Applications of Synchrotron Radiation

Applications of Synchrotron Radiation

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Physics and engineering governing the applications of synchrotron radiation is based on enormous achievements during more than one hundred years in the ?led of X-ray physics and technology. The contents of this book, starting with the very general aspects of synchrotron radiation investigated, have been developedby numerousscientist andexperimentalistin this ?eld during the past 20 years. The readers are recommended to visit the websites of major synchrotron facilities in the world, and update their knowledge of this rapidly changing and progressing ?eld. Since this book covers a wide range of topics related to the experimental aspects, from the physics to biology, in many occasions it does not cover the many important works by scientists in the ?eld. A note of acknowledgement must begin with a sincere apology of shortcomings in referring to all the important works in the ?eld. The author is very much indebted to Professor Atsuo Iida of Photon factory, Tsukuba Japan, where most of the experiments and achievements reported in this book were initiated. I should express my thanks to all the researchers in High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Institute of Material Structure Science (Photon Factory) and Japan Synchrotron Rad- tion ResearchInstitute (SPring8),who made the experiments possible for me and my colleagues who performed the main experimental topics during 1995 to 2003 presented in this book. Contribution by Professor S.

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Published 31 May 2007
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Contents
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Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Synchrotron Radiation and Xray Fluorescence Spectroscopy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Synchrotron Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Advances in Synchrotron Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Examples of Synchrotron Radiation Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (SR-XRF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.1 Fluorescence X-ray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.2 Detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.3 X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry: A Typical Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.4 Background Level in Detected Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.4.1 Basic Components of the Background in SR-XRF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.4.2 Compton Scattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.4.3 Elastic Scattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.4.4 Bremsstrahlung Radiation of Photoelectrons in the Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.4.5 Improvement for Reducing the Background . . 2.5 Quantitative XRF Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.1 Basic Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.2 Development of Computer Programs for Quantitative XRF Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.2.1 Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.2.2 Algorithm and Basic Equations for the Spectrum Analysis and Quantification . . . 2.5.2.3 Minimum Detection Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.2.4 Conclusion and Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 XANES Analysis for Metalloprotein in Biomedical Samples . .
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2.6.1 Principles and Features of Micro-XANES . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.2 Beam Line Set-up and Experimental Instruments . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Xray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy. . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 Absorption and Transmission of X-ray through Matter . . . . . . 3.2 X-ray Absorption Fine Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 EXAFS and XANES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Measurement Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Experimental Layout for XAFS Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Chemical Shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Chemical State Imaging and Selectively Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SR Microbeam Analysis at Cellular Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Elemental Images of Single Macrophage Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Culture of Macrophages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2.1 Macrophages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2.2 Procedures for the Cell Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2.3 Histological Observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2.4 Morphological Observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 SR Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3.1 Sample Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3.2 Experimental Set-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.4 Experimental Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.4.1 Elemental Images of Macrophages . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.4.2 Result of X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.4.2.1 Culture in Cr Chloride Solution Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.4.2.2 Culture in Fe Chloride Solution Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.4.2.3 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.5 Consideration about the Interactions between Macrophages and Foreign Metal Elements . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Elemental Images of Single Neurons by using SR-XRF . . . . . . 4.3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Procedures of Cell Culture and Morphological Observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2.1 Neuron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2.2 Procedures of Cell Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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4.3.2.3 Morphologic Observation with Scanning Electron Microscope . . . . . . . . . 82 Sample Preparation and Experimental Methods . . . . . . 85 Challenge for In Vivo and In Situ Measurement of Living Single Neurons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 4.3.4.1 Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 4.3.4.2 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 4.3.4.3 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 4.3.4.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Experimental Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 4.3.5.1 Elemental Images of Neurons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 4.3.5.2 Result of X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 4.3.5.3 Results of EPMA Imaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 4.3.5.3.1 Experimental Set-up and Sample Preparation . . . . . . . . . . 101 4.3.5.3.2 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Discussion about the Interactions between Neurons and Foreign Metal Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Investigation of Differentiation of Mouse ES Cells. . . . . . . .107 5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 5.2 Investigation about the Effect of the Unoriented Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 5.2.1 Cell Culture and Sample Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 5.2.2 XRF Analysis and Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 5.2.3 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 5.3 Investigation of the Process of Neuronal Differentiation . . . . . . 116 5.3.1 Induction of Neuronal Differentiation and Sample Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 5.3.2 Experimental Procedures and Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 5.3.3 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 5.4 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 5.A Appendix: Culture Procedure of Mouse ES Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 5.A.1 Culture of Mouse ES Cell without Feeder Layers of PMEF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 5.A.2 Preparation of Mouse PA6 Cell Feeder Layer . . . . . . . . . 128 5.A.3 Neural Differentiation from Embryonic Stem Cells . . . . 129 5.A.4 Culture on Mylar Film and Sample Preparation . . . . . . 129 Appendix References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
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Investigation of Neurodegenerative Disorders (I). . . . . . . . .131 6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 6.2 Parkinsonism-Dementia Complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 6.2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 6.2.2 Sample Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 6.2.3 Experimental Procedures and Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 6.2.4 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 6.2.5 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 6.3 Chemical State of Iron in Parkinsonism-Dementia complex (PDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 6.3.1 Experimental Procedures and Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 3+ 2+ 6.3.2 Quantitative Analyses and Fe /Fe Ratio . . . . . . . . . 144 6.3.3 Discussions and Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 6.3.4 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
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Investigation of Neurodegenerative Disorders (II). . . . . . . .151 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 7.2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 7.2.2 Sample Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 7.2.2.1 Anterior Horn Tissues from FALS and SALS Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 7.2.2.2 Cultured Mouse Cells Injected with ALS DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 7.2.3 Experimental Procedures and Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 7.2.3.1 Anterior Horn Tissues from FALS and SALS Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 7.2.3.2 Cultured Mouse Cells Injected with ALS DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 7.2.4 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 7.2.4.1 Anterior Horn Tissues from FALS and SALS Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 7.2.4.2 Cultured Mouse Cells Injected with ALS DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 7.2.5 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 7.2.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Application for Investigating the Mechanisms of ALS . . . . . . . 167 7.3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 7.3.2 Material and Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 7.3.3 Experimental Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 7.3.4 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Quantitative Analysis of Zinc, Copper and Iron in Alzheimer’s Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 7.4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
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7.4.2 Experimental Procedures and Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 7.4.3 Discussions and Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 7.5 Cell Degeneration in Friedreich Ataxia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 7.5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 7.5.2 Experimental Procedures and Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 7.5.3 Discussions and Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
SR Analysis of Tissues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193 8.1 Quantification Analysis of Zinc in Prostate Cancer Tissues . . . 193 8.1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 8.1.2 Zinc Distribution in Human Prostate Cancer Tissues and Normal Tissues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 8.1.3 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 8.2 Application in the Development of New Implant Material . . . . 207 8.2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 8.2.2 Clinical Background and Sample Preparation . . . . . . . . 208 8.2.3 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 8.2.3.1 Case 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 8.2.3.2 Case 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 8.2.4 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217
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