Diversity in the tropical multipurpose shrub legumes Cratylia argentea (Desv.) O. Kuntze and Flemingia macrophylla (Willd.) Merrill [Elektronische Ressource] / Meike S. Andersson

Diversity in the tropical multipurpose shrub legumes Cratylia argentea (Desv.) O. Kuntze and Flemingia macrophylla (Willd.) Merrill [Elektronische Ressource] / Meike S. Andersson

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Diversity in the tropical multipurpose shrub legumes
Cratylia argentea (Desv.) O. Kuntze and
Flemingia macrophylla (Willd.) Merrill

Meike S. Andersson


























2006







Diversity in the tropical multipurpose shrub legumes
Cratylia argentea (Desv.) O. Kuntze and
Flemingia macrophylla (Willd.) Merrill




Meike S. Andersson


Andersson, Meike S.:
Diversity in the tropical multipurpose shrub legumes Cratylia argentea (Desv.) O. Kuntze and
Flemingia macrophylla (Willd.) Merrill.



D100
Dissertation University of Hohenheim, Institute of Plant Production and Agroecology in the
Tropics and Subtropics, Field: Biodiversity and Land Rehabilitation in the Tropics and
Subtropics, 2006.


This thesis was accepted as a doctoral dissertation in fulfillment of the requirements for the
degree "Doktor der Agrarwissenschaften (Dr. sc. agr.)" by the Faculty Agricultural Sciences
that University of Hohenheim, on 14 September 2005.


Supervisor and Review: Prof. Dr. R. Schultze-Kraft
Co-Reviewer: Prof. Dr. M. Kruse
Additional examiner: Prof. Dr. O. Spring
Vice-Dean and Head of Committee: Prof. Dr. K. Stahr
thDate of oral examination: 14 October 2005







3 Table of contents
Table of contents


Chapter Page

1 Introduction 11

2 Phenological, agronomic and forage quality diversity among
germplasm accessions of the tropical legume shrub Cratylia
argentea 19

3 Extent and structure of genetic diversity in a collection of the
tropical multipurpose shrub legume Cratylia argentea (Desv.)
O. Kuntze as revealed by RAPD markers 37

4 Morphological and phenological characterization of the tropical
shrub legume Flemingia macrophylla (Fabaceae, Papilionoideae) 53

5 Agronomic and forage quality evaluation of the Flemingia
macrophylla world collection 69

6 Forage quality and tannin concentration and composition of a
collection of the tropical shrub legume Flemingia macrophylla 87

7 Molecular characterization of a collection of the tropical
multipurpose shrub legume Flemingia macrophylla 103

8 Core collection approaches for perennial wild tropical legumes
using Flemingia macrophylla as an example 125

9 Summary 143

10 Zusammenfassung 147

11 Resumen 151

12 References 154

List of abbreviations 174



Acknowledgements 176







List of tables 4
List of tables

Page
Table 2.1 Flowering behaviour and seed production of 38 Cratylia argentea
accessions at the CIAT-Quilichao Experimental Station, Colombia 26
Table 2.2 Regrowth capacity, dry matter (DM) yield, in vitro dry matter
digestibility (IVDMD), crude protein (CP) and fibre (neutral
detergent fibre, NDF; acid detergent fibre, ADF; N-ADF) content of
38 Cratylia argentea accessions at the CIAT-Quilichao Experimental
Station, Colombia, in the rainy and dry season 28
Table 2.3 Cratylia argentea accessions stable across seasons and accessions
showing genotype x season interaction for the forage quality trait in
vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) 30
Table 2.4 Identification of Cratylia argentea accessions of agronomic interest
according to dry matter (DM) production, in vitro dry matter
digestibility (IVDMD), earliness and seed production 31
Table 2.5 Dry matter (DM) production, in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD),
crude protein (CP) content, time to flowering and seed yield of the
two selected promising Cratylia argentea accessions and the control
accession CIAT 18668 32
Table 3.1 Origin of the Cratylia argentea accessions and C. mollis used in the
present study 40
Table 3.2 Oligonucleotide primers employed in RAPD analysis, their sequence,
number of polymorphic (P) and monomorphic (M) bands obtained,
and percentage of polymorphic bands (% PB) 41
Table 3.3 Nei estimates of genetic diversity (heterogeneity) among groups 46
Table 3.4 Average genetic similarity (GS) values between (above diagonal) and
within (diagonal) groups of Cratylia argentea germplasm, the
prostrate accession 'Yapacaní' and the C. mollis reference accession,
based on all pair wise similarities between genotypes according to
molecular marker information (RAPD) 46
Table 3.5 Genetic similarity among (above diagonal) and within (diagonal) five
Cratylia argentea accessions, based on all pair wise similarities
between individuals according to molecular marker information
(RAPD) 46
Table 4.1 Geographic origin of the 70 Flemingia macrophylla accessions used
in the study 55
Table 4.2 Morphological and phenological attributes recorded in the Flemingia
macrophylla collection 57
Table 4.3 Growth, flowering and seed characteristics of Flemingia
macrophylla accessions at the CIAT- Quilichao Experimental
Station, Colombia 57
Table 4.4 Growth, flowering and seed characteristics of a collection of
68 Flemingia macrophylla accessions grown at the CIAT-Quilichao
Experimental Station, Colombia (Legend: see previous page) 60
5 List of tables

Page
Table 4.5 Growth, flowering and seed characteristics of the four morphotypes
of Flemingia macrophylla at the CIAT- Quilichao Experimental
Station, Colombia 62
Table 5.1 Plant height, regrowth capacity, dry matter (DM) yield, in vitro dry
matter digestibility (IVDMD) and crude protein (CP) content of a
collection of 69 Flemingia macrophylla accessions in the wet and
dry season at the CIAT-Quilichao Experimental Station, Colombia 74
Table 5.2 Identification of Flemingia macrophylla accessions of agronomic
interest 78
Table 5.3 Palatability and other agronomic and forage quality characteristics of
the ten Flemingia macrophylla accessions most frequently consumed
in the dry season and the ten accessions with the highest in vitro dry
matter digestibility (IVDMD) 79
Table 5.4 Main agronomic and forage quality characteristics of selected
Flemingia macrophylla genotypes and the control accession
CIAT 17403 84
Table 6.1 Geographic origin of 23 Flemingia macrophylla and one F. stricta
accession. 90
Table 6.2 Means and ranges of forage quality traits of 23 Flemingia
macrophylla and one F. stricta accessions with contrasting
digestibility and crude protein content in wet and dry season 93
Table 6.3 Correlation coefficients (r) of 23 Flemingia macrophylla and one
F. stricta accessions assessed for digestibility, fibre and condensed
tannin content and protein-binding capacity (P < 0.01) 93
Table 6.4 Flemingia macrophylla accessions stable across seasons for the
forage quality traits in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD),
extractable and fibre-bound condensed tannin (CT) content and
protein-binding capacity (PBC) 94
Table 6.5 Flemingia macrophylla accessions showing genotype x season
interaction for the forage quality traits in vitro dry matter digestibility
(IVDMD), extractable and fibre-bound condensed tannin (CT)
content and protein-binding capacity (PBC) 94
Table 6.6 Forage quality of two selected promising Flemingia macrophylla
accessions and control CIAT 17403 96
Table 7.1 Geographic origin of 69 Flemingia macrophylla, five F. stricta and
two F. paniculata accessions 108
Table 7.2 Nei estimates of genetic diversity (heterogeneity) among and within
six Flemingia macrophylla and one F. stricta accessions 111
Table 7.3 Oligonucleotide primers employed in RAPD analysis of 69
Flemingia macrophylla accessions, their sequence, number of
polymorphic (P) and monomorphic (M) bands obtained and
percentage of polymorphic bands (% PB) 111
Table 7.4 Nei estimates of genetic diversity (heterogeneity) among groups of
Flemingia macrophylla germplasm 115
List of tables 6

Page
Table 7.5 Genetic similarity among (above diagonal) and within (diagonal)
groups of Flemingia macrophylla germplasm, five F. stricta and two
F. paniculata accessions, based on all pairwise similarities between
accessions according to molecular marker information (RAPD) 115
Table 7.6 Descriptive statistics of the loci identified by random amplified
polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis characterizing 69 Flemingia
macrophylla, five F. stricta and two F. paniculata accessions 115
Table 7.7 Duplicates within Flemingia macrophylla morphotypes, F. stricta
and F. paniculata, based on the Nei and Li coefficient of genetic
similarity (P < 0.05) 117
Table 8.1 Morphological, phenological, agronomic and forage quality
attributes used for the different approaches of creating a core
collection in Flemingia macrophylla 129
Table 8.2 Grouping of the Flemingia macrophylla collection according to four
different characterization approaches, and selection of accessions
entering the core collections 132
Table 8.3 Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z statistics for pairwise comparisons of the
distribution of quantitative traits between different Flemingia
macrophylla core collections and their respective reserve collections 134
Table 8.4 Ranges of morphological and agronomic descriptors and of genetic
similarity for the Flemingia macrophylla entire collection and core
collections assembled by different approaches, including a randomly
sampled control core collection 135