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Design and realization of a humanoid robot for fast and autonomous bipedal locomotion [Elektronische Ressource] = Entwurf und Realisiserung eines humanoiden Roboters für schnelles und autonomes Laufen / Sebastian Lohmeier


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TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITÄT MÜNCHENLehrstuhl für Angewandte MechanikDesignandRealizationofaHumanoidRobotforFastandAutonomousBipedalLocomotionEntwurf und Realisierung eines Humanoiden Roboters für Schnellesund Autonomes LaufenDipl.-Ing.Univ.SebastianLohmeierVollständiger Abdruck der von der Fakultät für Maschinenwesen derTechnischen Universität München zur Erlangung desakademischen Grades einesDoktor-Ingenieurs(Dr.-Ing.)genehmigten Dissertation.Vorsitzender: Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Udo LindemannPrüferderDissertation:1. Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Heinz Ulbrich2. Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Horst BaierDie Dissertation wurde am 2. Juni 2010 bei der Technischen Universität Müncheneingereicht und durch die Fakultät für Maschinenwesen am 21. Oktober 2010angenommen.ColophonThe original source for this thesis was edited in GNU Emacs and aucT X, typeset usingEApdfLT X in an automated process using GNU make, and output as PDF. The documentEAwas compiled with the LT X 2 class AMdiss (based on the KOMA-Script class scrreprt).E "AMdiss is part of the AMclasses bundle that was developed by the author for writingterm papers, Diploma theses and dissertations at the Institute of Applied Mechanics,Technische Universität München. Photographs and CAD screenshots were processed andenhanced with THE GIMP. Most vector graphics were drawn with CorelDraw X3, exportedas Encapsulated PostScript, and edited with psfrag to obtain high-quality labeling.



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Published 01 January 2010
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Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Mechanik
Entwurf und Realisierung eines Humanoiden Roboters für Schnelles
und Autonomes Laufen
Vollständiger Abdruck der von der Fakultät für Maschinenwesen der
Technischen Universität München zur Erlangung des
akademischen Grades eines
genehmigten Dissertation.
Vorsitzender: Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Udo Lindemann
1. Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Heinz Ulbrich
2. Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Horst Baier
Die Dissertation wurde am 2. Juni 2010 bei der Technischen Universität München
eingereicht und durch die Fakultät für Maschinenwesen am 21. Oktober 2010
The original source for this thesis was edited in GNU Emacs and aucT X, typeset usingE
ApdfLT X in an automated process using GNU make, and output as PDF. The documentE
Awas compiled with the LT X 2 class AMdiss (based on the KOMA-Script class scrreprt).E "
AMdiss is part of the AMclasses bundle that was developed by the author for writing
term papers, Diploma theses and dissertations at the Institute of Applied Mechanics,
Technische Universität München. Photographs and CAD screenshots were processed and
enhanced with THE GIMP. Most vector graphics were drawn with CorelDraw X3, exported
as Encapsulated PostScript, and edited with psfrag to obtain high-quality labeling. Some
smaller and text-heavy graphics (flowcharts, etc.), as well as diagrams were created using
PSTricks. The plot raw data were preprocessed with Matlab. In order to use the PostScript-
A Abased LT X packages with pdfLT X, a toolchain based on pst-pdf and Ghostscript wasE E
used. The bibliography was prepared with biblatex.
The fonts in this thesis are the light versions of the Kp-Fonts by the Johannes Kepler
© 2010 by Sebastian Lohmeier. All rights reserved
Author contact: robots@loh-fi.de
This thesis is also available as a printed book published by
Verlag Dr. Hut München, Germany (ISBN 978-3-86853-734-5).To my parentsThe danger of the past was that men became
slaves. The danger of the future is that men may
become robots. True enough, robots do not rebel.
But given man’s nature, robots cannot live and
remain sane, they become ‘Golems,’ they will
destroy their world and themselves because they
cannot stand any longer the boredom of a
meaningless life.
—Erich Fromm, The Sane SocietyAbstract
This thesis covers the mechatronic conception, design and realization of a hu-
manoid walking robot. Weighing approximately 60 kg, the robot stands 180 cm
tall and has 25 actuated degrees of freedom in a redundant configuration. The
mechanical structure is characterized by the consistent lightweight design with
high effective stiffness. The lightweight servo actuators combine high-dynamic
brushless servo motors with precision gearings and sensors into a compact pack-
age. Moreover, the resultant inertia of the legs is minimized by a sophisticated
design of the structure and drive mechanisms, resulting in a superior acceleration
behavior. The sensor layout comprises angular sensors for direct measurement of
the joint angles, a high-precision inertial measurement system and force/torque
sensors in the feet. Using the trajectory generation and control system which is
kmnot in the scope of this work, the current speed of locomotion is 3.34 /h.
Keywords: humanoid robots, anthropomorphic robots, legged locomotion, mecha-
tronics, robot design, sensors
Diese Arbeit beschreibt die mechatronische Konzeption, Konstruktion und Re-
alisierung eines humanoiden Laufroboters. Der Roboter ist 180 cm groß, wiegt
zirka 60 kg und verfügt über 25 angetriebene Freiheitsgrade in einer redundanten
Konfiguration. Die mechanische Struktur ist durch den extremen Leichtbau mit
hoher effektiver Steifigkeit charakterisiert. Die hochdynamischen Gelenkantriebe
kombinieren bürstenlose Servomotoren, Untersetzungsgetriebe und Sensorik zu
kompakten Einheiten. Daneben werden die Massenträgheitsmomente der Beine
durch konstruktive Maßnahmen minimiert. Daraus resultiert ein überragendes
Beschleunigungsverhalten. Neben Winkelsensoren zur direkten Messung der Ge-
lenkwinkel verfügt der Roboter über ein hochgenaues inertiales Messsystem und
Kraftsensoren in den Füßen. Mit dem Bahnplanungs- und Regelungssystem, das
nicht Bestandteil dieser Arbeit ist, konnte bisher eine Maximalgeschwindigkeit
kmvon 3,34 /h erreicht werden.
Stichworte: humanoide Roboter, anthropomorphe Roboter, zweibeiniges Laufen,
Mechatronik, Konstruktion, Sensorik
This thesis summarizes my research carried out at the Institute of Applied Me-
chanics, Technische Universität München. Developing the humanoid robot Lola
almost from scratch has been a unique opportunity and certainly one of the biggest
challenges in my life so far. Many people have contributed to this thesis and I
would like to use the opportunity to express my gratitude to some of them.
First and foremost I want to express my deep and sincere gratitude to my advisor
Professor Heinz Ulbrich for the excellent research environment and giving enough
freedom for own creativity. His patience and irrefutable confidence in my skills
were beneficial for the success of this research.
I also wish to express my warm and sincere thanks to Professor Friedrich
Pfeiffer, the former head of the institute, for a lot of good advice and ideas and
many helpful discussions.
I warmly thank our academic director, Dr. Thomas Thümmel, for his support
and continuing commitment to the robotics group. Thomas managed our project
resources and largely kept us free from most administrative and formal burdens.
Starting off with only two doctoral candidates, the Lola project was divided
simply into “Software” and “Hardware.” I am particularly indebted to Thomas
Buschmann, my co-worker and good friend, who took over the “Software” part.
His theoretically accurate and thorough works on the robot simulation and con-
troller were one of the foundations for the success of the project. To me, working
together with Thomas was a stroke of luck as our ways of thinking and working
were quite similar and, where not, complemented each other.
I really need to thank Markus Schwienbacher and Valerio Favot who joined the
team in a later project phase. In his Diploma thesis Markus developed, assembled
and calibrated the force/torque sensors with enthusiasm and great attention to
detail. I appreciate his efforts in resolving Lola’s teething problems. Markus, thank
you so much for the fruitful discussions and competent suggestions! Valerio tested
the PCBs for the local controllers and wrote all the code for them. Also, special
thanks are due to Mathias Bachmayer, who developed the DSP boards for Lola’s
decentralized controllers.
The official presentation of Lola at the HANNOVER MESSE 2010 was the grand
finale before turning in this dissertation. Regarding our trade fair presence, I
thank Alexander Ewald for taking over all the organizational stuff. And my
thanks go to the developers of Lola’s visual perception system, Dr. Felix von
Hundelshausen and Gerhard Rohe from the Institute of Autonomous Systems
Technology, University of the Bundeswehr, München, for the pleasant cooperation.
During my first year at the institute I have had the pleasure to work with Dr.
Klaus Löffler, the developer of Johnnie’s balance controller. Klaus shared the office
with me and has always been a competent and excellent advisor as I took my first
tentative steps into the field of humanoid robotics. Thank you for the collaboration
ixx Acknowledgments
during the countless public performances of Johnnie in 2003/04. The designer of
Johnnie’s mechatronic system, Dr. Michael Gienger, had already left the institute
before I started. Nevertheless, he was a competent advisor and always there to
discuss about biped robots. Klaus and Michael, your results and experience were
more than helpful and contributed substantially to this research!
I warmly need to thank Dr. Andreas Zagler for getting me excited about robotics
and for encouraging me to take up this position.
The countless customized mechanical and electronic components would not
have been possible without the enthusiasm and willingness of the institute’s me-
chanical and electronic workshops. My sincere thanks are due to Wilhelm Miller,
Walter Wöß, Simon Gerer, Philipp Schneider and Tobias Schmid. I very much
appreciated their amazing skills to machine even the most complex parts with
unparalleled precision. Until his retirement, Walter was a great help during the as-
sembly of Lola. Wilhelm Miller, the former manager of the mechanical workshop,
deserves a special mention. He fostered the manufacturing with optimism and
never ending perseverance. He was always there to talk about my ideas and solve
any unsolvable problems concerning precision mechanics. I have fond memories
of numerous discussions—be it technical or non-technical. Sadly, he was not given
the time to see Lola walking: he passed away during the first weeks of assembly. I
am also greatly indebted to our electronics engineer, Georg Mayr, for numerous
helpful discussions and for developing most of the electronics hardware. His
experience and openness for my ideas were beneficial.
For this dissertation I would like to thank my proof-readers: Michael, Markus,
Thomas Buschmann, Dr. Martin Schwaiger and Valerio for their time, interest and
many helpful comments.
I would also like to thank the other two members of my dissertation commit-
tee, the second advisor Professor Horst Baier and the chairman Professor Udo
Lindemann, for their time and insightful questions.
I gratefully acknowledge the funding sources that made my dissertation possible.
For most of the time I was funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG)
within the project-cluster „Natur und Technik Intelligenten Laufens“(PAK-146,
grant UL 105/29).
Putting a lot of effort into sophisticated hardware design is very expensive and
makes it difficult for a small university group like ours to compete with larger
research groups and companies with considerable financial support. I like to
thank all companies that supplied us with customized components to very good
conditions. I particularly thank Arne Laugwitz and his colleagues at ACTech
GmbH, Freiberg, who manufactured the investment castings. I appreciated their
collaboration and enthusiasm to pushing the limits of current casting and machin-
ing technologies. Lola’s leg architecture would not have been possible without
their generous support.
Finally, in deep gratitude I want to thank my parents, Gertraud and Hans, for
their never-ending love, encouragement and support in all my efforts.
And most of all for my loving, encouraging and patient wife Veronika who
reminded me that there is a life besides research. Her faithful support during the
final stages of this dissertation is so appreciated.