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Development and evaluation of an autonomous wireless sensor actuator network in logistic systems [Elektronische Ressource] / von Amir Mohammad Molla Jafari

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Development and evaluation of an autonomous wireless sensor actuator network in logistic systems Amir Mohammad Molla Jafari Universität Bremen 2010 Development and evaluation of an autonomous wireless sensor actuator network in logistic systems Vom Fachbereich für Physik und Elektrotechnik der Universität Bremen zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Doktor Ingenieur (Dr.-Ing.) genehmigte Dissertation von MSc. Amir Mohammad Molla Jafari Referent: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Lang Korreferent: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hans-Jörg Kreowski Eingereicht am: 02. März 2010 Tag des Promotionskolloquiums: 26. April 2010 ? Being autonomous is a state of mind, with a centralized mind an autonomous system can degenerate into a central system at any moment. This work is dedicated to: Iranians Liberation Movement and The brave people who died for their liberty and dignity in this movement Contents Abbreviation List i Preface 1 1. Introduction to the autonomous system ... 5 1.1) Central system ??????????? ????????????? ?? ??? 6 1.2) Distributed system ??????????? ????????????? 8 1.2.1) Distributed control system 10 1.2.2) Decentralized system 111.3) Autonomous system ??????????? ???????????? ?? 12 1.

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Published 01 January 2010
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Development and evaluation of an autonomous wireless
sensor actuator network in logistic systems


Amir Mohammad Molla Jafari
















Universität Bremen 2010
Development and evaluation of an autonomous wireless
sensor actuator network in logistic systems







Vom Fachbereich für Physik und Elektrotechnik
der Universität Bremen







zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades
Doktor Ingenieur (Dr.-Ing.)
genehmigte Dissertation




von
MSc. Amir Mohammad Molla Jafari






Referent: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Lang
Korreferent: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hans-Jörg Kreowski

Eingereicht am: 02. März 2010
Tag des Promotionskolloquiums: 26. April 2010
?






Being autonomous is a state of mind, with a centralized mind an autonomous
system can degenerate into a central system at any moment.




This work is dedicated to:

Iranians Liberation Movement
and
The brave people who died for their liberty and dignity in this movement

Contents
Abbreviation List i
Preface 1
1. Introduction to the autonomous system ... 5
1.1) Central system ??????????? ????????????? ?? ??? 6
1.2) Distributed system ??????????? ????????????? 8
1.2.1) Distributed control system 10
1.2.2) Decentralized system 11
1.3) Autonomous system ??????????? ???????????? ?? 12
1.4) Autonomous wireless sensor actuator network ???????? 15
1.5) Logistic system ??????????? ????????????? ?? 20
2. Development of AWSAN 24
2.1) Routing algorithm ??????????? ???????????? 25
2.1.1) Demanded features 25
2.1.2) Literature review 28
2.1.3) SCAR development 31
2.2) Sample number ??????????? ???????????? 37
2.2.1) Sampling theory 37
2.2.2) Actuator frequency 39
2.2.3) Discrete control limits and lower limit boundary for
the sample number selection 41
2.2.4) Actuator frequency drift 43
2.2.5) drift versus limits interval 45
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??????????? ???????????2.2.6) Sample number selection in CWSAN 46
2.2.7) n in AWSAN 48
2.3) Wireless nodes ??????????? ???????????? 51
2.3.1) Hardware specifications 51
2.3.2) Software specification 53
3. Simulation and Comparison 55
3.1) Prowler ??????????? ????????????? ???????? 56
3.1.1) Introduction 57
3.1.2) Modification 58
3.2) Energy consumption ??????????? ??????????? ??? 60
3.2.1) Simulation 61
3.2.2) Conclusion 64
3.2.3) Discussion 67
3.3) Robustness comparison by an orchard example ??????? 69
3.3.1) Simulation Preparations 70
3.3.2) Conclusion 75
3.3.3) Discussion 83
3.4) Scalability ??????????? ????????????? ??? 84
3.5) Autonomous or Central ??????????? ????????? 87
3.5.1) Message number in autonomous and central model 90
3.5.2) Comparison by message number 91
3.5.3) Compromising based on the total message number 92
4. Conclusion 96
References 99
Publication Lists ............................................................................ 103

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Abbreviations List
LAN Local Area Network
DCS Distributed Control System
CAN Control Area Network
SAL Sensor Actuator Layer
SAN Actuator Network
SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
BMS Building Management System
HVAC Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning System
PE Process Entity
WSAN Wireless Sensor Actuator Network
AWSAN Autonomous Wireless Sensor Actuator Network
CWSAN Central Wireless Sensor Actuator Network
ASAN Autonomous Wireless Sensor Actuator Network
GPS Global Positioning System
LPS Local Positioning System
GPSR Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing
RNG Relative Neighborhood Graph
i
GG Gabriel Graph
GEAR Geographic and Energy Aware Routing
ZRP Zone Routing Protocol
LCR Logical Coordinate Routing
SCAR Sequential Coordinates Routing Algorithm
MLT Minimum Length Tree
CAV Channel Attenuation Value
DFS Deep First Search
RSSI Received Signal Strength Indicator
PLC Programmable Logic Controller
ADC Analog to Digital Convertor
DAC Digital to Analog Convertor
DMA Direct Memory Access
DCO Digitally Controlled Oscillator
ACLK Auxiliary Clock
MCLK Main clock
SMCLK Sub Main Clock
FIFO First Input First Output
Prowler Probabilistic Wireless Network Simulator
GUI Graphical User Interface
EDF Earliest Deadline First
ii

Preface
This text presents an introduction, development and evaluation of an autonomous
system. This system structure is seen as an improved version of a distributed system
structure and an alternative to the traditional central structure. Improvements in the
communication and digital technology provide conditions which have impacts on the
creditability of traditional system organization solutions. The autonomous structure not
only combines the capabilities provided by technology to achieve a new way of
configuration but also it opens a new horizon with regard to the future of technology.
The autonomous or sovereignty concept refers to the constituent entities liberty inside
an organization. On one hand balancing between authority and liberty and on the other
hand changing the system to limit its higher level of dominance over the entities is an
endless path because, apart from its advantages, such desires are rooted in human
nature.
This text focuses on self-decision making as a basic constituent and comprehensive
element of the autonomous system definition. Following this focal point, horizontal
relations between entities replace vertical relations of entities. Interdependency on the
information between entities substitutes of entities subordination and dependency on
the resources. Because of the removal of the entities dependency on one or few entities
inside the system, the reliability of the system increases. Distribution of tasks of the
system over entities causes the system effort to become distributed over entities too.
dZ Z}?]?}v?o v ? ]} ?o v ? ? ?]? v?] v ?Z]? ] vv? v ? v } Z ?Z?[? }
resources make the system scalable. In an autonomous system, by moving the decision
making level to the peripherals, the system becomes faster in reacting to its
environmental changes and more capable of self-adaptation.
This text is organized into three chapters. The outline of the text is as follows. Chapter
1 covers the concept and definition of an autonomous system. It starts by reviewing the
central system structure, its properties and limitations. Then it looks at the distributed
system as a solution to cope with the central system constrains. The appearance of a
distributed system in automation is reviewed in the distributed control system section.
1
Preface

Regarding the development of a distributed structure in political science, in the name of
federalism and more precise concept definition in this realm, one eye is kept on
federalism as well. The similar terms to the autonomous adjective from different
references are introduced and discussed to avoid vagueness and to reach a clear mind
about the autonomous concept. In the following, the implementation of an autonomous
structure for the sensor actuator network is introduced and based on the feedback
model which is offered to the task description of each element. At the end of this
chapter, by returning to the general concept of the autonomous system, its application
for logistic system is explained. It is discussed how the competition between entities
inside the system can turn to a constructive competition over the goals. The outcome of
this discussion links the autonomous wireless sensor actuator network with the
intelligent container as a required entity for the autonomous logistic system.
Chapter 2 introduces two elements for developing an autonomous structure for a
wireless sensor actuator network and an instant node for further practical
implementation. The information interdependency of the nodes necessitates direct
communication between nodes. A routing algorithm which supports this feature is
categorized under target-oriented routing algorithms. In this chapter, a sequential
coordinate routing algorithm is introduced and developed for the autonomous network.
A method is introduced to find an optimal sample number for wireless sensors inside
the autonomous and central network. Wireless communication nature and limited
power supply impose conditions on the sampling rate which is considered in these
methods. The wireless sensor node introduced at the end of this chapter is one example
node to realize this network in practice. This example node specification is used for
application simulations in the next chapter.
The third chapter is about the simulation of autonomous and central wireless sensor
networks and a comparison of these two structures. Firstly, a simulator and its
functionality are introduced. It is stated that for whichever reasons this simulator is
chosen, the applied modifications to this simulator are explained. In the first simulation
the energy consumption and its distribution in two networks are evaluated and
compared. The results of this simulation are formulated with regard to comparative
performance and sustainability. The second simulation in this chapter is designed to
compare the robustness of these two network structures. Humidity control of an apple
orchard is taken as an application for simulation. The dynamic behavior and the sensor
values are modeled by state space variable. The noise over the communication channels
is modeled by random distributions. Some conclusions are drawn by comparing the
system outputs of both networks about robustness and noise effect distribution.
2