External reactive power compensation of permanent magnet synchronous generator [Elektronische Ressource] / vorgelegt von Amr Singer
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External reactive power compensation of permanent magnet synchronous generator [Elektronische Ressource] / vorgelegt von Amr Singer

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External Reactive Power Compensation of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines "Dr.-Ing." an der Technischen Universität Chemnitz Fakultät Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik vorgelegt von Dipl.-Ing. Amr Singer geboren am 21.9.1974 Kairo Ägypten Chemnitz, den 24.11.2009 Gutacher : Prof Dr. Ing. W. Hofmann Prof Dr. Ing. W. Schufft Preface This work has been done at the department of Electrical Machine and Drives at Technical University of Chemnitz, Germany. This research work has been funded by the German Environment Foundation. I would like to express my gratitude to the German Environment Foundation for their support. I would like to thank Prof. Dr. Hofmann for his guidance, support, and encouragement. I would also thank him for his valuable remarks. I would like to thank Prof. Dr. Schufft for his valuable remarks. I would also like to thank my colleagues in the department of Electrical Machine and Drives for the friendly atmosphere. I would to express my gratitude to the electrical workshop at the Technical University of Chemnitz for their help in executing the experiment.

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Published 01 January 2009
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External Reactive Power Compensation of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines "Dr.-Ing." an der Technischen Universität Chemnitz Fakultät Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnikvorgelegt von Dipl.-Ing. Amr Singer geboren am 21.9.1974 Kairo Ägypten  Chemnitz, den 24.11.2009 Gutacher : Prof Dr. Ing. W. Hofmann  Prof Dr. Ing. W. Schufft
Preface This work has been done at the department of Electrical Machine and Drives at Technical University of Chemnitz, Germany. This research work has been funded by the German Environment Foundation. I would like to express my gratitude to the German Environment Foundation for their support. I would like to thank Prof. Dr. Hofmann for his guidance, support, and encouragement. I would also thank him for his valuable remarks. I would like to thank Prof. Dr. Schufft for his valuable remarks. I would also like to thank my colleagues in the department of Electrical Machine and Drives for the friendly atmosphere. I would to express my gratitude to the electrical workshop at the Technical University of Chemnitz for their help in executing the experiment. Last, but not least, I am grateful for the endurance, encouragement and support from my father, my mother and my wife who made it possible to finish this thesis.
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Content Preface Abbreviations and Symbols1. Introduction ..........................................................11.1 State of art technology ..................................................................41.2 Objectives of this research ............................................................91.3 Thesis outline ..............................................................................102. Reactive Power Compensation..........................122.1 Problem description ..................................................................122.2 Reactive power compensation in the transmission lines.............192.3 Active power compensation........................................................292.3.1 STATCOM .........................................................................302.3.2 Phase regulator.....................................................................32
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2.3.3 Voltage regulator .................................................................342.3.4 Static synchronous series compensation .............................362.3.5 Analysis of different compensation methods.......................392.3.5.1 Required reactive power for different compensation........392.3.5.2 Efficiency of the inverter .................................................41 2.3.5.3 Determination of the required permanent magnet ………44  and the effect on the efficiency and the cost 2.4 Hybrid Compensation .................................................................473. Simulation of Compensation Applied to Synchronous Generator .........................................533. 1 System components ...................................................................533. 1.1 Space vector and transformation.........................................533.1.2 Electrical excited synchronous generator ..........................573.1.3 Permanent magnet synchronous generator .........................663.1.4 Coupling transformer model ...............................................683.1.5 Rectifier bridge and dc network...........................................703.1.6 Space vector modulation voltage source.............................713.1.6 Inverter output filter and SSSC compensation.....................77
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3.2 Control strategy...........................................................................803.2.1 Current controller.................................................................803.2.2 Voltage Controller ...............................................................843.3 Simulation ...................................................................................883. 3.1 Simulation without SSSC ..................................................883. 3.2 Simulation with SSSC.........................................................893. 3.3 Simulation with SSSC and passive filter ............................914. Wind Turbine Modelling ...................................954.1 Wind power model......................................................................954.2 Two mass system ........................................................................984.3 Dynamics of the blade pitching mechanism .............................1014.4 Wind turbine emulator ..............................................................1055. Experimental Results .......................................1075.1 Experimental setup...................................................................1075.2 Synchronous generator at no load.............................................1115.3 Synchronous generator parameter.............................................1135.3.1 Synchronous generator slip test .........................................113
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5.3.2 Synchronous generator short circuit test............................1145.3.3 Synchronous generator standstill test.................................1175.3.4 Synchronous generator switch slip test..............................1195.4 Output filter...............................................................................1215.5 Step response of the controllers ................................................1225.6 Analysis of the results ...............................................................1255.7 System losses and efficiency ....................................................1356. Conclusion .........................................................139Theses.....................................................................143Reference ...............................................................146Figures ...................................................................162
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Abbreviations and Symbols Area of wind turbine Capacitance, Acceleration moment coefficient, Damping torque coefficient of the blade Displacement power Energy Losses Switching frequency of the inverter Current Moment of inertia coefficient of the turbine Inductance Modulation index, torque Mutual inductance Active Power Reactive power Resistance, Controller Apparent power , Lapace variable Time
A C D E f I J K L m M P Q R S T
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uµU v X zpZ δθλρφψω
Commutation angle of the diode Voltage Velocity Reactance Pole pair Impedance Power angle of the generator Angle of the wind turbine rotor Tip speed ratio Air density Power factor angle Flux linkage Angular velocity Suffix and prefix Primary winding of the transformer Secondary winding of the transformer Fifth harmonic filter Acceleration Active filter Compensation Threshold of IGBT
1 2 5 A AF C CEO
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D d d` d`` do do` do`` E
el F Fe Ff G h K L LC Lcu LfW/D LfW/T Loff/D
Damping winding
Direct axis Direct axis short circuit transient Direct axis short circuit subtransient
Average voltage
Direct axis open circuit transient
Direct axis open circuit subtransient excitation Electrical LC filter Iron losses
Fundamental component Generator Magnetising inductance
Short circuit Load Filter losses
Copper losses
Forward losses in diode
Forward losses in IGBT
Switching off losses in diode
Loff+ on/T Switching on and off losses in IGBT LT Copper losses in transformer l Left component
VIII
RG r q S SK T tip X W
Rotor blades Right component Quadrature axis Stator of the generator Harmonic component Transformer Tip of the turbine Hypothetical resistance of diode Mechanical wind
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 1 Introduction
The use of wind energy is not a new idea. Mankind has been using it since antiquity. For centuries windmills with watermills were the only source of motive power for many applications, some of which are even still being used today such as sailing, pumps for irrigation or drainage, or grinding grain. With the industrial revolution, the importance of windmills as primary industrial energy source was replaced by steam and internal combustion engines. The first wind turbine to generate electricity was built by American scientist and businessman Charles Brush in 1888. It was 17 meters tall with 144 cedar rotor blades, and it had a capacity of 12 kilowatts. Later, in the year 1891, Danish inventor Poul La Cour discovered that faster rotating wind turbines with fewer rotor blades generate more electricity than slow moving turbines with many rotor blades. Using this knowledge, he developed the first wind electrical generating wind turbines to incorporate modern aerodynamic design principles. The 25-kilowatt machines used four bladed rotors in order to increase the efficiency. By the end of World War I, the use of these machines spread throughout Denmark. During 1930s thousands of small wind turbines were built in rural areas across the United States. One to three kilowatts in capacity, the turbines at first were providing lighting for farms but later their use was extended to power appliances and farm machinery. With the electrification of the industrialized world, the role of wind power decreased.
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