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Cholesterol-lowering properties of Ganoderma lucidum in vitro, ex vivo, and in hamsters and minipigs

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There has been renewed interest in mushroom medicinal properties. We studied cholesterol lowering properties of Ganoderma lucidum ( Gl ), a renowned medicinal species. Results Organic fractions containing oxygenated lanosterol derivatives inhibited cholesterol synthesis in T9A4 hepatocytes. In hamsters, 5% Gl did not effect LDL; but decreased total cholesterol (TC) 9.8%, and HDL 11.2%. Gl (2.5 and 5%) had effects on several fecal neutral sterols and bile acids. Both Gl doses reduced hepatic microsomal ex-vivo HMG-CoA reductase activity. In minipigs, 2.5 Gl decreased TC, LDL- and HDL cholesterol 20, 27, and 18%, respectively (P < 0.05); increased fecal cholestanol and coprostanol; and decreased cholate. Conclusions Overall, Gl has potential to reduce LDL cholesterol in vivo through various mechanisms. Next steps are to: fully characterize bioactive components in lipid soluble/insoluble fractions; evaluate bioactivity of isolated fractions; and examine human cholesterol lowering properties. Innovative new cholesterol-lowering foods and medicines containing Gl are envisioned.

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Published 01 January 2004
Reads 17
Language English
Pga e 1fo1 (2apegum nr bet nor foaticnoitrup esops)
Background Chinese, Saru-no-koshikake and Mannendake in Japa-In Kampo Chinese folk medicine, mushrooms have been nese) [2,3], Pleurotus ostreatus (Oyster mushroom) [4-8], known to have medicinal properties since AD1200 [1]. Volvariella volvacea (Straw mushroom) [9], Agaricus bis-porus (champignon) [10], Agaricus campestris [11], Auricu-In recent years, there has been interest in the cholesterol laria auricula (Tree-ear), Tremella fuciformis (White-jelly lowering properties of mushrooms, including Ganoderma leaf) [12,13], Grifola frondosa (Maitake mushroom) lucidum (Reishi-, Longevity-, or Phantom mushrooms, [14,15], Lentinus erodes (Shiitake) and isolated fractions Biladi Top, Young-zhi, The King Of Herbs, Ling Zhi in [14,16], and Polyporus confluens (Ningyotake) [17]. In an
Lipids in Health and Disease Bio Med  Central
Research Open Access Cholesterol-lowering properties of Ganoderma lucidum in vitro , ex vivo , and in hamsters and minipigs A Berger* 1,2 , D Rein 1,3 , E Kratky 1 , I Monnard 1 , H Hajjaj 1,4 , I Meirim 1 , C Piguet-Welsch 1 , J Hauser 1,5 , K Mace 1 and P Niederberger 1
Address: 1 Nestlé Research Center, La usanne 26, 1000, Switzerland, 2 Paradigm Genetics, Research Tr iangle Park, NC 27709-4528, USA, 3 BASF Plant Science Holding GmbH, Agricu ltural Center, BPH-Li 555, Limburgerhof, 67114, Germany, 4 Univerity des Sciences et de Technologie de Lille, B.P. 179, Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, 59653, France and 5 University of Lausanne, Institut de Biologie Cellulaire et de Morphologie, 1015, Lausanne, Switzerland Email: A Berger* - aberger@paragen.co m; D Rein - dietrich.rein@basf-ag.de; E Kratky - elenanm@earthlink.com; I Monnard - irina.monnard@rdls.nestle.com ; H Hajjaj - H_hajjaj@yahoo.com; I Meirim - Isabel le.Meirim@rdls.nestle.com; C Piguet-Welsch - Cristal.Piguet-Welsch@rdls.nestle. com; J Hauser - jonas.hauser@i bcm.unil.ch; K Mace - catherine.mace@rdls.nestle.com; P Niederberger - peter.niederberger@rdls.nestle.com * Corresponding author
Published: 18 February 2004 Received: 22 January 2004 Lipids in Health and Disease 2004, 3 2 Accepted: 18 February 2004 : This article is available from: h ttp://www.lipidworld.com/content/3/1/2 © 2004 Berger et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article: ve rbatim copying and redistribution of this a rticle are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL.
Abstract Introduction: There has been renewed interest in mush room medicinal properties. We studied cholesterol lowering properties of Ganoderma lucidum ( Gl ), a renowned medicinal species. Results: Organic fractions containing oxygenated la nosterol derivatives inhibited cholesterol synthesis in T9A4 hepato cytes. In hamsters, 5% Gl did not effect LDL; but decreased total cholesterol (TC) 9.8%, and HDL 11.2%. Gl (2.5 and 5%) had effects on several fecal neutral sterols and bile acids. Both Gl doses reduced hepatic microsomal ex-vivo HMG-CoA reductase activity. In minipigs, 2.5 Gl decreased TC, LDL- and HDL cholesterol 20, 27, and 18%, respectively (P < 0.05); increased fecal cholestanol and co prostanol; and decreased cholate. Conclusions: Overall, Gl has potential to reduce LDL cholesterol in vivo through various mechanisms. Next steps are to: fully characterize bioactive components in lipid soluble/insoluble fractions; evaluate bioactivity of isolated fractions; and examine human cholesterol lowering properties. Innovative new cholesterol-lowering foods and medicines containing Gl are envisioned.
cholesterol Ganoderma lucidum hamstersHDLLDLlipoproteinlovas tatinminipigsmushroomsReishi