Development, validation, and application of semi-analytical interconnect models for efficient simulation of multilayer substrates [Elektronische Ressource] / von Renato Rimolo-Donadio
224 Pages
English

Development, validation, and application of semi-analytical interconnect models for efficient simulation of multilayer substrates [Elektronische Ressource] / von Renato Rimolo-Donadio

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Development, Validation, and Application of Semi-Analytical Interconnect Models for Efficient Simulation of Multilayer Substrates Vom Promotionsausschuss der Technischen Universität Hamburg-Harburg zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Doktor-Ingenieur (Dr.-Ing.) genehmigte Dissertation von Renato Rimolo-Donadio aus San José, Costa Rica 2010 1. Gutachter: Prof. Dr. sc. techn. Christian Schuster 2. Gutachter: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Arne Jacob 3. zusätzlicher Gutachter: Dr. Xiaoxiong Gu (IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, NY, USA) Vorsitzender des Promotionsverfahrens: Prof. Dr. Ernst Brinkmeyer Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 17.12.2010 About the illustration: Urban Interconnects by R. Rimolo-Donadio, Acrylic on wood, 2002. Abstract This thesis deals with the efficient modeling and simulation of multilayer substrates in high-speed electronic systems, such as packages and printed circuit boards. Semi-analytical models for the electrical behavior of vias and traces are presented and a framework for automated simulation of multilayer structures is proposed. The models are devised in terms of microwave network parameters and they rely on the formulation of the parallel-plate impedance to describe wave propagation between adjacent reference planes. Via-to-plane capacitances are used to approximate the near fields around via barrels.

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Published 01 January 2010
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Language English
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Development, Validation, and Application of
Semi-Analytical Interconnect Models for
Efficient Simulation of Multilayer Substrates




Vom Promotionsausschuss der
Technischen Universität Hamburg-Harburg
zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades
Doktor-Ingenieur (Dr.-Ing.)
genehmigte Dissertation



von
Renato Rimolo-Donadio


aus
San José, Costa Rica





2010

1. Gutachter:
Prof. Dr. sc. techn. Christian Schuster
2. Gutachter:
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Arne Jacob

3. zusätzlicher Gutachter:
Dr. Xiaoxiong Gu (IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, NY, USA)

Vorsitzender des Promotionsverfahrens:
Prof. Dr. Ernst Brinkmeyer

Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 17.12.2010




















About the illustration:
Urban Interconnects
by R. Rimolo-Donadio,
Acrylic on wood, 2002.







Abstract



This thesis deals with the efficient modeling and simulation of multilayer substrates in
high-speed electronic systems, such as packages and printed circuit boards.
Semi-analytical models for the electrical behavior of vias and traces are presented
and a framework for automated simulation of multilayer structures is proposed. The
models are devised in terms of microwave network parameters and they rely on the
formulation of the parallel-plate impedance to describe wave propagation between
adjacent reference planes. Via-to-plane capacitances are used to approximate the near
fields around via barrels. A modal decomposition method allows the merging of parallel-
plate and trace models; microwave segmentation techniques are applied to solve
multilayer configurations.
An extensive and thorough validation of the models is presented, using general-
purpose numerical methods for electromagnetic simulation and hardware measurements.
The validation cases include multilayer via configurations with power and ground vias,
mixed reference planes, single-ended links, differential links, and via arrays. The
numerical efficiency, advantages and disadvantages of the proposed approach are
covered in the discussion.
Several application scenarios of realistic complexity are also evaluated. Studies of
differential links between ball grid arrays, stub via resonances, and differential to
common-mode conversion are presented. The utilization of the models for co-simulation
of power and signal integrity is demonstrated as well as the extension of the method to
handle arbitrarily shaped plates and radiated emissions. It is shown that the models can
provide good results up to 40 GHz and a numerical efficiency of at least two orders of
magnitude better than general-purpose numerical methods for electromagnetic
simulation.


Author key-words: modal decomposition, printed circuit board, package, parallel
plates, power integrity, signal integrity, traces, via.
i





























Acknowledgment


This thesis was the result of three and a half years of work at the Institute of
Electromagnetic Theory (TET) of the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg
(TUHH), between November 2006 and May 2010, with a research position funded by
TUHH. Along this time several people and organizations have contributed in different
ways to the completion of this work.
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Prof. Dr. Christian Schuster, for
giving me the opportunity of carrying out this work, and for the dedicated guidance
and advice. I was lucky of having an extraordinary person and scientist as supervisor.
His motivation, high principles, and commitment to the research and academic
activities have been the model to follow during all this time. I would also like to thank
Prof. Dr. Arne Jacob, second examiner, and to Prof. Dr. Ernst Brinkmeyer, president of
the Doctoral Committee evaluating this thesis, for the careful revision and evaluation of
this work.
My gratitude goes to Dr. Xiaoxiong (Kevin) Gu, who was also external examiner of
this work. His support and feedback along the different phases of this project have been
essential for its successful completion. I would also like to thank Dr. Young H. Kwark,
for his mentorship, support, and all the valuable feedback provided during these years.
My gratitude is extensive to Dr. Mark B. Ritter, M. S. Christian Baks, and the other
members of the former High-Speed I/O Subsystems and Packaging Group at the IBM
T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York, USA, who have
cooperated a lot with our research and provided the hardware and measurements used
in this work. I also had a great and productive stay with them at IBM during the
summer 2007.
This work would not be possible without the help of Dr.-Ing. Heinz-Dietrich Brüns.
His contributions to the research activities, careful analysis of the work, and feedback
have been crucial for the development of this project. I would also like to express my
gratitude to all the colleagues and staff at the Institute of Electromagnetic Theory for
their support. Special thanks to my colleagues Dipl.-Ing. Miroslav Kotzev, M.Sc.
Xiaomin Duan, and Dipl.-Ing. Sebastian Müller, for their help and the great team work.
Thanks go also to the students who contributed with their final works to our research
activities.
iii iv Acknowledgment

The discussions with the people involved in the IBM/ Missouri University of Science
and Technology (MST)/ University of L’Aquila/ TUHH weekly meetings have been
also very important for the progress of this work. My appreciation goes to all them, in
particular to Dr. Bruce Archambeault, at IBM USA, Prof. Dr. James L. Drewniak,
Prof. Dr. Jun Fan, Dr. Yao-Jiang Zhang, Prof. Dr. Albert Ruehli, and their research
team at the Electromagnetic Compatibility Group, MST (former University of
Missouri-Rolla), USA, for all their cooperation and feedback.

Finally, I would like to thank to my family and friends. I am indebted to my wife
Karolina and our son Leonardo, my parents Roque and Olga, and my sister Fiorella for
their unconditional support. This thesis is for them.




Contents


List of Figures and Tables ............................................................................ix

List of Symbols and Acronyms ....................................................................xv

1. Introduction...............................................................................................1
1.1. Motivation and Context of this Work........................................................... 1
1.2. Organization of the Work ............................................................................. 2
1.3. Conference and Journal Contributions.......................................................... 4

2. Multilayer Substrates in High-Speed Electronic Systems..........................5
2.1. Multilayer Substrate Technologies ................................................................ 5
2.2. Signal Integrity ............................................................................................. 9
2.3. Power ............................................................................................10
2.4. Electromagnetic Compatibility.....................................................................12
2.5. Overview of Techniques
for High-Frequency Modeling of Multilayer Substrates ...............................13

3. Physical Effects Associated with Vias .....................................................15
3.1. Types of Signal Vias.....................................................................................15
3.2. Excitation of Parallel-Plate Modes...............................................................16
3.3. Effect of Ground Vias (Return Vias) ...........................................................22
3.4. Via Crosstalk................................................................................................25
3.5. Transmission Line Parameters of Via Interconnects ....................................27
3.6. The Via Stub Effect .....................................................................................33
v vi Contents

4. Development of Semi-Analytical Via and Trace Models .........................37
4.1. Modeling Approach......................................................................................37
4.2. Via Model and Its Formulation using Microwave Network Parameters.......39
4.3. Analytical Computation of the Parallel-Plate Impedance ............................41
4.3.1. The Cavity Resonator Method............................................................42
4.3.2. The Radial Waveguide Method...........................................................45
4.3.3. Comparison of Convergence Properties
and Computational Efficiency of the Methods....................................47
4.3.4. Hybridization of Methods....................................................................50
4.3.5. Limitations of Analytical Formulations and Outlook..........................53
4.4. Computation of Via-to-Plane Capacitances .................................................54
4.5. Modeling of Power and Ground Vias ...........................................................56
4.6. Extended Model for Vias and Traces57
4.6.1. Modal Decomposition..........................................................................59
4.6.2. Via Model Including Stripline Transitions ..........................................62
4.7. Generalized Method for Simulation of Multilayer Substrates.......................66

5. Validation of the Models
with Full-Wave Simulations and Measurements.....................................71
5.1. Multilayer Vias ............................................................................................71
5.2. Single-Ended Links.......................................................................................75
5.2.1. Validation of the Via and Trace Model...............................................75
5.2.2. Simulation of Single-Ended Links
and Correlation to Full-Wave Simulations..........................................79
5.2.3. Effect of Ground Vias .........................................................................83
5.2.4. Mixed Reference Power/Ground Planes..............................................83
5.2.5. Blind and Buried Vias.........................................................................86
5.2.6. Model-to-Hardware Correlation ..........................................................87