Emergency on planet Cape Town? [Elektronische Ressource] : (re-)conciliation as a tool for urban planning in a post-apartheid city / Antje Nahnsen

Emergency on planet Cape Town? [Elektronische Ressource] : (re-)conciliation as a tool for urban planning in a post-apartheid city / Antje Nahnsen

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Antje Nahnsen Emergency on Planet Cape Town? (Re-)Conciliation as a Tool for Urban Planning in a Post-Apartheid City BIS-Verlag der Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg BIS-Verlag, Oldenburg 2006 Verlag / Druck / BIS-VerlagVertrieb: der Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg Postfach 25 41, 26015 Oldenburg Tel.: 0441/798 2261, Telefax: 0441/798 4040 E-Mail: bisverlag@uni-oldenburg.de Internet: www.ibit.uni-oldenburg.de ISBN 3-8142-0988-5 ISBN 978-3-8142-0988-3 Table of Contents Table of Figures 5 List of Abbreviations 6 Acknowledgements 7 Section 1 9 1 Introduction 11 Section 2 25 2 The Culture(s) of Cities 27 2.1 The Ambivalence of Urban Life: Living in a World of Strangers 28 2.2 Ambivalent Reactions 34 3 Spatialities of Desire and Fear: Spatial Politics of Emotion 45 3.1 Spatialities of Desire 46 3.2 Spof Fear 63 4 Cape Town: Desires and Fears in the Making of an Apartheid City 79 4.1 The City of Strangers: The Social Construction of Ambivalence 80 4.2 The City of Control: Dealing with fear through Separation, Control and Regulation of Space 90 4.3 The Sacred and the Feared City: Inscribed Meaning in Cape Town’s Urban Landscape 103 4.4 Challenges for Policies of Transformation 115 Section 3 119 5 The Municipal Spatial Development Framework: The New Spatial Vision for the City of Cape Town 129 5.1 The Aims of the Muni-SDF 129 5.2 The Strategies of the Muni-SDF 130 5.

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Antje Nahnsen
Emergency on Planet Cape Town?
(Re-)Conciliation as a Tool for Urban Planning
in a Post-Apartheid City

BIS-Verlag der Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg

BIS-Verlag, Oldenburg 2006
Verlag / Druck / BIS-Verlag
Vertrieb: der Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg
Postfach 25 41, 26015 Oldenburg
Tel.: 0441/798 2261, Telefax: 0441/798 4040
E-Mail: bisverlag@uni-oldenburg.de
Internet: www.ibit.uni-oldenburg.de
ISBN 3-8142-0988-5
ISBN 978-3-8142-0988-3


Table of Contents
Table of Figures 5
List of Abbreviations 6
Acknowledgements 7
Section 1 9
1 Introduction 11
Section 2 25
2 The Culture(s) of Cities 27
2.1 The Ambivalence of Urban Life: Living in a World of Strangers 28
2.2 Ambivalent Reactions 34
3 Spatialities of Desire and Fear: Spatial Politics of
Emotion 45
3.1 Spatialities of Desire 46
3.2 Spof Fear 63
4 Cape Town: Desires and Fears in the Making of an
Apartheid City 79
4.1 The City of Strangers: The Social Construction of Ambivalence 80
4.2 The City of Control: Dealing with fear through Separation,
Control and Regulation of Space 90
4.3 The Sacred and the Feared City: Inscribed Meaning in Cape
Town’s Urban Landscape 103
4.4 Challenges for Policies of Transformation 115
Section 3 119
5 The Municipal Spatial Development Framework:
The New Spatial Vision for the City of Cape Town 129
5.1 The Aims of the Muni-SDF 129
5.2 The Strategies of the Muni-SDF 130
5.3 Radical Change or Continuity 133
6 The One City Festival: A Strategy for Social
Intervention 144
6.1 The Aims and Strategy of the One City Festival 144
6.2 “Teaching a Vegetarian to Eat Meat Again”: The Achievements
of the One City Festival 146
6.3 Celebrating Difference: A Stimulator for Change and
Transformation? 151
7 New Urban Management: The Reconstruction of a
Sacred Place 158
7.1 The Aims of the New Urban Management Approach:
Creating the Clean and Safe City 159
7.2 The Means and Strategies of the New Urban Management
Approach9
7.3 New Urban Management: A Fear of Loss and Change? 184
Section 4 203
8 Conclusion: The Need for Spatial Politics of
Reconciliation 205
References 217


Table of Figures
Fig. 1: The Company Gardens 104
Fig. 2: Jan Smuts Statue in the Company Gardens 104
Fig. 3: The City Hall opposite the Grand Parade 105
Fig. 4: Overlapping Colonial and Modern Spaces 106
Fig. 5: The Central City from the Foreshore 107
Fig. 6: The Civic Centre on the Foreshore 108
Fig. 7: Mosque in Long Street 110
Fig. 8: The Equity Concept of the Muni-SDF 131
Fig. 9: The Grand Parade during the One City Festival 147
Fig. 10: The Castle Reclaimed 149
Fig. 11: Louis Botha Transformed 150
Fig. 12: The Central City and the First Phase Implementation Area
of the CID 163
Fig. 13: The Cleansing and Security Team of the CID 165
Fig. 14: No more Garbage in St. Georges Mall? 167
Fig. 15: Mounted Patrol in St. Georges Mall 169
Fig. 16: Informal Trading on Greenmarket Square 174
Fig. 17: Informal Trading in Adderley Street 175
Fig. 18: Informal Trading in St. Georges Mall 176
Fig. 19: Informal Parking Attendant at Work 181
Fig. 20: Advertising E-commerce 182
Fig. 21: New Investments in the Central City 186
Fig. 22: Codes of Conduct for Informal Traders 193
Fig. 23: Fencing off Spaces within the Central City 199
List of Abbreviations
ANC African National Congress
ACDP African Christian Democratic Party
CBD Central Business District
CCTV Closed Camera Surveillance System
CID City Improvement District
DP Democratic Party
DA Democratic Alliance
Muni-SDF Municipal Spatial Development Framework
NP National Party
NNP New National Party
OCF One City Festival
PAC Pan African Congress


Acknowledgements
This book is the result of my PhD research, which was conducted and docu-
mented between 1998 and 2002. The research was funded by scholarships of
the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) and the Friedrich-Ebert
Foundation (FES), to which I express my gratitude. I wish to thank my
supervisors Prof. Dr. Walter Siebel of the Carl of Ossietzky University
Oldenburg, Germany, and Prof. Susan Parnell of University of Cape Town,
South Africa for their consistent support, critical comments and suggestions.
At various stages of this research project, both have helped greatly to clarify
my arguments and sent me in fruitful directions for further exploration of my
thoughts. I wish to thank Prof. Sue Parnell and the Department of Environ-
mental and Geographical Science for welcoming me as an international affili-
ate to the department.
I owe special thanks to my interview partners and City of Cape Town offi-
cials, who contributed generously to this research by volunteering and dis-
cussing their views openly. I wish to thank Dr. Anja Peleikis and Stephan
Lanz for their time to go through the various stages of the analysis and
documentation of the research with me, as well as for their invaluable com-
ments and creative criticism, particularly at the stage of writing. In particular,
I am grateful to my family and friends for their encouragement, support and
distraction whenever needed, and above all, I am grateful to Alex, the best
inspiration of all.
Shortly after completing this research project I had the great opportunity to
work with SINANI, KwaZulu Natal Programme For Survivors of Violence, a
community development organisation situated in Durban supporting proc-
esses of healing and reconciliation of individuals and communities affected
by political and other forms of violence in KwaZulu Natal. SINANI’s work
has enabled me to create a much deeper understanding of extent and dimen-
sion of traumatisation of South African people and its impact on the forma-
tion and maintenance of social relationships as well as on processes of com-
munity development. My work with SINANI has greatly inspired me and
confirmed the relevance of research around psychosocial aspects of both
socio-economic development as well as the production of urban space. This
book is just a start, and remains largely on a theoretical level. I hope it 8
inspires more research to follow, in particular around questions of how to
operationalize psychosocial aspects in the day to day practice of urban devel-
opment.


Section 1
_________________________________________________
“We, the people of South Africa,
Recognise the injustices of the past;
Honour those who suffered for justice and freedom in our land;
Respect those who have worked to build and develop our country; and
Believe that South Africa belongs to all who live in it, united in our
diversity.
We therefore, through our freely elected representatives, adopt this
constitution as the supreme law of the Republic so as to –
Heal the divisions of the past and establish a society based on a
democratic values, social justice and fundamental human rights;
Lay the foundations for a democratic open society in which govern-
ment is based on the will of the people and every citizen is equally
protected by the law;
Improve the quality of life of all citizens and free the potential of each
person; and
Build a united and democratic South Africa able to take its rightful
place as a sovereign state in the family of nations.
May God protect our people.”
(From the Preamble, Constitution of the Republic of South Africa)