231 Pages
English
Gain access to the library to view online
Learn more

Effects of a pesticide mixture on plankton in freshwater mesocosms - from single substance studies to combination impacts [Elektronische Ressource] / Herbert M. Grünwald

-

Gain access to the library to view online
Learn more
231 Pages
English

Description

Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan für Ernährung, Landnutzung und Umwelt Department Ökologie Fachgebiet Ökotoxikologie Effects of a Pesticide Mixture on Plankton in Freshwater Mesocosms – from single substance studies to combination impacts Herbert M. Grünwald Vollständiger Abdruck der von der Fakultät Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan für Ernährung, Landnutzung und Umwelt der Technischen Universität München zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines Doktors der Naturwissenschaften (Dr. rer. nat.) genehmigten Dissertation. Vorsitzender: Univ.-Prof. Dr. A. Melzer Prüfer der Dissertation: 1. Univ.-Prof. Dr. W. Huber 2. WHöll Die Dissertation wurde am 11.09.2003 bei der Technischen Universität München eingereicht und durch die Fakultät Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan für Ernährung, Landnutzung und Umwelt am 02.12.2003 angenommen. 2 Abbreviations a.i. active ingredient approx.approximatelya.t.

Subjects

Informations

Published by
Published 01 January 2004
Reads 12
Language English
Document size 5 MB

Exrait

Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan
für Ernährung, Landnutzung und Umwelt
Department Ökologie
Fachgebiet Ökotoxikologie








Effects of a Pesticide Mixture on Plankton in Freshwater
Mesocosms – from single substance studies to combination impacts


Herbert M. Grünwald



Vollständiger Abdruck der von der Fakultät Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan für
Ernährung, Landnutzung und Umwelt der Technischen Universität München zur Erlangung
des akademischen Grades eines


Doktors der Naturwissenschaften (Dr. rer. nat.)


genehmigten Dissertation.



Vorsitzender: Univ.-Prof. Dr. A. Melzer
Prüfer der Dissertation:
1. Univ.-Prof. Dr. W. Huber 2. WHöll

Die Dissertation wurde am 11.09.2003 bei der Technischen Universität München
eingereicht und durch die Fakultät Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan für Ernährung,
Landnutzung und Umwelt am 02.12.2003 angenommen. 2
Abbreviations
a.i. active ingredient
approx.approximately
a.t. after treatment; “negative “ days mean “before treatment”
CA concentrationaddition; a model for the prediction of a mixture toxicity (for agents with a
similar mode of action)
CCA Canonical correspondence analysis; multivariate factor analysis that combined releveé and
environmental data
CYP α-Cypermethrin, a neurotoxic pyrethriod insecticide
CYP<number> Treatment level; the name of an enclosure containing a certain amount of α-Cypermethrin;
higher numbers indicate higher concentrations
df degrees offreedom
DTDissipation time for half the amount of a substance; half-life time 50
e.g. for example
EAC Ecologically acceptable concentration; the concentration of an agent that can be accepted in
the environment, because its effects can be compensated in a very short time
EC Effect concentration; the number means the percentage of the endpoint that show a certain <number, x>
effect, “x” is a wild card
et al. and other co-authors
etc. et cetera
GC-ECD Gas chromatography with an Electrode Array Detection
HPLCHigh pressure/performance liquid chromatography
i.e. id est, Latin for “that means”
IA independent action; a model for the prediction of a mixture toxicity (for agents with a
dissimilar mode of action)
IPQ Index of prediction quality; a number that indicates the accuracy of a prediction model
IPU Isoproturon, a phenylurea herbicide, blocks photosynthesis
IPU<number> Treatment level; the name of an enclosure containing a certain amount of Isoproturon; higher
numbers indicate higher concentrations
LC liquid chromatography
LC Lethal concentration; the number means the percentage of the endpoint that were killed, “x” is <number, x>
a wild card
LD lethal dose; the amount of an agent that kills the percentage of a test organism indicated by the <number, x>
number; “x” is a wild card
level <number> mean value of a parameter in the enclosures that received a certain amount of both pesticides;
higher numbers indicate higher concentrations
LOEC Lowest observed effect concentration; the lowest treatment level at which statistically
significant effects were observed
LOEL rved effect level; the lowest treatment level at which effects were observed
LOD limit ofdetection
LOQlimit ofquantification
NEC No effect concentration; the concentration of an agent at which no effect is expected, needs
not to be realized in an experiment but is retrieved by inverse regression, for example
NOAEL No observed adverse effect level
NOEAEC No Observed Ecologically Adverse Effect Concentration
NOEC No observed effect concentration; the treatment level at which no statistically significant
effects were observed
NOEL No observed effect level; the treatment level at which no effects were observed, in this thesis
derived by combining several results
PCA Principal component analysis; a multivariate analysis
PE polyethylene
PECpeak environmental concentrations
PRC Principal response curve; a multivariate analysis designed to test and display treatment effects
that change across time
RAD Relative absolute distance
SPE solid phaseextraction
std. dev. standarddeviation
TER toxicity exposure ratio
UV/VIS Ultraviolett/visible light
3

CONTENTS
Abbreviations......................................................................................................................... 3
1 Introduction 15
1.1 Plant protection and the environment.................................................................... 15
1.2 Environment and plant protection ......................................................................... 16
1.3 Measuring mixture toxicity: Implications and approaches ................................... 17
1.4 Surveying literature data ....................................................................................... 19
1.5 Approaches and objectives of this study ................................................................ 19
1.5.1 Choice of the test systems.............................................................................. 19
1.5.2 Choice of the pesticides ................................................................................. 20
1.5.3 Questions to be answered by this work ......................................................... 20
2 Material and Methods ................................................................................................. 22
2.1 Artificial pond systems........................................................................................... 22
2.1.1 General approach22
2.1.2 Single substance studies 23
2.1.3 Combined application study .......................................................................... 24
2.2 Physical and chemical water parameters.............................................................. 24
2.3 Biological sampling ............................................................................................... 25
2.3.1 Zooplankton...................................................................................................25
2.3.2 Phytoplankton................................................................................................26
2.3.3 Biomonitoring27
2.3.4 Laboratory studies..........................................................................................28
2.3.5 Macrophyte mapping.....................................................................................28
2.4 Pesticides ............................................................................................................... 28
2.4.1 Alpha-Cypermethrin (CYP)...........................................................................28
2.4.1a Technical data............................................................................................29
2.4.1b Preparation and application of the insecticide solutions............................ 29
2.4.1c Analysis of pesticide residues.................................................................... 30
2.4.2 Isoproturon (IPU)...........................................................................................30
2.4.2a Technical data30
2.4.2b Preparation and application of the herbicide solutions.............................. 30
2.4.2c 31
2.5 Statistical evaluation of data ................................................................................. 32
2.5.1 CYP residue analysis ..................................................................................... 32
2.5.2 IPU residue analysis.......................................................................................32
4

2.5.3 Biomonitoring.................................................................................................32
2.5.4 Single species tests .........................................................................................33
2.5.5 Plankton abundance data ................................................................................33
2.5.6 NEC Analysis34
2.5.7 Calculations of NOECs ..................................................................................34
2.5.8 Multivariate statistics......................................................................................35
2.5.8a Principal response curves (PRC) ................................................................35
2.5.8b Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) ..............................................35
2.5.9 BLISS independence and Index of Prediction Quality (IPQ).........................35
3 Results and discussion of the α-Cypermethrin study................................................37
3.1 Insecticide residues ................................................................................................37
3.2 Single species tests .................................................................................................37
3.3 Biomonitoring.........................................................................................................39
3.3.1 Chaoborus crystallinus...................................................................................39
3.3.2 Simocephalus vetulus.....................................................................................40
3.3.3 Daphnia pulex41
3.4 Water quality parameters .......................................................................................42
3.5 Macrophytes ...........................................................................................................44
3.6 Phytoplankton.........................................................................................................45
3.6.1 Composition of phytoplankton .......................................................................45
3.6.2 Abundance data..............................................................................................47
3.6.2a Total abundance..........................................................................................47
3.6.2b Species richness49
3.6.2c Chroomonas acuta......................................................................................50
3.6.2d Cryptomonas erosa et ovata........................................................................50
3.6.2e Bacillariophyceae.......................................................................................52
3.6.2f Chlorophyceae............................................................................................53
3.6.2g Chrysophyceae...........................................................................................54
3.6.3 Community analysis54
3.6.3a Shannon index and evenness ......................................................................54
3.6.3b RAD index..................................................................................................55
3.6.3c PRC analysis...............................................................................................56
3.6.4 Overview of treatment effects of CYP on phytoplankton ..............................58
3.7 Zooplankton............................................................................................................59
3.7.1 Composition of Zooplankton..........................................................................59
3.7.2 Abundance data..............................................................................................59
3.7.2a Total abundance..........................................................................................59
3.7.2b Species richness62
3.7.2c Chaoborus crystallinus...............................................................................62
3.7.2d Nauplii........................................................................................................64
5
3.7.2e Cyclopoida.................................................................................................65
3.7.2f Eudiaptomus gracilis..................................................................................65
3.7.2g Simocephalus vetulus................................................................................67
3.7.2h Chydorus sphaericus68
3.7.2i Rotifera......................................................................................................69
3.7.3 Community analysis......................................................................................70
3.7.3a Shannon index and evenness ..................................................................... 70
3.7.3b RAD index.................................................................................................71
3.7.3c PRC analysis..............................................................................................72
3.7.4 Overview of treatment effects of CYP on the zooplankton........................... 74
3.8 Summary of the CYP study..................................................................................... 75
4 Results and discussion of the Isoproturon study....................................................... 77
4.1 Herbicide residues 77
4.2 Single species tests 78
4.3 Biomonitoring ........................................................................................................ 78
4.4 Water quality parameters ...................................................................................... 79
4.4.1 Alkalinity.......................................................................................................79
4.4.2 Conductivity...................................................................................................80
4.4.3 Oxygen content..............................................................................................81
4.4.4 pH value.........................................................................................................83
4.4.5 Chlorophyll a.................................................................................................83
4.4.6 PRC analysis..................................................................................................85
4.4.7 Water chemistry.............................................................................................86
4.4.7a Overview....................................................................................................86
4.4.7b Silicate.......................................................................................................87
4.4.7c Nitrogene compounds................................................................................87
4.4.7d Cations: Sodium, calcium, potassium........................................................ 88
4.4.7e Total hardness............................................................................................89
4.4.8 Overview of treatment effects of IPU on the water quality........................... 90
4.5 Macrophytes........................................................................................................... 90
4.6 Phytoplankton ........................................................................................................ 92
4.6.1 Composition of phytoplankton ...................................................................... 92
4.6.2 Abundance data..............................................................................................93
4.6.2a Total abundance.........................................................................................93
4.6.2b Species richness95
4.6.2c Chroomonas acuta......................................................................................96
4.6.2d Cryptomonas erosa et ovata....................................................................... 96
4.6.2e Bacillariophyceae.......................................................................................98
4.6.2f Chlorophyceae...........................................................................................99
4.6.2g Nephroselmis olivacea.............................................................................100
6

4.6.2h Chrysophyceae.........................................................................................101
4.6.3 Community analysis.....................................................................................102
4.6.3a Shannon index and evenness ....................................................................102
4.6.3b RAD index................................................................................................103
4.6.3c PRC analysis.............................................................................................103
4.6.4 Overview of treatment effects of IPU on the phytoplankton........................105
4.7 Zooplankton..........................................................................................................106
4.7.1 Composition of zooplankton ........................................................................106
4.7.2 Abundance data............................................................................................107
4.7.2a Total abundance........................................................................................107
4.7.2b Species richness109
4.7.2c Chaoborus crystallinus.............................................................................110
4.7.2d Nauplii......................................................................................................110
4.7.2e Cyclopoida................................................................................................111
4.7.2f Eudiaptomus gracilis................................................................................112
4.7.2g Simocephalus vetulus...............................................................................113
4.7.2h Chydorus sphaericus.................................................................................114
4.7.2i Rotifera.....................................................................................................116
4.7.3 Community analysis.....................................................................................117
4.7.3a Shannon index and evenness ....................................................................117
4.7.3b RAD index................................................................................................118
4.7.3c PRC analysis.............................................................................................119
4.7.4 Overview of treatment effects of IPU on the zooplankton...........................120
4.8 Summary of the IPU study effects.........................................................................122
5 Results and discussion of the combined treatment study .......................................126
5.1 Pesticide residues .................................................................................................126
5.1.1 Insecticide (CYP).........................................................................................126
5.1.2 Herbicide (IPU)............................................................................................127
5.2 Biomonitoring.......................................................................................................128
5.2.1 Simocephalus vetulus...................................................................................128
5.2.2 Eudiaptomus gracilis....................................................................................129
5.2.3 Chaoborus crystallinus.................................................................................129
5.3 Water quality parameters .....................................................................................131
5.3.1 Alkalinity......................................................................................................131
5.3.2 Conductivity.................................................................................................134
5.3.3 Oxygen content.............................................................................................135
5.3.4 Chlorophyll a................................................................................................136
5.3.5 pH value........................................................................................................137
5.3.6 Temperature..................................................................................................138
5.3.7 PRC analysis139
7
5.3.8 Water chemistry...........................................................................................141
5.3.8a Overview..................................................................................................141
5.3.8b Silicate.....................................................................................................141
5.3.8c Nitrogene compounds..............................................................................143
5.3.8d Cations: Sodium, calcium, potassium...................................................... 143
5.3.8e Total hardness..........................................................................................144
5.3.9 Overview of treatment effects of the combined application on water quality
145
5.4 Macrophytes......................................................................................................... 146
5.5 Phytoplankton ...................................................................................................... 148
5.5.1 Composition of phytoplankton .................................................................... 148
5.5.2 Abundance data............................................................................................152
5.5.2a Total abundance.......................................................................................152
5.5.2b Species richness154
5.5.2c Chroomonas acuta....................................................................................155
5.5.2d Cryptomonas erosa et ovata..................................................................... 156
5.5.2e Bacillariophyceae.....................................................................................158
5.5.2f Chlorophyceae.........................................................................................158
5.5.2g Nephroselmis olivacea.............................................................................159
5.5.2h Chrysophyceae160
5.5.2i Other algae...............................................................................................162
5.5.3 Community analysis....................................................................................162
5.5.3a Shannon index and evenness ................................................................... 162
5.5.3b RAD index163
5.5.3c PRC analysis............................................................................................164
5.5.4 Overview of treatment effects of the combined application on phytoplankton
166
5.6 Zooplankton ......................................................................................................... 169
5.6.1 Composition of zooplankton........................................................................ 169
5.6.2 Abundance data169
5.6.2a Total abundance.......................................................................................169
5.6.2b Species richness171
5.6.2c Chaoborus crystallinus.............................................................................173
5.6.2d Nauplii.....................................................................................................174
5.6.2e Cyclopoida...............................................................................................176
5.6.2f Eudiaptomus gracilis................................................................................179
5.6.2g Simocephalus vetulus..............................................................................181
5.6.2h Chydorus sphaericus182
5.6.2i Rotifera....................................................................................................184
5.6.3 Community analysis....................................................................................184
5.6.3a Shannon index and evenness ................................................................... 184
5.6.3b RAD index...............................................................................................186
8

5.6.3c PRC analysis.............................................................................................187
5.6.4 Overview of treatment effects of the combined application on zooplankton
189
5.7 Summary of the combined study effects................................................................191
6 Linking the single substance approaches to the combined study: Results and
discussion.................................................................................................................................196
6.1 CCA Analysis........................................................................................................196
6.1.1 Phytoplankton...............................................................................................196
6.1.2 Zooplankton..................................................................................................199
6.2 Certain endpoints react differently in the combined approach............................201
6.2.1 Water quality parameters and pesticide residues..........................................202
6.2.2 Phytoplankton203
6.2.3 Zooplankton204
6.2.3a Some consequences of abundance changes in Chaoborus crystallinus....204
6.2.3b Strong secondary interactions with Simocephalus vetulus ......................204
6.2.3c Shifts in the reaction of Eudiaptomus gracilis..........................................204
6.2.4 Conclusions..................................................................................................206
6.3 Predicting combination toxicity for single substance data: A model approach ..207
6.3.1 The model: BLISS independence (response addition, independent action
(IA)) 207
6.3.2 Prediction quality..........................................................................................210
6.3.2a Water quality parameters..........................................................................210
6.3.2b Plankton data............................................................................................211
7 Final conclusions and perspectives ...........................................................................214
8 Abstract .......................................................................................................................218
9 Zusammenfassung ......................................................................................................220
10 References ...............................................................................................................223
Dankeschön.........................................................................................................................231

9
FIGURES
Figure 1: Mesocosm with enclosures for the single substance studies...................................... 22
Figure 2: Construction of the artificial substrates...................................................................... 26
Figure 3: Eudiaptomus gracilis in the single species test with CYP, 48 h data ........................ 38
Figure 4: Biomonitoring with Chaoborus crystallinus: 7 d a.t., 24 h evaluation ...................... 40
Figure 5: BiomS. vetulus, 6 h a.t., 70 h examination ......................................... 41
Figure 6: BiomD. pulexination ........................................... 41
Figure 7: Water temperature in the single substance study ....................................................... 42
Figure 8: Development of chlorophyll a in the CYP encloures................................................. 44
Figure 9: Development of plant cover (%) in CYP enclosures 45
Figure 10: Abundance data by phytoplankton class distribution in the controls of the single
substance studies................................................................................................................ 46
Figure 11: Abundance data by phytoplankton class distribution in the CYP5 (1.875 µg/L a.i.)
enclosure ............................................................................................................................ 47
Figure 12: Phytoplankton abundance in the CYP study ............................................................ 48
Figure 13: Species richness of the phytoplankton in the CYP enclosures................................. 49
Figure 14: Development of Ch. acuta in the CYP enclosures................................................... 50
Figure 15: Deent of Cr. erosa et ovata in the CYP enclosures (first year).................... 51
Figure 16: Development of Cr.erosa et ovata in the CYP enclosures (2 years) ....................... 52
Figure 17: Deent of Bacillariophyceae in the CYP enclosures...................................... 53
Figure 18: Development of Chlorophyceae in the CYP enclosures .......................................... 53
Figure 19: Deent of Chrys 54
Figure 20: Evenness in the phytoplankton (CYP study)............................................................ 55
Figure 21: RAD index of phytoplankton (CYP study) .............................................................. 56
Figure 22: PRC analysis on phytoplankton in the CYP study................................................... 57
Figure 23: Total abundance of Zooplankton (CYP study); top: year one, bottom: both years.. 61
Figure 24: Number of taxa found in the zooplankton of the CYP enclosures........................... 62
Figure 25: Chaoborus crystallinus in the CYP study; top: year one, bottom: both years ......... 63
Figure 26: Development of Nauplius larvae in the CYP study ................................................. 64
Figure 27: Cyclopoida (adults and Copepodits) in the CYP enclorures.................................... 65
Figure 28: Numbers of Eudiaptomus gracilis (adults and Copepodits) in the CYP study; top:
year one, bottom: both years.............................................................................................. 66
Figure 29: Simocephalus vetulus in the CYP enclosures........................................................... 68
Figure 30: Development of Chydorus sphaericus (CYP).......................................................... 69
Figure 31: Progression of the Rotifers under CYP treatment.................................................... 69
Figure 32: Evenness of zooplankton in the CYP study ............................................................. 70
Figure 33: RAD index zooplankton (CYP) ............................................................................... 72
Figure 34: PRC curves of zooplankton in the CYP enclosures ................................................. 73
Figure 35: Model sector of the food web interaction under CYP influence (thick lines:
predation, thin lines: competition, dotted lines: grazing; triangle: sensitivity towards CYP)
........................................................................................................................................... 76
Figure 36: IPU residues (single substance study) and regression data ...................................... 77
10