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Behavioral, electrocortical and neuroanatomical correlates of egocentric and allocentric reference frames during visual path integration [Elektronische Ressource] / vorgelegt von Markus Plank, geb. Müller

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Behavioral, Electrocortical and Neuroanatomical Correlates of Egocentric and Allocentric Reference Frames during Visual Path Integration Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades des Doktors der Philosophie vorgelegt von Markus Plank, geb. Müller aus Villingen-Schwenningen 2009 Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München Fakultät für Psychologie und Pädagogik Amtierender Dekan: Prof. Dr. Joachim Kahlert Gutachter: PD Dr. Klaus Gramann 2. Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Hermann J. Müller 3. Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Ludwig Fahrmeir Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 26. März 2009 i ii ‘Hope lies in dreams, in imagination and in the courage of those who dare to make dreams into reality.’ Jonas Edward Salk (1914 – 1995) iii ivContents Contents Preface x  Acknowledgements xi 1  Theoretical Framework 1  1.1  Introduction ......................................................................................... 1 1.2  Updating Mechanisms – Piloting and Path Integration ....................... 4 1.2.1  Piloting .................................................................................... 4 1.2.2  Path Integration ....................................................................... 4 1.2.2.1  Path Integration and Path Complexity ...................... 7 1.

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Published 01 January 2009
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Behavioral, Electrocortical and Neuroanatomical
Correlates of Egocentric and Allocentric
Reference Frames during Visual Path Integration


Inaugural-Dissertation
zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades des
Doktors der Philosophie

vorgelegt von

Markus Plank, geb. Müller
aus Villingen-Schwenningen

2009



Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
Fakultät für Psychologie und Pädagogik



























Amtierender Dekan: Prof. Dr. Joachim Kahlert
Gutachter: PD Dr. Klaus Gramann
2. Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Hermann J. Müller
3. Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Ludwig Fahrmeir
Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 26. März 2009
i

ii





















‘Hope lies in dreams, in imagination and in the courage of those
who dare to make dreams into reality.’

Jonas Edward Salk
(1914 – 1995)


iii

ivContents

Contents
Preface x  
Acknowledgements xi 
1  Theoretical Framework 1  
1.1  Introduction ......................................................................................... 1 
1.2  Updating Mechanisms – Piloting and Path Integration ....................... 4 
1.2.1  Piloting .................................................................................... 4 
1.2.2  Path Integration ....................................................................... 4 
1.2.2.1  Path Integration and Path Complexity ...................... 7 
1.3  Spatial Reference Frames and Representations ................................. 10 
1.3.1  Primitive and Derived Spatial Parameters ............................. 12 
1.3.2  Reference Frames and Acquisition of Spatial Knowledge ..... 13 
1.3.3  Reference Frames as Individually Stable Preferences ........... 16 
1.4  Cortical Structures and Mechanisms ................................................. 18 
1.4.1  Cortical Substrates of Allocentric and Egocentric Reference
Frames ................................................................................... 18 
1.4.1.1  Egocentric Processing along the Dorsal Pathway .. 21 
1.4.1.2  Allocentric Processing along the Ventral
Pathway .................................................................. 24 
1.4.1.3  Retrosplenial Cortex as Transition Zone ................ 26 
1.4.2  Spontaneous Electroencephalographic Oscillations .............. 27 
vContents
1.4.2.1  Theta Activity (4 – 8 Hz) ......................................... 28 
1.4.2.2  Alpha Activity (8 – 13 Hz) ....................................... 29 
1.4.2.3  Rolandic Mu Activity (8 – 13 Hz) ............................ 30 
1.4.3  Identification of Human Brain Dynamics from Noninvasive
Multi-Channel EEG Recordings ............................................. 30 
1.4.3.1  The ICA Model ........................................................ 32 
1.4.3.2  The ICA Algorithm .................................................. 34 
1.4.3.3  Independence and Correlation ............................... 35 
1.4.3.4  ICA and PCA ........................................................... 35 
2  Synopsis of the Present Thesis 37 
2.1  Chapter 3 ............................................................................................ 38 
2.2  Chapter 4  
2.3  Conclusions ........................................................................................ 39 
3  Behavioral Analyses 42 
3.1  Abstract .............................................................................................. 42 
3.2  Introduction ....................................................................................... 43 
3.2.1  Spatial Reference Frames and Individual Proclivities ........... 44 
3.2.2  Updating of Representation-Specific Information ................. 44 
3.2.3  Aims of the Present Study ..................................................... 47 
3.3  Experiment 1 ...................................................................................... 47 
3.3.1  Methods ................................................................................. 48 
3.3.1.1  Subjects .................................................................. 48 
3.3.1.2  Task, Materials and Procedure ............................... 48 
3.3.2  Performance Measures .......................................................... 51 
3.3.2.1  Side Error ............................................................... 51 
3.3.2.2  Angular Fit .............................................................. 52 
3.3.2.3  Response Time ....................................................... 52 
3.3.2.4  Absolute Error ........................................................ 53 
3.3.2.5  Relative Error .......................................................... 53 
3.3.3  Results ................................................................................... 53 
3.3.3.1  Side Error ............................................................... 53 
3.3.3.2  Other Incorrect Solutions – Arrowback
Responses54 
3.3.3.3  Angular Fit .............................................................. 55 
3.3.3.4  Response Time ....................................................... 55 
3.3.3.5  Absolute Error ........................................................ 56 
viContents
3.3.3.6  Relative Error .......................................................... 57 
3.3.4  Discussion ............................................................................. 58 
3.4  Experiment 2 – Same Direction ......................................................... 60 
3.4.1  Methods ................................................................................. 61 
3.4.1.1  Participants ............................................................. 61 
3.4.1.2  Task, Materials, and Procedure .............................. 61 
3.4.2  Results ................................................................................... 61 
3.4.2.1  Side Error ............................................................... 61 
3.4.2.2  Other Incorrect Solutions ....................................... 62 
3.4.2.3  Angular Fit .............................................................. 62 
3.4.2.4  Response Time ....................................................... 62 
3.4.2.5  Absolute Error ........................................................ 63 
3.4.2.6  Relative Error .......................................................... 64 
3.4.3  Discussion ............................................................................. 65 
3.5  Experiment 3 – Opposite Directions .................................................. 68 
3.5.1  Methods ................................................................................. 69 
3.5.1.1  Subjects .................................................................. 69 
3.5.1.2  Task, Materials, and Procedure .............................. 69 
3.5.2  Results ................................................................................... 70 
3.5.2.1  Side Error ............................................................... 70 
3.5.2.2  Other Incorrect Solutions ....................................... 70 
3.5.2.3  Angular Fit .............................................................. 70 
3.5.2.4  Response Time ....................................................... 70 
3.5.2.5  Absolute Error ........................................................ 71 
3.5.2.6  Relative Error .......................................................... 72 
3.5.3  Discussion ............................................................................. 72 
3.6  Behavioral Data – General Discussion ............................................... 73 
3.6.1  Configural Updating of Primitive Parameters ....................... 74 
3.6.2  Co-Existence of Egocentric and Allocentric Representations75 
3.6.3  Conclusions and Upcoming Steps ......................................... 76 
4  Electroencephalographic Analyses 77 
4.1  Abstract .............................................................................................. 77 
4.2  Introduction ....................................................................................... 78 
4.2.1  Path Integration ..................................................................... 78 
4.2.2  Reference Frames in Spatial Navigation ............................... 79 
viiContents
4.2.3  Cortical Differentiations between Egocentric and Allocentric
Reference Frames .................................................................. 81 
4.2.4  EEG Data Examination via Independent Component Analysis
(ICA) ...................................................................................... 82 
4.2.5  Aims of the Present Study ..................................................... 84 
4.3  Experiment 1 – Same Direction ......................................................... 85 
4.3.1  Methods ................................................................................. 85 
4.3.1.1  Participants ............................................................. 85 
4.3.1.2  Task, Materials, and Procedure .............................. 86 
4.3.1.3  Performance Measures ........................................... 86 
4.3.1.4  EEG Recordings and Artifact Rejection .................. 87 
4.3.1.5 Independent Component Analysis and
Component Selection .............................................. 88 
4.3.1.6  Component Power Spectra and Event-Related
Spectral Perturbation (ERSP) ................................. 89 
4.3.1.7  IC (Pre-)Clustering .................................................. 89 
4.3.1.8  ERSP Statistics ........................................................ 90 
4.3.1.9  Strategy- and Complexity-Difference ERSP
Computation ........................................................... 91 
4.3.2  Results ................................................................................... 91 
4.3.2.1  Behavioral Performance ......................................... 91 
4.3.2.2  Source Reconstruction............................................ 92 
4.3.2.3  Cluster Dynamics .................................................... 95 
4.3.3  Discussion ........................................................................... 115 
4.4  Experiment 2 – Opposite Directions ................................................ 121 
4.4.1  Methods ............................................................................... 121 
4.4.1.1  Participants ........................................................... 121 
4.4.1.2  Task, Materials, and Procedure ............................ 122 
4.4.1.3  Performance Measures, EEG Recordings and
Statistical Analyses ............................................... 122 
4.4.2  Results ................................................................................. 122 
4.4.2.1  Behavioral Performance ....................................... 122 
4.4.2.2  Source Reconstruction.......................................... 124 
4.4.2.3  Cluster Dynamics .................................................. 126 
4.4.2.4  Discussion ............................................................. 141 
4.5  EEG Analyses – General Discussion ................................................. 142 
4.5.1  Interaction of Environmental Complexity and Preferred
Strategy in Occipito-Parietal and Parietal Cortices ............. 144 
viiiContents
4.5.2  Activity in Common to Turners and Nonturners ................. 145 
4.5.3  Conclusion ........................................................................... 146 
5  Deutsche Zusammenfassung 148 
5.1  Theoretischer Hintergrund .............................................................. 148 
5.2  Zusammenfassung der durchgeführten Untersuchung ................... 150 
5.2.1  Zusammenfassung Kapitel 3 ............................................... 150 
5.2.2 fassung Kapitel 4151 
5.3  Schlussfolgerungen .......................................................................... 152 
Bibliography 155 
Index of Figures and Tables 192 
Tunnel Material 201 
A.1  Instructions ...................................................................................... 201 
A.2  Tunnel Configurations ...................................................................... 204 
EEG-Cap Layout 211 
Eidesstattliche Versicherung 213 
Curriculum Vitae 214 

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