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Effect of sedation with detomidine and butorphanol on pulmonary gas exchange in the horse

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9 Pages
English

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Sedation with α 2 -agonists in the horse is reported to be accompanied by impairment of arterial oxygenation. The present study was undertaken to investigate pulmonary gas exchange using the Multiple Inert Gas Elimination Technique (MIGET), during sedation with the α 2 -agonist detomidine alone and in combination with the opioid butorphanol. Methods Seven Standardbred trotter horses aged 3–7 years and weighing 380–520 kg, were studied. The protocol consisted of three consecutive measurements; in the unsedated horse, after intravenous administration of detomidine (0.02 mg/kg) and after subsequent butorphanol administration (0.025 mg/kg). Pulmonary function and haemodynamic effects were investigated. The distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratios (V A /Q) was estimated with MIGET. Results During detomidine sedation, arterial oxygen tension (PaO 2 ) decreased (12.8 ± 0.7 to 10.8 ± 1.2 kPa) and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO 2 ) increased (5.9 ± 0.3 to 6.1 ± 0.2 kPa) compared to measurements in the unsedated horse. Mismatch between ventilation and perfusion in the lungs was evident, but no increase in intrapulmonary shunt could be detected. Respiratory rate and minute ventilation did not change. Heart rate and cardiac output decreased, while pulmonary and systemic blood pressure and vascular resistance increased. Addition of butorphanol resulted in a significant decrease in ventilation and increase in PaCO 2 . Alveolar-arterial oxygen content difference P(A-a)O 2 remained impaired after butorphanol administration, the V A /Q distribution improved as the decreased ventilation and persistent low blood flow was well matched. Also after subsequent butorphanol no increase in intrapulmonary shunt was evident. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that both pulmonary and cardiovascular factors contribute to the impaired pulmonary gas exchange during detomidine and butorphanol sedation in the horse.

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Published 01 January 2009
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Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
BioMedCentral
Research Open Access Effect of sedation with detomidine and butorphanol on pulmonary gas exchange in the horse 1 23 3 Görel Nyman*, Stina Marntell, Anna Edner, Pia Funkquist, 4 5 Karin Morganand Göran Hedenstierna
1 Address: Departmentof Environment and Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural 2 3 Sciences, Skara, Sweden,Orion Pharma Animal Health, Sollentuna, Sweden,Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 4 and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden,Department of Equine Studies, Faculty of Veterinary 5 Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden andDepartment of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden Email: Görel Nyman*  gorel.nyman@gmail.com; Stina Marntell  stina.marntell@orionpharma.com; Anna Edner  anna.edner@kv.slu.se; Pia Funkquist  pia.funkquist@kalmar.nshorse.se; Karin Morgan  karin.morgan@stromsholm.com; Göran Hedenstierna  goran.hedenstierna@medsci.uu.se *Corresponding author
Published: 07 May 2009Received: 18 August 2008 Accepted: 7 May 2009 Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica2009,5110.1186/175101475122:22 doi: This article is available from: http://www.actavetscand.com/content/51/1/22 ©2009 Nyman et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract Background:Sedation witha2agonists in the horse is reported to be accompanied by impairment of arterial oxygenation. The present study was undertaken to investigate pulmonary gas exchange using the Multiple Inert Gas Elimination Technique (MIGET), during sedation with thea2agonist detomidine alone and in combination with the opioid butorphanol. Methods:Seven Standardbred trotter horses aged 37 years and weighing 380520 kg, were studied. The protocol consisted of three consecutive measurements; in the unsedated horse, after intravenous administration of detomidine (0.02 mg/kg) and after subsequent butorphanol administration (0.025 mg/kg). Pulmonary function and haemodynamic effects were investigated. The distribution of ventilationperfusion ratios (VA/Q) was estimated with MIGET. Results:During detomidine sedation, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) decreased (12.8 ± 0.7 to 10.8 ± 1.2 kPa) and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) increased (5.9 ± 0.3 to 6.1 ± 0.2 kPa) compared to measurements in the unsedated horse. Mismatch between ventilation and perfusion in the lungs was evident, but no increase in intrapulmonary shunt could be detected. Respiratory rate and minute ventilation did not change. Heart rate and cardiac output decreased, while pulmonary and systemic blood pressure and vascular resistance increased. Addition of butorphanol resulted in a significant decrease in ventilation and increase in PaCO2. Alveolararterial oxygen content difference P(Aa)O2remained impaired after butorphanol administration, the VA/Q distribution improved as the decreased ventilation and persistent low blood flow was well matched. Also after subsequent butorphanol no increase in intrapulmonary shunt was evident. Conclusion:The results of the present study suggest that both pulmonary and cardiovascular factors contribute to the impaired pulmonary gas exchange during detomidine and butorphanol sedation in the horse.
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