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Fire in subtropical grasslands in Southern Brazil [Elektronische Ressource] : effects on plant strategies and vegetation dynamics / Alessandra Fidelis

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161 Pages
English

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Published 01 January 2008
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TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITÄT MÜNCHEN
Lehrstuhl für Vegetationsökologie

Fire in subtropical grasslands in Southern Brazil:
effects on plant strategies and vegetation dynamics


Alessandra Fidelis

Vollständiger Abdruck der von der Fakultät Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan für
Ernährung, Landnutzung und Umwelt der Technischen Universität München zur Erlangung
des akademischen Grades eines

Doktors der Naturwissenschaften

genehmigten Dissertation.

Vorsitzender: Univ.-Prof. Dr. J. Schnyder

Prüfer der Dissertation: 1. Univ.-Prof. Dr. J. Pfadenhauer
2. Univ.-Prof. St. I. Higgins, Ph.D.,
Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main
3. Prof. V. De Patta Pillar, Ph.D.,
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul,
Porto Alegre / Brasilien
(schriftliche Beurteilung)


Die Dissertation wurde am 30.07.2008 bei der Technische Universität München eingereicht
und durch die Fakultät Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan für Ernährung Landnutzung
und Umwelt am 25.11.2008 angenommen. __________________________________________________________________________
CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS i
PREFACE iii
INTRODUCTION 1
CHAPTER 1: Fire behaviour in Brazilian Campos grasslands (Fidelis, A.,
Cartay-Delgado, M.D., Blanco, C., Müller, S.C., Pillar, V.D. &
Pfadenhauer, J.) 15
CHAPTER 2: Bud bank and belowground organs: their importance for
vegetation regeneration in Brazilian Campos grasslands
(Fidelis, A., Appezzato-da-Glória, B., Müller, S.C., Pillar, V.D.
& Pfadenhauer, J.) 35
CHAPTER 3: Population biology and regeneration of forbs and shrubs after
fire in Brazilian Campos grasslands (Fidelis, A., Müller, S.C.,
Pillar, V.D. & Pfadenhauer, J.) 57
CHAPTER 4: What matters for vegetation regeneration? Seedlings or
resprouters? An example from Brazilian Campos grasslands
(Fidelis, A., Müller, S.C., Pillar, V.D. & Pfadenhauer, J.) 79
CHAPTER 5: Short-term changes caused by fire and mowing in Brazilian
Campos grasslands (Fidelis, A., Blanco, C., Müller, S.C.,
Pillar, V.D. & Pfadenhauer, J.) 103
CONCLUSIONS 131
SUMMARY 143
__________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________Acknowledgements
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First of all, I am greatly thankful to Prof. Jörg Pfadenhauer for his trust on my ideas, on my
project and on me. I learned a lot with our discussions about grasslands, as well as with his lectures
and I am thankful to all the “Gutachten” that he had written to me, so I could get financial support for
my PhD. His enthusiasm about vegetation science and mostly about grasslands “infected” me and
helped me to choose the next steps in my scientific career. Danke für die Unterstützung!
My other supervisor, Prof. Valério Pillar supported me during my stay in Rio Grande do Sul
and therefore, I am very thankful. He always received me with “open arms” in his laboratory and let
me join all interesting discussions and projects about conservation of Campos. Obrigada por acolher
esta paulista no seu laboratório!
I thank Sandra Müller (my third dear supervisor) for receiving me in her home and laboratory
and helping me organizing fire experiments and field work. Thanks for your patience and all
discussions about my thesis. Especial thanks for helping me with plant identification! Obrigada pelo
carinho e amizade!
Especial thanks for my “guard angels”. In Brazil: Carolina Blanco and Letícia Dadalt. Not only
for the support during field work and the time during my PhD (both in Porto Alegre and in Freising),
but also for always listening to me when I needed the most. Obrigada queridinhas pelo carinho,
horas de descontração e principalmente pela amizade! In Germany: Maria Dolores Cartay Delgado
for her help with the fire experiments, but mostly for her friendship and support during the last years
in Germany. Gracias por tudo, amiga!
I also would like to thank KAAD for the PhD scholarship. Especially I thank Brigitte
Ebertseder for her support during my stay in Freising. Danke! Thanks to Fazit Stiftung and the
Technische Universität München for the financial support for the last field trip to Brazil. I also thank
EMBRAPA, especially Pedro Trindade for financially supporting part of my project. Obrigada!
Thanks to Prof. Beatriz Appezzato da Glória for receiving me so kindly in her laboratory and
helping with the belowground organs and the analyses of the bud bank! Obrigada pela ajuda! I am
also greatly thankful to Ilsi Boldrini, who always helped with plant identification and literature about
the Campos. Obrigada queridinha!
Thanks to Michaela Bücherl and Ingrid Kapps, who were taking care of me during this
difficult phase of the PhD with nice food and coffee breaks! Vielen Dank! I am also thankful to all my
colleagues from the Lehrstuhl für Vegetationsökologie. Especial thanks to Daniela Röder, Kathrin
Kiehl, Harald Albrecht and Gerhard Overbeck. Danke! Thanks to Michael Jeschke, Ingrid Kapps and
Andrea Skiba for reviewing my summary in German.
_______________________________________________________________________ i _______________________________________________________________Acknowledgements
I am thankful to all my colleagues from the Laboratory of Quantitative Ecology for receiving
so well and helping me sometimes with the field work. Exceptional thanks to my “estagiários” Marcel
Tust and Maximiliano Oliveira for taking all soil samples and helping me in the field, even when it was
very hot! Obrigada pela ajuda e pelo carinho de todos.
I cannot forget the support from my dear friends during this journey: Fernanda, Letícia,
Christian (amigos de Freising), Tiago & Roberto (meus médicos e amigos de plantão), Ronaldo (meu
consultor para assuntos técnicos e motivador nas horas difíceis), Andrea (pelas horas e história
divertidas em Porto Alegre), Christian, Romi & Ká (pelas horas divertidíssimas na Alemanha), Ari e
Luiz (pela amizade e pelo apoio de sempre). And all other dear friends, who always were there for
me and know who they are.
I thank my family, José Carlos, Giovanna, Graziela e Bruno for the support during all these
years of Germany. Obrigada por tudo e principalmente por aguentarem as saudades!
I dedicate this thesis to all “gaúchos", who know how important the Campos are and still fight
against the rapid change of traditional land use (cattle grazing). To the “gauchos”, who fight for the
conservation of their traditions and the conservation of the beautiful Campos. I hope you still can see
the horizon for many, many years!
_______________________________________________________________________ ii _____________________________________________________________________Preface
PREFACE
The thesis is written as a cumulative PhD thesis. Chapters 1 to 5 are independent
papers that were and will be submitted for publication in different scientific journals. Moreover,
an introduction and a conclusion with an integrating discussion join considerations of the
different chapters. In order to facilitate reading, tables and figures were inserted into the text.
References about papers in preparation were referred according to the chapter. References in
text and in the bibliography were all formatted in the same way. Enumeration of tables and
figures was conducted separately for each chapter.
In addition to English and German summaries, a summary in Portuguese was written at
the end of the thesis, briefly presenting the contents of each chapter.
















_______________________________________________________________________ iii





INTRODUCTION














(Morro Santana, Porto Alegre)

“…A comienzos de primavera la pampa se muestra en todo su esplendor cuando
florecen centenares de especies de gramíneas, semejando la estepa un mar de
pasto policromo que se agita a impulsos del viento…”
(Cabrera & Willink 1973)