PASSIVE SOLAR ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE
244 Pages
English
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PASSIVE SOLAR ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE

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244 Pages
English

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Scientific and technical research
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Language English
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The Commission of the European Communitie
Passive Solar
Architecture
in Europe
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'First European Passive Solar Competition ­ 1980'
Edited by Ralph M. Lebens Commission of the European Communities
PASSIVE SOLAR
ARCHITECTURE IN
EUROPE
The Results of the 'First European Passive Solar
Competition- 1980' NOTE
The publishers would like to draw readers' attention to the fact
that some of the graphic work in the book consists of
reproductions of the original Competition entries. As these were
designed primarily for display, and not for reproduction on
page, clarity of detail could not always be maintained. V1 h vj
Commission of the European Communities
PASSIVE SOLAR
ARCHITECTURE
IN EUROPE
The Results of the 'First European Passive Solar
Competition ­ 1980'
Editor
Ralph M. Lebens
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N. C.
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The Architectural Press Ltd: London
Halsted Press Division S ^
John Wiley &Sons,New York ' / JT <* « 0ÏWMAU« -, M
DR. Strub and MR. Richard Burke, the Commissioner for Energy, at
the prize-giving ceremony in Brussels.
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Preface
This book documents the winning entries of the First
European Passive Solar Competition organised in
1980 by the Commission of the European
Communities. By explaining why the European
Communities are so involved in energy research
and in activities to promote the utilisation of solar
energy in Europe, the book and the competition will
be put into perspective.
We are all aware that our dependence on imported
oil is too great for both economic and strategic
reasons. All projections of future fuel availability,
whateverthe 'scenario' might be, demand a serious
reduction in energy consumption and a transition
away from oil to other - possibly indigenous -
energy sources. To achieve this, a huge and
coordinated research and development effort is an
imperative need.
Public expenditure on energy research in the
Community is large, totalling 2,100m EUA. Of this
the Commission of the European Communities
contributes 10%, and is therefore, through its
programmes, one of the major moving forces in the
European Energy Research and Development effort.
Indeed, in certain areas, the share contributed by the
Commission is greater. For example, in Solar
Energy Research the Commission's component is
about 40%. Predictions indicate that by the year 2000 directly, store and distribute the solar heat to its vehicle through which members of the European
approximately 5-7% of the Community's total occupants. High heat capacity material (such as building design profession could be encouraged to
energy consumption will be met by solar energy, brick, concrete, stone or water) absorbs the solar use the basic principles of passive solar design.
and energy conservation will account for an even energy as it enters the house and stores it in the This, we have been told by the members of the
larger percentage. form of heat. The living spaces are carefully judges' panel, has been achieved with considerable
arranged so that they are in direct thermal contact success. The aim of the book is now to spread this
with this store, allowing these spaces to be heated Passive solar design brings together these two interest and this knowledge to a larger audience.
directly without the expense of special plumbing or important methods of reducing our dependence on The excellence of the winning designs and the high
non-renewable energy supplies. As such it is being forced hot air distribution systems. standard of the work published here should do
considered by the Commission as an area of much to rouse enthusiasm for the passive solar
particular importance. This competition can be seen Bearing in mind that passive solar energy utilisation approach to architecture in Europe.
as an attempt to merge the objectives of the needed to be encouraged in Europe, the
Commission's solar energy R&D programme with Commission contracted a study in August 1979 to
those of the energy conservation R&D programme. identify the centres of passive solar expertise in
Europe. This led to an experts' meeting in
J L~ v-November 1979, the main proposal of which was Climate sensitive design is not a new concept and
the principles have been used by almost all that the Commission's solar R&D programme
indigenous builders for centuries. Only in the short should encourage passive solar energy utilisation
time-span since the Industrial Revolution, with its along two major routes, namely
Dr. A. Strub cheap energy, have building designers
Head of the Division unfortunately lostthe skills of designing in harmony 1. The development and evaluation of passive solar
"Energy Research" with the climate. Today, these skills have to be technology.
retaught so that designers can use available Commission of the European Communities. 2. The dissemination of the principles of passive
materials to their full potential. In the mainly solar design to the building design profession in
temperate climate of the European Communities, the E.C. countries.
designers must concern themselves primarily with
minimising heat loss and maximising solar gains in This First European Passive Solar Competition is
winter. Such a building should make use of the part of the second area of action. The aim of the
materials from which it is constructed to capture competition has been to provide an educational ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First published in 1981 by
The Architectural Press Ltd: London
Project Supervisor T. C.Steemers, The Commission Published in the USA by Halsted Press,
of the European Communities a Division of John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New York
Directorate General XII
for © ECSC, EEC, EAEC, Brussels and Luxembourg, 1981
Research, Science & Education
ISBN 0 85139 961 4 (British edition) Competition Graphics Paul and Esther Rowley
ISBN 0 470 27266 X (United States edition) n Organisation Sue Staines and Gary Young
Publishing Consultant Graham Marks
Publication arranged by: Photographs of Models Jo Reid and John Peck
Commission of the European Communities Sub-editor Andrew Myer
Directorate-General Information Marketand Innovation Assistant Richard Sale
Luxembourg Book Layout and Graphics Paul Rowley, Graham Marks,
Andrew Myer and Lucia Casotto
EUR 7291 EN-EP Additional Photographs
supplied by Cedric Green
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be Michael Holtz
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any Sergio Los
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, Jo Reid and John Peck
recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Richard Sale
publishers. Such permission, if granted, is subject to a fee Gary Young
depending on the nature of the use.
LEGAL NOTICE
Neitherthe Commission of the European Communities nor any
person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for
the use which might be made of the following information.
We would like to thank the Union Internationale des Architects
(UIA), in Paris, for their cooperation on this competition.
Printed and bound in Great Britain by Mackays of Chatham Ltd Contents
Introduction Page 8
PassiveSolarDesign
TechnicalIntroductionPage 10
CaseStudies:
St.George's School, Wallasey Page 20
Maisons Prototypes, Odeillo Page 22
Scuola Materna di Crosara Page 24
SHED Page 26
AcornClose,Bebington Page 28
MaisonàGinestas Page 30
CliftonNurseriesGreenhouse Page 32
MaisondeVelieuxPage 34
Competition Entries
Introduction Page 36
Prize-WinnersPage 39
CommendationsPage 129
SpecialMentionsPage 175
OtherDetailsof Interest Page 189
CatalogueofEntriesSelected for
ExhibitionPage 200
Reports
Judges' Report Page 203
TechnicalAssessors'ReportPage 204
Organisers'ReportPage 206
Appendices
AppendixA-Competition Entry Form Page 218 x Β - Guidelines for Passive
Solar Heating Design Page 219
Appendix C - Competition Conditions
& Instructions Page 225
Appendix D - CalculationsBookletPage 231 x E - Data BookletPage 237 Introduction
The Passive Solar programme is the youngest of all Although Passive Solar design can involve a passive solar work in the United States, the
areas within the overall energy research and number of these different fields, the Passive Commission conducted a survey of passive solar
development programme being conducted by the programme is organised within Project A, Solar work in the European Community. This study
Commission of the European Communities. The Applications to Dwellings, which has a budget of revealed the very considerable quantity of work
current four-year energy programme has a budget 8.3m EUA (U.K. £5 million). already in progress here, and made
of 105m EUA (U.K. £63 million) and is organised by Project A also includes the following programmes: recommendations on the type of work needed
Directorate General XII of the Commission, which is within the field. Some of the experts identified in the
responsible for Research, Science and Education. - Performance monitoring of solar houses in resulting report were invited to a meeting in
Brussels to discuss the type of work required in a Europe.
proposed passive solar R&D programme. One of The programme is wide-ranging, covering the - Solar heat-storage systems.
the most forcefully voiced recommendations was general areas of Energy Conservation, Hydrogen, - Active solar heating systems for dwellings.
that there should be an architectural competition Geothermal Energy and Systems Analysis, in - High performance vacuum collectors.
addition to Solar Energy. Within the Solar Energy with the objectives of spreading the principles of - Test procedures for flat-plate .
passive solar design to the building design programme, the following eight separate projects - Solar cooling.
profession, within the European Community. are being undertaken:
The Commission sponsors R&D work through
Project A Solar Applications to Dwellings direct contracts with industry, universities and other Ralph Lebens Associates, a small London-based t Β Thermo-mechanical Solar Power organisations within the European Communities. firm of architects and engineers, was invited to
Contractors are usually selected following calls for organize the competition, designated the 'First Plant
tenders which are published in the Official Journal European Passive Solar Competition-1980'. The Project C Photo-voltaic Power Generation t D Photochemical, photobiological of the European Communities. Generally the competition was announced in early April of 1980,
processes Commission contributes up to 50% of the cost of when the documents became available to the
Project Ε , Energy from Biomass each project and the programme is implemented in general public. The submission date for entries was
close cooperation with the governments of the 29th August 1980. The judging was in two stages: t F Solar Radiation Data
Community's member countries. the first by technical assessors from all over Europe, Project G Wind Energy
and the second by a panel of international architects t H Solar y in Agriculture and
with experience in the field of passive solar design. Industry In mid 1979, following the explosive success of