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Design and control of admittance type telemanipulation systems [Elektronische Ressource] / Angelika Peer

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Lehrstuhl fu¨r Steuerungs- und RegelungstechnikTechnische Universit¨at Mu¨nchenProf. Dr.-Ing./Univ. Tokio Martin BussDesign and Control of Admittance-TypeTelemanipulation SystemsAngelika PeerDissertationLehrstuhl fu¨r Steuerungs- und RegelungstechnikTechnische Universit¨at Mu¨nchenUniv.-Prof. Dr.-Ing./Univ. Tokio Martin BussDesign and Control of Admittance-TypeTelemanipulation SystemsAngelika PeerVollst¨andiger Abdruck der von der Fakult¨at fu¨r Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnikder Technischen Universit¨at Mu¨nchen zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades einesDoktor-Ingenieurs (Dr.-Ing.)genehmigten Dissertation.Vorsitzender: Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eckehard SteinbachPru¨fer der Dissertation:1. Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing./Univ. Tokio Martin Buss2. Prof. Dr. Bruno Siciliano,Universit`a degli Studi di Napoli Federico IIItalienDie Dissertation wurde am 15.05.2008 bei der Technischen Universit¨at Mu¨nchen einge-reicht und durch die Fakult¨at fu¨r Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik am 14.07.2008angenommen.ForewordThis thesis summarizes four years of my research carried out at the Institute of AutomaticControlEngineering(LSR)oftheTechnischeUniversit¨atMu¨nchen. Herewith, Iwouldliketo take the opportunity to thank all the people who supported me during this phase andhelped me to successfully conclude this work.First of all, I would like to thank my advisor Prof. Dr.-Ing./Univ.

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Published 01 January 2008
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Lehrstuhl fu¨r Steuerungs- und Regelungstechnik
Technische Universit¨at Mu¨nchen
Prof. Dr.-Ing./Univ. Tokio Martin Buss
Design and Control of Admittance-Type
Telemanipulation Systems
Angelika Peer
DissertationLehrstuhl fu¨r Steuerungs- und Regelungstechnik
Technische Universit¨at Mu¨nchen
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing./Univ. Tokio Martin Buss
Design and Control of Admittance-Type
Telemanipulation Systems
Angelika Peer
Vollst¨andiger Abdruck der von der Fakult¨at fu¨r Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik
der Technischen Universit¨at Mu¨nchen zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines
Doktor-Ingenieurs (Dr.-Ing.)
genehmigten Dissertation.
Vorsitzender: Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eckehard Steinbach
Pru¨fer der Dissertation:
1. Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing./Univ. Tokio Martin Buss
2. Prof. Dr. Bruno Siciliano,
Universit`a degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
Italien
Die Dissertation wurde am 15.05.2008 bei der Technischen Universit¨at Mu¨nchen einge-
reicht und durch die Fakult¨at fu¨r Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik am 14.07.2008
angenommen.Foreword
This thesis summarizes four years of my research carried out at the Institute of Automatic
ControlEngineering(LSR)oftheTechnischeUniversit¨atMu¨nchen. Herewith, Iwouldlike
to take the opportunity to thank all the people who supported me during this phase and
helped me to successfully conclude this work.
First of all, I would like to thank my advisor Prof. Dr.-Ing./Univ. Tokio Martin Buss,
who gave me the opportunity to conduct research in a very international environment at
one of the undoubtely best established German robotics institutes. He always supported
me with his immense experience and invaluable advice and allowed me enough freedom for
own creativity.
Special thanks go to Dr. Franz Freyberger who encouraged me to take up a position
as research assistant and helped me in all administrative issues in the first years of my
research activities.
A considerable contribution to the success of this thesis was also made by all my col-
leagues. I would like to thank them for their fruitful discussions and immense assistance
they provided me in all the phases of my work. Special thanks go hereby to Bartlomiej
Stanczyk, Ulrich Unterhinninghofen, Kwang-Kyu Lee, Nikolay Stefanov, Marc Ueberle,
Helena Pongrac and Sandra Hirche with whom I collaborated in a large number of ex-
periments and to Thomas Pr¨oll, Michael Fritschi, Jan Wolff and Jens H¨olldampf for their
extraordinary assistance in all network issues. Furthermore, I would also like to thank all
my colleagues in the SFB453 “Collaborative Research Center on Telepresence and Teleac-
tion”, who allowed me to extend my horizon to other research fields. In particular I would
like to mention here all members of the multi-modal multi-user telepresence and teleac-
tion demonstrator research group. Finally, thanks go to Prof. Abderrahmane Kheddar,
Prof. Kazuhito Yokoi, Sylvain Miossec, Paul Evrard, Olivier Stasse and Ee Sian Neo of
the AIST/CNRS institute in Tsukuba/Japan who made also long distance teleoperation
experiments possible.
The numerous hardware developments would not have been possible without the active
support of people in the mechanical and electronic workshop, who always shared their
experience with me and tried to realize all my extraordinary wishes. Special thanks go
to Josef Gradl, Horst Kubick, Tobias Stoeber, and Thomas Lowitz for all their valuable
contributions in the development of mechanical and electronic systems and their repeated
efforts in the maintenance of them. Thanks go also to Wolfgang Jaschik who provided me
with an excellent computer infrastructure.
I would also like to thank all students who contributed to this thesis. Particularly I
wouldliketothankAlexanderM¨ortlforhiscontributioninthedesignofViSHaRD7,Nico
Mock, Yuta Komoguchi and Andreas Froschermeier for their work in the implementation
ofdifferentcontrolarchitecturesforViSHaRD7 andViSHaRD10, StephanEinenkelfor
his effort in developing a multi-fingered telemanipulation system as well as Inga Krause
and Carolina Weber for their engagement in the intercontinental teleoperation experiment
with Japan. Thanks go also to my working students Alexander Prahl, Daniel Wiedemann,
iiiand Byron-Lim Steffan for their assistance in many hardware and software issues and all
students of the practical lab course who contributed to this thesis.
Finally, I would like to thank also my family and my boyfriend Thomas who always
stood behind my decisions and supported me particularly in critical phases. Without their
understanding and love this thesis would not have been possible.
Munich, May 2008. Angelika Peer
ivto Thomas
...viAbstract
This thesis summarizes guidelines for the design and control of a highly integrated,
multi-modal, and intuitive teleoperation system that can be used to perform a variety of
different manipulation tasks requiring bimanual and multi-fingered interactions as well as
the collaboration of multiple operators. Hereby, exclusively teleoperation systems using
admittance-typedevicesareinvestigated. Bimanual6DOFmanipulationswithhighinter-
action forces are realized by newly developed admittance-type haptic interfaces, which are
mounted on a mobile platform and thus also allow performance of manipulations in large
remote environments. Taking into account a large number of mechatronic requirements, a
novel,enhanced,andhighlyintegratedteleoperationsystemconsistingofredundanthaptic
interfaces and telemanipulators as well as a stereo-vision-system is developed. Dextrous
fine manipulations are realized by a multi-fingered telemanipulation system, whereby ef-
ficient position and force mapping algorithms are used to map human hand motions to
gripper motions and to provide a realistic force feedback. The usage of admittance-type
devices instead of classical impedance-type devices poses new challenges on the control
concepts. Different types of bilateral control algorithms suitable for admittance-type de-
vices are proposed and robust stability of them is analyzed by using the parameter space
approach. Further improvements are achieved by incorporating human factors in the de-
velopment process. Effects of varied human movement control on task performance and
feeling of telepresence are analyzed by means of experimental evaluation and new design
guidelines for a user-friendly teleoperation system are derived. Finally, different types of
collaborative teleoperation architectures are proposed, application scenarios are described,
and challenges on the control of these systems are formulated. In particular, robust stabi-
lity of a bimanual, a multi-user, and a cooperative teleoperation system is investigated in
detail. A variety of laboratory experiments, characterized particularly by their very high
complexity, serve for the evaluation and validation of all proposed software and hardware
developments.
viiZusammenfassung
In der vorliegenden Dissertationsschrift werden Richtlinien zum Entwurf und zur
Regelung eines hoch integrierten, multi-modalen und intuitiven Teleoperationssystems
zusammengefasst, welches zur Durchfu¨hrung von Tele-Manipulationsaufgaben herange-
zogen werden kann, die sowohl beidh¨andiger als auch mehrfingriger Interaktion, sowie
der Kollaboration mehrerer Operatoren bedu¨rfen. Dabei werden ausschließlich Teleop-
erationssysteme n¨aher untersucht, die Manipulatoren vom Admittanz-Typ verwenden.
Beidh¨andige Manipulationen in sechs Freiheitsgraden bei denen zudem hohe Interaktions-
kr¨afte auftreten werden dabei mit Hilfe von neu entwickelten haptischen Eingabeger¨aten
vom Admittanz-Typ realisiert. Diese sind ihrerseits auf einer mobilen Plattform montiert,
um auch Manipulationen in ausgedehnten entfernten Umgebungen zu erm¨oglichen. Unter
Beru¨cksichtigung einer Vielzahl mechatronischer Anforderungen, wird ein neuartiges, wei-
terentwickeltes und hoch integriertes Teleoperationssystem, bestehend aus redundanten
haptischen Eingabeger¨aten und Telemanipulatoren, sowie einem Stereo-Sichtsystem ent-
wickelt. FeinmotorischeManipulationenwerdenmitHilfeeinesmehrfingrigenTelemanipu-
lationssystems durchgefu¨hrt, wobei effiziente Algorithmen zum Positions- und Kraftmap-
pingherangezogenwerden, ummenschlicheHandbewegungenaufeinenGreiferabzubilden
sowieeinenrealistischenKrafteindruckzuvermitteln. DieVerwendungvonManipulatoren
des Admittanz-Typs im Gegensatz zu klassischen Ger¨aten des Impedanz-Typs bringt hier-
bei neue Herausforderungen an die Regelung dieser Systeme mit sich. Verschiedene Arten
von bilateralen Regelalgorithmen, welche sich speziell fu¨r Manipulatoren des Admittanz-
Typseignen,werdenvorgeschlagenundderenRobustheitmitHilfedesParameterraumver-
fahrens untersucht. Zus¨atzliche Verbesserungen werden erzielt, indem auch menschliche
Faktoren in den Entwurfsprozess einbezogen werden. Effekte variabler menschlicher Be-
wegungssteuerungaufdieAufgabenperformanzunddasTelepr¨asenzempfindenwerdenmit
Hilfe experimenteller Evaluation analysiert und neue Entwurfsrichtlinien fu¨r ein benutzer-
freundliches Teleoperationssystem davon abgeleitet. Schließlich werden unterschiedliche
Arten kollaborativer Teleoperationssysteme vorgeschlagen, entsprechende Anwendungs-
felder beschrieben, sowie Herausforderungen an die Regelung dieser Systeme formuliert.
Insbesondere wird die robuste Stabilit¨at eines beidh¨andigen, eines Multi-User, sowie eines
kooperativen Teleoperationssystems n¨aher untersucht. Eine Vielzahl an Laborexperi-
menten, welche sich insbesondere durch ihre hohe Komplexit¨at auszeichnen, dienen zur
Evaluation und Validierung der vorgeschlagenen Soft- und Hardwareentwicklungen.
viii