Development of a methodology for the establishment of a system to determine solid waste composition
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Development of a methodology for the establishment of a system to determine solid waste composition

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EURO PEAN COMMISSION SCIENCE RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT technical steel research Reduction of iron ores Development of a methodology for the establishment of a system to determine solid waste composition hi Report m EU R 1 841 9 EN STEEL RESEARCH EUROPEAN COMMISSION Edith CRESSON, Member of the Commission responsible for research, innovation, education, training and youth DG XII/C.2 — RTD — Actions: Industrial and materials technologies Materials and steel Contact: Mr H. J.-L Martin Address: European Commission, rue de la Loi 200 (MO 75 1/10), B-1049 Bruxelles — Tel. (32-2) 29-53453; fax (32-2) 29-65987 European Commission technical steel research Reduction of iron ores Development of a methodology for the establishment of a system to determine solid waste composition M. Estrela, J. Gomes, M. Vrhovac instituto de Soldadura e qualidade Estrada Nacional 249 - Km3 Cabanas - Leiao (Tagus Park) P-2781 Oeiras Codex Contract No 7210-AA/931/932 1 July 1991 to 30 April 1995 Final report Directorate-General Science, Research and Development 1998 EUR 18419 EN LEGAL NOTICE Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of the following information. A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet. It can be accessed through the Europa server (http://europa.eu.int). Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication.

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EURO PEAN
COMMISSION
SCIENCE
RESEARCH
DEVELOPMENT
technical steel research
Reduction of iron ores
Development of
a methodology for
the establishment
of a system to
determine solid
waste composition
hi
Report
m
EU R 1 841 9 EN STEEL RESEARCH EUROPEAN COMMISSION
Edith CRESSON, Member of the Commission
responsible for research, innovation, education, training and youth
DG XII/C.2 — RTD — Actions: Industrial and materials technologies
Materials and steel
Contact: Mr H. J.-L Martin
Address: European Commission, rue de la Loi 200 (MO 75 1/10),
B-1049 Bruxelles — Tel. (32-2) 29-53453; fax (32-2) 29-65987 European Commission
technical steel research
Reduction of iron ores
Development of a methodology for the
establishment of a system to determine
solid waste composition
M. Estrela, J. Gomes, M. Vrhovac
instituto de Soldadura e qualidade
Estrada Nacional 249 - Km3
Cabanas - Leiao (Tagus Park)
P-2781 Oeiras Codex
Contract No 7210-AA/931/932
1 July 1991 to 30 April 1995
Final report
Directorate-General
Science, Research and Development
1998 EUR 18419 EN LEGAL NOTICE
Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission
is responsible for the use which might be made of the following information.
A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet.
It can be accessed through the Europa server (http://europa.eu.int).
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication.
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1998
ISBN 92-828-4564-8
© European Communities, 1998
Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.
Printed in Luxembourg
PRINTED ON WHITE CHLORINE-FREE PAPER CONTENTS
SECTION A : SUMMARY REPORT 9
SECTION Β : TECHNICAL REPORT 13
I -INTRODUCTION5
Il -AIMS OF THE PROJECT7
II! - DEFINITION OF THE RESEARCH ACTIVITIES 18
IV - ANALYSIS OF PROCESSES OCCURRING IN THE LD/LBE
CONVERTER, ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE AND BLAST FURNACE 20
4.1 - General aspects of fume and dust generated in Iron Making and
Steel Making 2
4.1.1 - Iron Making by the Blast Furnace route
4.1.2 - Oxygen Steel Making
4.1.3 - Electric Arc Furnace Steel Making
4.2 - Description of EAF process and installations 25
4.2.1 - Abstract of equipment
4.2.1.1 - Electric arc furnace
4.2.1.2 - Ladle furnace
4.2.2 - Process description
4.3 - Description of LD/LBE Converter process and equipment 31
4.3.1 -Abstract of equipment
4.3.2 - Process description
4.3.3 - Average composition of raw materials and products
(during 1992)
4.4 - Description of Blast Furnace process and installations 36
4.4.1 - Abstract of equipment
4.4.2 - Process and installations description
4.4.3 - Typical composition of materials
V - CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISATION OF WASTES 43
5.1 - Methodology of sampling and analysis for the electric arc furnace
5.1.1 - Chemical characterisation of EAF dust
5.1.2 - Size and range of particles collected from EAF-Maia plant
expressed in w/w percentage.
5.2 - Methodology of sampling and analysis for the Blast Furnace 44
5.2.1 - Chemical characterisation of Blast Furnace sludge
(solid phase) 5.2.2 - Size and range of particles collected from Blast Furnace
plant expressed in w/w percentage
5.3 - Methodology of sampling and analysis for the LD/LBE Converter 48
5.3.1 - Chemical characterisation of LD/LBE converter sludge
(solid phase)
5.4 - Determination of teachability of wastes by water 50
5.4.1 - Analysis of leaching test results
VI - ESTABLISHMENT OF STATISTICAL CORRELATIONS3
6.1 - Analysis of the Blast Furnace 5
6.1.1 - Parametric analysis
6.1.2 - Introduction to the neural network modelling
6.1.3 - Al techniques used in "Data mining"
6.1.4 - Back propagation neural network
6.1.5 - Kohonen LVQ neural network
6.1.6 - Fuzzy ART neural network
6.1.7 - Definition of "evolved" problem descriptors
6.1.8 - Training of the model
6.1.9 - Testing of thel
6.1.10 - Conclusions
6.2 - Analysis of the Electric Arc Furnace 53
6.2.1 - Mass balances
6.2.2 - Conclusions
6.3 - Analysis of the LD/LBE Converter 67
6.3.1 - Parametric analysis
6.3.2 - Conclusions
VII- ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES FOR TREATMENT OF WASTES 69
7.1 - Introduction 6
7.2 - Maia Long Products Plant- Processes for treating EAF dust 70
A - PYROMETALLURGICAL PROCESSES 77
A.1 - Rotary kiln processes
A.1.1 - Waelz process
A.1.2 - Inclined Rotary Reduction System (IRRS) process
A.2 - PLASMA PROCESSES 79
A.2.1 - Tetronics plasma process
A.2.2 - Westinghouse Metrec process
A.2.3 - Hi-Plas process 82
A.3 - SMELTING PROCESSES
A.3.1 - Ausmelt furnace system
A.3.2 - St. Joe Flame Reactor process
A.3.3 - Elkem 's High Temperature Metals Recovery (HTMR)
86
B - STABILISATION PROCESSES
B.1 - Classification of EAF dust
B.2 - Inorganic Recycling (l/R) process
B.3 - Solidification of EAF dust
C - HYDROMETALLURGICAL PROCESSES 89
C.1 - Modified Zinzex process
C.2 - Caustic sodas
C.3 - Ezinex process
7.3 - Seixal Long Products Plant - processes for treating Blast Furnace
sludge and LD/LBE Converter sludge. 93
A - PHYSICAL PROCESSES
A.1 - Hydrocyclone process
95
B - PYROMETALLURGICAL PROCESSES
B.1 - Inmetco direct reduction process
B.2 - CONTOP process
B.3 - PTC Hot Metal process
B.4 - Circulating Fluidised Bed Reactor
C - HYDROMETALLURGICAL PROCESSES 98
C.1 - CRM/CEBEDEAU acid leaching process
C.2 - Acid leaching followed by solid-solid separation method
7.4 - COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS 101
102
7.4.1 - Processes for treatment of EAF dust
1-Waelz process
2- Inclined Rotary Reduction System (IRRS) process
3- Tetran ics plasma process
4- Westinghouse Metrec process
5- Hi-Plas process
6- Ausmelt furnace system
7- St. Joe Flame Reactor process
8- Elkem's High Temperature Metals Recovery (HTMR)
9- Classification of EAF dust
10- Inorganic Recycling (l/R) process
11- Solidification of EAF dust 12- Modified Zincex process
13- Caustic sodas
14- Ezinex process
7.4.2 - Processes for treatment of Blast furnace and Converter sludge 1 °7
1- Hydrocyclone process
2- Inmetco direct reduction process
3- CONTOP process
4- PTC Hot Metal process
5- Fluidised bed reactors
6- CRM/CEBEDEAU acid leaching process
7- Conclusions
111
VIII - GENERAL CONCLUSIONS
ANNEX 1 - CHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF ELECTRIC ARC
FURNACE PRODUCTS, RAW-MATERIALS, AND
BY-PRODUCTS/WASTES 113
ANNEX 2 - CHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF BLAST FURNACE
PRODUCTS, RAW-MATERIALS, AND BY-PRODUCTS/WASTES 116
ANNEX 3 - CHEMICALN OF LD/LBE CONVERTER
PRODUCTS, RAW-MATERIALS, AND BY-PRODUCTS/WASTES 124
ANNEX 4 - EAF DUST LEACHING TESTS RESULTS
ANNEX 5 -BLAST FURNACE LEACHING TESTS RESULTS 134
ANNEX 6 - RESULTS FROM TRAINING OF BLAST FURNACE MODEL 136
TABLES : 149
1. Plant operating details from a dust treatment plant
2. Process parameters of Metrec plasma plants for treating EAF dust
3. Investment cost index for Portugal (estimate)
4. Annual mean exchange rates (source : Banco de Portugal)
5. Working stock costs (basis 1995, Portugal)
6. Council Directive Proposal eluate concentration limits for dangerous wastes 153
FIGURES
1- Flowsheet of EAF gases circuit
2- P+l diagram of gas cooling system
3- P+lm of scrubbing tower
4- Blast furnace schematic
5- Typical material balance for blast furnace
6- Blast furnace dedusting unit
7- Available results for electric furnace section
8- Zn splash condenser
9- Free energy diagram for the thermodynamics of zinc fuming and recovery.
10- Zinc volatilisation and reduction of iron oxides in the rotary kiln, schematically.
11- Scheme of a Waelz plant
12- Imperial Smelting process
13- IRRS process flow
14- Tetronics dust treatment process
15- Westinghouse Metrecs for EAF dust treatment
16- Design principle of the Hi-Plas furnace
17- Recovery of zinc metal from high-zinc dust
18- Two furnace EAF dust smelting flowsheet
19- Details of the Ausmelt furnace
20- St. Joe Flame reactor flowsheet
21- Block diagram of Elkem's High Temperature Metals Recovery (HTMR) process
22- Flowm of HTMR process
23- Flowsheet of Classification plant
24- Inorganic Recycling (l/R) process
25- Solidification process for treating EAFD alone
26- Modified Zincex process. Simplified diagram.
27- EAF dust treatment. Conceptual.
28- Conceptual process diagram.
29- Block diagram of caustic soda process
30- Stages of caustic soda process
31- Flow diagram of the Ezinex process for the treatment of zinc bearing flue dust
32- Flowm of hydrocyclones at Hoogovens Ijmuiden
33- Recycling of steel mill wastes via the Inmetco process
34- Scheme of the rotary hearth furnace
35- Reduction mechanism in the Inmetco process
36- Temperature profile
37- Submerged arc melting furnace
38- Flow diagram of CONTOP process
39- PTC Hot Metal process flowsheet
40- Fluidised bed systems
41- Flow diagram for blast furnace sludge treatment, variant 1
42- Flow diagram for blastee treatment, variant 2
REFERENCES 181