC....................................................26
3.2.3. Components of IPv4 Encapsulation .......................................................................27
3.2.4. Expenditures of TCP Encapsulation29
3.2.5. Expenditures of UDP and RTP Encapsulation .......................................................31
3.2.6. Evolution of Technological Expenditures in MAC Level......................................32
3.2.7. The Reduction of Expenditures in MAC Level......................................................35
3.3. Technological Expenditures in Physical Level..............................................................36
3.3.1. Time Components of IEEE 802.11b.......................................................................37
3.3.2. Time Com2.11a38 Content iv
3.3.3. Time Components of IEEE 802.11g.......................................................................40
3.3.4. Evaluation of Technological Expenditures in Physical Level................................42
3.4. Technological Expenditures in the Channel Accessing.................................................43
3.4.1. Properties of CSMA/CA Random Access..............................................................44
3.4.2. Evaluation of Technological Expenditures in the Channel Access........................47
3.5. Classified Conclusions...................................................................................................49
4. Evaluation of Resource Utilization of IEEE 802.11.............................................................50
4.1. Introduction....................................................................................................................50
4.2. Aspects of Interference Influence Modeling .................................................................51
4.2.1. Essentials of Interference in IEEE 802.11 Networking..........................................52
4.2.2. Performance of IEEE 802.11 WLAN.....................................................................55
4.2.3. Model of Space/Time Multiplexing .......................................................................58
4.3. Model of TCP Properties in the Reliable IEEE 802.11 link60
4.3.1. Essentials of Flow Control in TCP Algorithms......................................................61
4.3.2. Long Random Delay Influence to the TCP ............................................................67
4.3.3. Modeling of TCP Algorithms in Reliable IEEE 802.11 Link ................................68
4.3.4. Modeling of TCP Reno Algorithm.........................................................................70
4.3.5. Modeling of TCP Vegas and Veno Algorithms .....................................................71
4.3.6. Requirements of Cross Layer Design to Improve TCP Performance ....................73
4.4. Evaluation of Traffic Aggregation Model .....................................................................75
4.4.1. Model of Simple Packet Aggregation Protocol (SPAP).........................................77
4.4.2. SPAP Influence Interconnection Points .................................................................79
4.5. Classified Conclusions...................................................................................................82
5. Voice Applied Customer Access..........................................................................................84
5.1. Introduction....................................................................................................................84
5.2. Connection Level Technological Expenditures.............................................................86
5.2.2. Basic PCF Operation Rules ....................................................................................88
5.2.3. Times of PHY Occupations90
5.2.4. Model of the Speech Established Traffic ...............................................................91
5.3. Voice Coding and Transmission Diagrams ...................................................................97
5.4. Voice Applied Customer Access Model......................................................................100
5.4.1. Performance of Voice Applied Customer Access ................................................102
5.4.2. Capacity of Voice Applied Customer Access ......................................................104
5.5. Classified Conclusions.................................................................................................106 Content v
6. General Conclusions...........................................................................................................107
References...............................................................................................................................109
Publications of the Author......................................................................................................121
Annex A..................................................................................................................................122
Annex B..........123
Annex C..........126
Annex D..........127
Abbreviations and Acronyms vi
Abbreviations and Acronyms
ACK – Acknowledgment;
AID – Association Identifier;
AMPS – Advanced Mobile Phone Systems;
AP/PC – Access Point/Point Coordinator;
AVTWG – Audio–Video Transport Working Group;
BER – Bit Error Rate;
BSSID – Basic Service Set Identity (ID);
CCK – Complementary Code Keying;
CDMA – Code Division Multiple Access;
CFP – Contention Free Period;
CBR – Constant Bit Rate;
CP – Contention Period;
CPN – Customer Premise Network;
CSMA/CA – Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance;
CTS – Clear To Send;
CW – Contention Window;
DCF – Distributed Coordination Function;
DIFS – DCF Inter Frame Space;
DNS – Domain Name Server;
DSAP – Destination Service Access Point;
DSSS – Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum; Abbreviations and Acronyms vii
DSSS-OFDM – DSSS and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing;
DTIM – Delivery TIM;
ERP – Extended Rate PHY;
ERP–PBCC – ERP and Packet Binary Convolution Code;
FCS – Frame Check Sequence;
GPRS – General Packet Radio Service;
GSM – Global System for Mobile;
HC – Header Compression;
HCF – Hybrid Coordination Function;
IANA – Internet Assigned Numbers Authority;
IETF – Internet Engineering Task Force;
IP – Internet Protocol;
ISO – International Standardization Organization;
LAN – Local Area Network;
LLC – Logical Link Control;
MAC – Medium Access Control;
MEH – Minimal Encapsulation Header;
MPDU – MAC Protocol Data Unit;
NAV – Network Allocation Vector;
Null – Null Frame;
OFDM – Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing;
OSI – Open Systems Interconnection;
PBCC – Packet Binary Convolution Code;
PCF – Point Coordination Function;
PDC – Personal Digital Communication;
PHY – Physical Layer;
PIFS – PCF Inter Frame Space;
PLCP – Physical Layer Convergence Protocol;
PPDU – PLCP Protocol Data Unit;
PSDU – PLCP Service Data Unit;
QoS – Quality of Service;
RFC – Request for Comment;
RT – Real Time Traffic; Abbreviations and Acronyms viii
RTP – Real Time Protocol;
RTS – Request To Send;
SF – Super Frame;
SFD – Start Frame Delimiter;
SIFS – Short Inter Frame Space;
SIFS e Space;
SNAP – SubNetwork Access Protocol;
SOHO – Small Office Home Office;
SSAP – Source Service Access Point;
SSID – Service Set Identity (ID);
STA – Wireless End User Station;
TBTT – Target Beacon Transmission Time;
TCP – Transport Control Protocol;
TDMA – Time Division Multiplex Access;
TFTP – Trivial File Transfer Protocol;
TIM – Traffic Indication Message;
T-IP – Tunnel IP;
UDP – User Datagram Protocol;
UMTS – Universal Mobile Telecommunication System;
User Data – Encapsulated Data of upper OSI Layer in the Frame Body of MPDU;
VAD – Voice Activity Detection;
VBR – Variable Bit Rate;
WAN – Wide Area Network;
WDS – Wireless Distribution System (Wireless Bridging);
WLAN – Wireless LAN.