Biofiltro su suaktyvinta pušų žievių įkrova tyrimai ir taikymas orui valyti ; Research on and applocation of the biofilter with activated pine bark charge for air purification
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Biofiltro su suaktyvinta pušų žievių įkrova tyrimai ir taikymas orui valyti ; Research on and applocation of the biofilter with activated pine bark charge for air purification

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Rasa Vaišk ūnait ė RESEARCH ON AND APPLICATION OF THE BIOFILTER WITH ACTIVATED PINE BARK CHARGE FOR AIR PURIFICATION Summary of Doctoral Dissertation Technological Sciences, Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management (04T) Vilnius „Technika“ 2004 VILNIUS GEDIMINAS TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY Rasa Vaišk ūnait ė RESEARCH ON AND APPLICATION OF THE BIOFILTER WITH ACTIVATED PINE BARK CHARGE FOR AIR PURIFICATION Summary of Doctoral Dissertation Technological Sciences, Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management (04T) Vilnius „Technika“ 2004 1 Doctoral dissertation was prepared at Vilnius Gediminas Technical University in 2000–2004 Scientific Supervisor: Prof Dr Habil Pranas Baltr ėnas (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management – 04T) The dissertation is defended at the Council of Scientific Field of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management at Vilnius Gediminas Technical University: Chairman: Prof Dr Habil Donatas Butkus (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management – 04T) Members: Prof Dr Habil Dmitrijus Styra (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological – 04T) Prof Dr Habil Povilas Algimantas Sirvydas (Lithuanian University of Agriculture,

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Published 01 January 2004
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      Rasa Vaikūnaitė 
 RESEARCH ON AND APPLICATION OF THE BIOFILTER WITH ACTIVATED PINE BARK CHARGE FOR AIR PURIFICATION
  Summary of Doctoral Dissertation  Technological Sciences, Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management (04T)          
Vilnius Technika 2004  
   
VILNIUS GEDIMINAS TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
 
      Rasa Vaikūnaitė  RESEARCH ON AND APPLICATION OF THE BIOFILTER WITH ACTIVATED PINE BARK CHARGE FOR AIR PURIFICATION   Summary of Doctoral Dissertation   Technological Sciences, Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management (04T)      
 
   
   Vilnius Technika 2004 
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VILNIAUS GEDIMINO TECHNIKOS UNIVERSITETAS
      Rasa Vaikūnaitė  BIOFILTRO SU SUAKTYVINTA PUŲ IEVIŲ ĮKROVA TYRIMAI IR TAIKYMAS ORUI VALYTI          
 
   
Daktaro disertacijos santrauka
Technologijos mokslai, aplinkos ininerija ir kratotvarka (04T)  
   Vilnius Technika 2004  
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Disertacija rengta 20002004 metais Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitete   Mokslinis vadovas:  prof. habil. dr. Pranas Baltrėnas (Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas, technologijos mokslai, aplinkos ininerija ir kratotvarka  04T)   Disertacija ginama Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universiteto Aplinkos ininerijos ir kratotvarkos mokslo krypties taryboje:  Pirmininkas prof. habil. dr. Donatas Butkus (Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas, technologijos mokslai, aplinkos ininerija ir kratotvarka  04T)  Nariai: prof. habil. dr. Dmitrijus Styra (Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas, technologijos mokslai, aplinkos ininerija ir kratotvarka  04T) prof. habil. dr. Povilas Algimantas Sirvydas (Lietuvos emėsūkio universitetas, technologijos mokslai, aplinkos ininerija ir kratotvarka  04T) doc. dr. Saulius Vasarevičius (Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas, technologijos mokslai, aplinkos ininerija ir kratotvarka  04T) doc. dr. Bronius Jaskelevičius (Lietuvos mokslųakademija, technologijos mokslai, aplinkos ininerija ir kratotvarka  04T)  Oponentai: prof. habil. dr. Oleg Rusak (Sankt Peterburgo mikų ūkio akademija, technologijos mokslai, aplinkos ininerija ir kratotvarka  04T) doc. dr. Aloyzas Girgdys (Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas, technologijos mokslai, aplinkos ininerija ir kratotvarka  04T)   Disertacija bus ginama vieame Aplinkos ininerijos ir kratotvarkos mokslo krypties tarybos posėdyje 2004 m. geguės mėn. 14 d. 12 val. Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universiteto Senato posėdiųsalėje. Adresas: Saulėtekio al. 11, LT-10223 Vilnius-40, Lietuva  Disertacijos santrauka isiuntinėta 2004 m. balandio mėn. 14 d. Disertaciją galima periūrėti Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universiteto bibliotekoje. Adresas: Saulėtekio al. 14, LT-10223 Vilnius-40, Lietuva  VGTU leidyklos Technika 979 mokslo literatūros knyga ©Rasa Vaikūnaitė, 2004
   
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The Main Characteristics  The Problem Atmosphere pollution is one of the greatest problems that industries of developed and developing countries have been recently encountering with. A lot of volatile compounds of organic nature, as butanol, butyl acetate, ethyl acetate, xylene, etc. is used in many branches of industry  wood processing, paint, enamel, plastic, paper and wood-pulp, food industries, and is released to atmosphere. Usually, the hazardousness of these chemical materials is determined by their chemical nature and the harmfulness of these chemical substances is determined mostly by their chemical nature and overrun of the Maximal Allowable Concentration (MAC) in the air of the living and working environment. Basing on the statistic data of 2003 presented by the Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Lithuania, the following amounts of pollutants are emitted into the air by various enterprises (SC Klaipėdos Baldai, SC Maeikių SC Naftos Terminalas, etc.): up to 230 tons of Nafta, butyl acetate, 63  ethyl acetate, 123  butanol, 412  xylene, 276  toluene, etc. In order to neutralise these pollutants, different air purification methods are applied: absorption, adsorption, catalytic oxidation, etc. Nevertheless, when applying these methods, we encounter their expensiveness, generation of harmful products of their decomposition, etc. Besides these traditional air purification methods, more up-to-date, cost-efficient and powerful biological air purification technologies of unsophisticated design are available.   Relevance of the Work All over the world, besides traditional air purification methods biological air purification technologies that generate no waste are used cultivating certain microorganism cultures. Basing on this method, inexpensive waste generated in the course of different production processes (bark, bulrush, straw, active sludge, etc.) are used as a charge in the developed devices. Later, the spent charge of natural materials may be used as fertilisers. Up till now in Lithuania no particular attention has been paid to scientific researches related to biological air purification method, development, installation and use of devices using this methods in production enterprises has not been popular. According to statistic data, in Lithuania only one enterprise  SC Klaipėdos Baldai  is  known to be using a biofilter with straw charge for air cleaning from formaldehyde. To fill in this niche and to make the development of ecological biotechnologies more intense in Lithuania, a biofilter with the activated pine-bark charge has been designed at the Department of Environment Protection of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University; besides, complex
   
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research on biological air purification processes have been carried out with the help of this biofilter.  The Goal of the Work Using biologically activated pine-bark charge in the developed filter, to carry out biological air purification research and to evaluate the efficiency of the theoretical and practical methods and its application. Themain tasks necessary to achieve this goal: 1. To evaluate scientific researches carried out on the base of biological air purification method on devices developed and installed in Lithuania and in other countries. 2. To define and find a quantitative expression of the dynamics of natural microorganism associations (bacteria and micromicetes) in biologically non-activated and biologically activated pine-bark. 3. To define and find a quantitative expression of the ability of natural microorganisms to dissolve pollutants (butyl acetate, butanol and xylene) of different concentrations. 4. To carry out the research on the porosity of the pine-bark of different fraction (110, 1020, 2050 and 5070 mm). 5. To examine the ability of the biologically activated pine-bark charge to sorb organic pollutants (butyl acetate, butanol and xylene) of different concentrations. 6. To evaluate the efficiency of the developed biofilter, depending on chemical nature, concentrations and mixture composition of pollutants. 7. To determine the main technical characteristics of the biofilter and to evaluate the efficiency of the device by changing its technical characteristics: the flow velocity (from 2,0 to 0,8 m/s) and volume (from 145 to 58 m³/h), height of the charge (from 150 to 750 mm), the number of layers (from 1 to 5), the fraction size (1020 and 2050 mm). 8. To carry out mathematical modelling of aerodynamic processes (velocity of the air fed, aerodynamic resistance of the biocharge) occurring in the biofilter. 9. Basing on research results and after full evaluation of physical, chemical and biological processes occurring in the course of air purification, to find out biodegradation constant and absorption ability constant that determine the device efficiency and to reveal their dependence on the nature of pollutants and technical parameters of the filter. 10. After complex researches are carried out, to evaluate the potential to employ the developed biofilter in different industry branches of Lithuania
   
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(chemical, oil, furniture, food, etc.) for air purification from compound pollutants.  Novelty of the Work.The fractionated charge of coniferous bark has been used in the special equipment with natural microflora cultivated for air purification from volatile organic compounds; and the potential of the employment of the developed equipment has been fully evaluated after theoretical and experimental researches and mathematical modelling.  1.Definition and quantitative examination of the dynamics of natural microorganism associations (bacteria and micromicetes) in biologically non-activated and biologically activated pine-bark; also the evaluation of their impact on microbiological dissolution of organic pollutants. 2.The research on different fraction (110, 1020, 2050 and 5070 mm) pine-bark porosity and the examination of the ability of biologically activated pine-bark to sorb organic pollutants (butyl acetate, butanol and xylene) of different concentrations. 3.Evaluation of the efficiency of the developed filter with the help of experimental research, depending on different parameters of the operation mode of the device (velocity and volume of the air fed, height of the charge, etc.), concentrations of pollutants, their mixture composition, biological activation of the charge and size if its fractions. 4.Theoretical and experimental determination of construction and technical characteristics of the biological air purification device. 5.of aerodynamic processes (velocity of the airMathematical modelling fed, aerodynamic resistance of the biocharge) occurring in the biofilter. 6.Mathematical modelling of biofiltration and making use of the experimental data revealed the dependence of biodegradation constantα and absorption ability of pollutants and their mixtures on the parameters of pollutants and technical parameters of the filter. 7.The development of the biofilter containing biologically activated pine-bark charge and theoretical and experimental researches enabling the evaluation of practical implementation of the filter.  Importance of the Work The experimental researches and their results prove that development and use of biofilters for air purification from volatile organic compounds at various production enterprises of Lithuania is promising. Its implementation is especially promoted by comparatively low capital and operation costs of air
   
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purification, high air purification efficiency and strict norms of pollutants emitted into the air set in the European Union.  Statements of the Doctoral Dissertation to be Maintained: 1. Up till now, no complex researches have been carried out in Lithuania on the application of the pine-bark charge for air purification. 2. The charge used in the filter is biologically active. 3. Biologically activated pine-bark charge of the filter has good sorption characteristics.  4. The developed filter containing the pine-bark charge is very efficient. 5. The results of mathematical modelling of aerodynamic and biofiltration processes validate the results received during experiments. 6. The developed biofilter containing the activated pine-bark charge may be used for air purification from different organic compounds at many production enterprises of Lithuania.  Approval of the Work The total number of scientific publications on the subject of the doctoral dissertation is 16, including 6 of them published abroad. The results of the doctoral dissertation have been discussed in 8 international, 4 national scientific conferences, 12 scientific publications have been included into the compendia of conference reports. Basing on the material of the doctoral dissertation, 4 scientific articles have been published in reviewed periodicals and the patent Biofilter has been obtained. The student was on three-month traineeship in Hamburg-Harburg Technical University, where scientific researches were introduced.  Extent and Structure of the Work  The doctoral dissertation consists of an introduction, six chapters, general conclusions, references, publications and reports on the subject of the doctoral dissertation. In total: 181 pages of text, 95 figures and 5 tables.   1. Biological Air Purification Method and Principles of Its Application  All over the world, the biological air purification method is widely used in many countries  Germany, Austria, Denmark, France, Sweden, etc. In practice, biological air purification equipment is divided into three main types: membranous bioreactor, biofilters and bioscrubbers. Such type air purification devices are simple and compact. Different waste generated in production processes  bark, bulrush, straw, active sludge, etc.  may be used as a charge
   
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