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Anthelmintic resistance of Haemonchus contortus and the FAMACHA-method as a tool to delay the development of anthelmintic resistance [Elektronische Ressource] / von Miriam Carmen Scheuerle

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ANTHELMINTIC RESISTANCE OF HAEMONCHUS ©CONTORTUS AND THE FAMACHA -METHOD AS A TOOL TO DELAY THE DEVELOPMENT OF ANTHELMINTIC RESISTANCEMIRIAM SCHEUERLEINAUGURAL-DISSERTATIONzur Erlangungder veterinärbiologischen Doktorwürde (Dr. rer. biol. vet.) der Tierärztlichen Fakultät der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Münchenédition scientifiqueVVB LAUFERSWEILER VERLAGVVB LAUFERSWEILER VERLAG ISBN 3-8359-5432-6STAUFENBERGRING 15D-35396 GIESSENTel: 0641-5599888 Fax: -5599890redaktion@doktorverlag.dewww.doktorverlag.de 9 7 8 3 8 3 5 9 5 4 3 2 8édition scientifiqueVVB VVB LAUFERSWEILER VERLAGMIRIAM SCHEUERLE HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS IN SMALL RUMINANTSDas Werk ist in allen seinen Teilen urheberrechtlich geschützt. Jede Verwertung ist ohne schriftliche Zustimmung des Autors oder des Verlages unzulässig. Das gilt insbesondere für Vervielfältigungen, Übersetzungen, Mikroverfilmungen und die Einspeicherung in und Verarbeitung durch elektronische Systeme.1. Auflage 2009All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the Author or the Publishers.

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ANTHELMINTIC RESISTANCE OF HAEMONCHUS
©CONTORTUS AND THE FAMACHA -METHOD
AS A TOOL TO DELAY THE DEVELOPMENT OF
ANTHELMINTIC RESISTANCE
MIRIAM SCHEUERLE
INAUGURAL-DISSERTATION
zur Erlangung
der veterinärbiologischen Doktorwürde
(Dr. rer. biol. vet.)
der Tierärztlichen Fakultät der
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
édition scientifique
VVB LAUFERSWEILER VERLAG
VVB LAUFERSWEILER VERLAG ISBN 3-8359-5432-6
STAUFENBERGRING 15
D-35396 GIESSEN
Tel: 0641-5599888 Fax: -5599890
redaktion@doktorverlag.de
www.doktorverlag.de 9 7 8 3 8 3 5 9 5 4 3 2 8
édition scientifique
VVB VVB LAUFERSWEILER VERLAG
MIRIAM SCHEUERLE HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS IN SMALL RUMINANTSDas Werk ist in allen seinen Teilen urheberrechtlich geschützt.
Jede Verwertung ist ohne schriftliche Zustimmung des Autors
oder des Verlages unzulässig. Das gilt insbesondere für
Vervielfältigungen, Übersetzungen, Mikroverfilmungen
und die Einspeicherung in und Verarbeitung durch
elektronische Systeme.
1. Auflage 2009
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior
written permission of the Author or the Publishers.
st1 Edition 2009
© 2009 by VVB LAUFERSWEILER VERLAG, Giessen
Printed in Germany
édition scientifique
VVB LAUFERSWEILER VERLAG
STAUFENBERGRING 15, D-35396 GIESSEN
Tel: 0641-5599888 Fax: 0641-5599890
email: redaktion@doktorverlag.de
www.doktorverlag.de

Aus dem Lehrstuhl für Vergleichende Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie
der Tierärztlichen Fakultät der Ludwig Maximilians-Universität München
Vorstand: Univ.-Prof. Dr. Kurt Pfister



ANTHELMINTIC RESISTANCE OF HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS
©AND THE FAMACHA -METHOD AS A TOOL TO DELAY THE
DEVELOPMENT OF ANTHELMINTIC RESISTANCE












INAUGURAL-DISSERTATION
zur Erlangung
der veterinärbiologischen Doktorwürde (Dr. rer. biol. vet.)
der Tierärztlichen Fakultät der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München




von


MIRIAM CARMEN SCHEUERLE

aus Lindenberg im Allgäu




München 2009


Gedruckt mit Genehmigung der Tierärztlichen Fakultät der Ludwig-Maximilians-
Universität München








Dekan: Univ.-Prof. Dr. Braun
Berichterstatter: Univ.-Prof. Dr. Pfister
Korreferent: Univ.-Prof. Dr. Potschka
















Tag der Promotion: 17. Juli 2009










Die vorliegende Arbeit wurde nach § 6 Abs. 2 der Promotionsordnung für die Tierärztliche
Fakultät der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München als kumulative Dissertation gestaltet.









IN ERINNERUNG AN MEINEN OPA
(1929-2008)



II


TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABBREVIATIONS .....................................................................................................................V
GLOSSARY .............................................................................................................................. VI
PRESENTATIONSVII

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES..................................................................................... 1

LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................................................ 2
1. Gastrointestinal parasites in small ruminants ...................................................................... 2
1.1. Gastrointestinal nematodes ........................................................................................... 2
1.2. Trichostrongylidosis ..................................................................................................... 3
1.2.1. Haemonchus contortus (Family: Trichostrongylidae)........................................... 4
1.2.2. Trichostrongylus spp., Teladorsagia spp. and Cooperia spp. (Family:
Trichostrongylidae).......................................................................................................... 5
1.2.3. Nematodirus spp. (Family: Molineidae)................................................................ 5
1.2.4. Chabertia spp. and Oesophagostomum spp. (Family: Chabertiidae) .................... 6
1.3. Other important gastrointestinal parasites of small ruminants ..................................... 6
2. Anthelmintic treatment schemes.......................................................................................... 7
3. Anthelmintic Resistance ......................................................................................................8
3.1. Detection of anthelmintic resistance............................................................................. 9
3.1.1. Faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT).............................................................. 9
4. Strategies for worm management ...................................................................................... 10
4.1. Targeted Selective Treatment ..................................................................................... 10
4.2. Refugia........................................................................................................................ 11
©4.3. The FAMACHA -method.......................................................................................... 12

MATERIALS AND METHODS............................................................................................... 13
1. Parasitological Techniques ................................................................................................ 13
1.1. Mode of Sampling....................................................................................................... 13
1.2. Standard coprological methods................................................................................... 13
1.3. Collection of third-stage larvae 13
1.4. The McMaster Faecal egg count method.................................................................... 14 III

1.5. Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test............................................................................... 14
1.6. Determination of packed cell volume (PCV).............................................................. 15
2. Study flocks ....................................................................................................................... 15
2.1. Flocks selected for the coprological survey................................................................ 15
2.2. Flocks selected for the anthelmintic resistance study................................................. 15
©2.3. Goat flocks of the FAMACHA study ....................................................................... 17
©3. The application of the FAMACHA -Method ................................................................... 19
4. Statistical analyses ............................................................................................................. 20
4.1. Anthelmintic resistance............................................................................................... 20
©4.2. The FAMACHA -study ............................................................................................. 20

RESULTS .................................................................................................................................. 22
1. Epidemiological survey of sheep flocks in Baden-Wuerttemberg .................................... 22
1.1. Prevalence of parasite species in the flocks................................................................ 22
2. Anthelmintic resistance of GIN of small ruminants in Germany and Switzerland ........... 26
2.1. Faecal egg count reduction in nine treatment groups ................................................. 26
2.1.1. Negative faecal egg count reductions .................................................................. 27
2.1.2. Blackforest-flock.................................................................................................. 30
3. Clinical signs of parasite infection..................................................................................... 32
©4. Evaluation of the FAMACHA -method in Switzerland ................................................... 33
©4.1. Packed cell volume and FAMACHA -categories...................................................... 33
©4.2. Faecal egg count and FAMACHA .......................................................... 34
4.3. Classification of packed cell volume ranges............................................................... 35
4.3.1. Decisions for treatment according to different PCV-classifications.................... 35
4.4. Prevalence of Haemonchus contortus in the study goats............................................ 42
5. Publications........................................................................................................................ 43
5.1. Publication 1 ............................................................................................................... 43
5.2. Publication 2.. 54

GENERAL DISCUSSION ........................................................................................................ 71

CONCLUSION.......................................................................................................................... 77
SUMMARY............................................................................................................................... 78
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG .......................................................................................................... 79 IV

REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................... 81

FIGURES................................................................................................................................... 90
TABLES .................................................................................................................................... 91
APPENDIX................................................................................................................................ 92

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS....................................................................................................... 99 V


ABBREVIATIONS

ABZ Albendazole
BZ Benzimidazoles
Cl 95% confidence limit of the mean
EHA Egg Hatch Assay
epg Eggs Per Gram faeces
EPR Eprinomectin
ESSR Extension and health service for small ruminants (Beratungs- und
Gesundheitsdienst für Kleinwiederkäuer, BGK, Schweiz)
FAMACHA Faffa-Malan-Chart
FAMs FAMACHA score
FEC Faecal Egg Count
FECR Faecal Egg Count Reduction [%]
FECRT on Test
FBZ Fenbendazole
FNF False negative fraction
FPF False positive fraction
GIN Gastrointestinal nematodes
L1 First stage larvae
L2 Second stage larvae
L3 Third stage larvae
L4 Fourth stage larvae
LEV Levamisole
LMA Larval Migration Assay
ML Macrocyclic lactone
MOX Moxidectin
NPV Negative Predictive Value
PCV Packed Cell Volume, i.e. Haematocrit
PPV Positive Predictive Value
SD Standard deviation
SE error
TNF True Negative Fraction (sensitivity)
TPF True Positive Fraction (specificity)
TST Targeted Selective Treatment
WAAVP World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology