Report of the study group on vegetable proteins in foodstuffs for human consumption, in particular in meat products
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Report of the study group on vegetable proteins in foodstuffs for human consumption, in particular in meat products

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COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES agriculture Report of the study group on vegetable proteins in foodstuffs for human consumption, in particular in meat products Directorate-General Industrial and Technological Affairs 1978 EUR 6026 DA.DE.EN,FR.IT.NL COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES agriculture Report of the study group on vegetable proteins in foodstuffs for human consumption, in particular in meat products ,L.i! L '?mt\ &H ^ nTu - _j 1978 EUR 6026 DA,DE,EN,FR,IT,NL Published by the COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES Directorate-General 'Scientific and Technical Information and Information Management' Bâtiment Jean Monnet LUXEMBOURG LEGAL NOTICE Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person acting on behalf of then is responsible for the use which might be made of the following information A bibliographical slip can be found at the end of this volume © ECSC-EEC-EAEC, Brussels-Luxembourg, 1978 Printed in Luxembourg ISBN 92-825-0441-7 Catalogue number: CD-NK-78-003-EN-C PORMORD This report has "been carried out within the framework of studies made on an initiative of the Commission of the European Communities, It is the result of the activities of a group of independant experts. It does not necessarily reflect the Commission's views on the subject of vegetable proteins in foodstuffs in particular in meat products.

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COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
agriculture
Report of the study group on vegetable
proteins in foodstuffs for
human consumption,
in particular in meat products
Directorate-General
Industrial and Technological Affairs
1978 EUR 6026 DA.DE.EN,FR.IT.NL COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
agriculture
Report of the study group on vegetable
proteins in foodstuffs for
human consumption,
in particular in meat products
,L.i! L '?mt\
&H ^
nTu
- _j
1978 EUR 6026 DA,DE,EN,FR,IT,NL Published by the
COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
Directorate-General
'Scientific and Technical Information and Information Management'
Bâtiment Jean Monnet
LUXEMBOURG
LEGAL NOTICE
Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person acting on
behalf of then is responsible for the use which might be made of the
following information
A bibliographical slip can be found at the end of this volume
© ECSC-EEC-EAEC, Brussels-Luxembourg, 1978
Printed in Luxembourg
ISBN 92-825-0441-7 Catalogue number: CD-NK-78-003-EN-C PORMORD
This report has "been carried out within the framework of studies made on
an initiative of the Commission of the European Communities, It is the
result of the activities of a group of independant experts. It does not
necessarily reflect the Commission's views on the subject of vegetable
proteins in foodstuffs in particular in meat products. Its development
and conclusions do not prejudge the Commission's further position in this
matter. CONTENTS
Paragraph
Report
SUMMARY OP CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 111
INTRODUCTION 1
Origin, terms of reference and composition of the Study Group 1
Mode of operation of the study group and the form of its report 2
Scope of the report 5
SOURCES OP VEGETABLE PROTEINS POODS 7
Vegetatie protein foods and the farming community 10
VEGETABLE PROTEIN POODS AND THE CONSUMER 14
Nutrition 15
Safety 31
Acceptability 41
43
CURRENT TECHNOLOGY AND COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT
55
LEGISLATION
59
Type (a.) products
63
Type (h)s
69
Type {c)s
71
Type {i) products
75
Labelling
80
ENFORCEMENT
83 OTHER POODS
Appendices
Appendix I. Membership of the Study Group and the Commission
Secretariat
Part 1. The nutritional situation in the EEC -Appendix II.
A. Ferro-Luzzi and A. Mariani
Appendix II. Part 2. Note on the methods for the evaluation of protein
quality - A. Perro-Luzzi and A. Mariani
Appendix II. Part 3. Amino acid composition of some traditional foodstuffs
and of potential sources of proteins for human
consumption - T. Staron
Appendix III. Part 1. Existing and new sources of plant proteins suitable
for use in human nutrition - T. Staron
Appendix III. Part 2. Toxic substances contained in potential sources of
proteins for human consumption - T. Staron
Appendix IV. Commercial development of soya bean protein products in
the EEC - A.G. WARD
Appendix V. Potential vegetable protein sources for human consumption
from within the EEC - T. Staron
Appendix VI. Summaries of existing legislation concerned with the UBe of
vegetable protein foods in meat products and the meat product
regulations of the EEC countries, Canada and USA - A. Brincicer
u; Appendix VII. Methods for detection and determination oí' vegetable proteins
in meat products - W.J. Olsman and B. Krol
Appendix VIII. The Report on Novel Protein Poods of the U.K. Pood Standards
Committee
(not attached)*
* Available from Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, England
Ui) SUMMARY OP CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1. The soya bean will continue to be the main source of specialised vegetable protein
products within the EEC in the next period (paragraph 7).
2. Efforts in terms of research, experimental farming and methods of utilisation should
be made to develop vegetable protein sources readily and economically grown within
the EEC (paragraphs 8, 9).
3. The use of vegetable protein foods with meat in mixed products is unlikely to have a
serious adverse commercial effect on meat production and marketing and may even
facilitate the economic use of the les3 easily utilised meat cuts (paragraph 10).
4. Ready acceptability as foods and cost reduction rather than nutritional considerations
will determine the rate of entry of vegetable protein foods on the market (paragraphs
14, 40).
5. In the absence of evidence of inadequacy of protein intake for any significant seotor
of population within the EEC there is no need to bring the biological performance of
vegetable protein to a high level, as indicated by animal tests. Further research is
needed to develop a reliable and reproducible biological test method. It is recommended
that a minimum figure for an appropriate biological test be set (equivalent to 65 1» of
that for casein in the PER method), although the possibility of UBing a combination of
chemical test methods for routine industrial purposes should be explored (paragraphs
19-22).
6. A crude protein content (N x b.25) of 48 % on dry weighx should be required, in order
to justify the use of the word "protein" in the product title (paragraph 24).
7. When vegetable protein foods are used in replacement of, or as substitutes for, meat,
the following nutrient levels should be present in the vegetable protein food or food
ingredient :-
Quantity per 10U g. dry matter
Iron 10 mg., achieved, if necessary, by tiie addition of ferrous sulpnate or
other assimilable form of iron
Thiamin 2.0 mg
Riboflavin 0.8 mg
Vitamin B^ 5.0>»g.
The use of amino acid supplementation is considered neither advisable nor necessary
(see No. 5 above). While the majority of the Study Group members consider the
nutritional requirements to be applicable throughout the EEC, a minority would prefer
that enrichment should be left to national authorities for decision (paragraphs 25-29).
8. The following sources of vegetable proxein foods are regarded as offering no hazard to
human health and should be accepted for use in xne preparation of food products :-
(i) the main cereal seeds
(ii) the potato
(iii) legumes already widely used as vegetables in the EEC (e.g. peas,
beans)
(iv) soya beans
(v) groundnuts (subject to testing for absence of aflatoxin).
¿•urther consideration should be given to confirm the acceptability of sunflower seed
and coconut.
The Scientific Committee for Pood should be asked to investigate and add to the above
permitted list, where appropriate, further sources of vegetable protein foods and also
to consider any processing method which could or might give rise to toxic substances
(paragraphs 34-39).
(iii) 9. Wherever appropriate, existing codes or regulations concerning the raw material quality
of plant sources to he used for preparation of vegetable protein foods should he
adopted for control purposes (paragraph Şl).
10. The effect of the introduction of vegetable protein foods (if anyJ and the extent of
their consumption should he monitored on a regular basis. As an initial precaution,
substitution for meat in meat products should be limited to 30 "¡a (paragraphs 41, 60,).
11. Pour categories of foods, which are either meat products or serve a similar dietary
purpose, require regulatory provisions. Of these (a) and (b) below, which are closely
related to existing meat products, are unsuitable for EEC harmonisation of legislation
until such time (if ever) as the meat product regulations themselves are harmonised.
The diversity of existing provisions for meat products in the nine countries does not
allow a common set of requirements to be sought successfully. The principles given
below should still be followed in separate national provisions for these two types.
For types (c) and (d) below it may be possible to move towards harmonisation of
legislation more readily, in the form of a directive based on the principles given
(paragraphs 56, 70).
12. Type (a) products. Addition of up to 2 % of vegetable protein product to meat
products (calculated as dry weight on total weight of meat product) for "functional"
reasons, not in substitution for meat, should be permitted subject only to the name
appearing in the list of ingredients. Where, in national legislation, minimum meat
contents are laid down in any form, such use of vegetable protein products is to be
in addition to the statutory minimum meat content. Where more than 2 % requires to be
added for "functional" reasons, the provisions for type (b) or (c) below must be
invoked since the meat product is transferred to one of these two categories
(paragraphs 57-6U).
13. Type (b; products. These are characteristic meat products, often with traditional
names, identified with the use of meat. The provisions for the use of vegetable protein
products in this group should be as follows:—
(1) by national legislation, provision can be made xo prevent any addition of
vegexable protein products to specified meat products, if this is considered
desirable ;
(ii) up to 30 % of the total meat plus vegetable protein product to be permitted
to be added as vegetable protein product, or, as a near equivalent, up to 35 %
of the total meat protein plus vegetable protein to be vegetable protein. These
figures are to apply irrespective of whether, formally, the vegetable protein
product is being substituted for meat, or is additional to meat, or is a mixture
of these two possibilities ;
(iii) alternatively for the lower meat content products, provided their meat content
is no lower than 70 Jo of any statutory meat requirement for the meat product
itself, vegetable protein product may be added to the maximum extent of 8 % dry
weight, expressed on the total weight of the meat product ;
(iv) the presence of the vegetable protein must be clearly indicated in the name of
the product, as well as in the list of ingredients ;
(v) the percentages of meat and of vegetable protein food (hydrated) must be clearly
disclosed on the label.
The term "meat product extended with vegetable protein", with substitution of specific
names, would distinguish the type (paragraphs 61-65, 73).
M. Type (c) products. New products containing meat and vegetable protein, not presented
or named as traditional meat products, should be allowed to contain any desired
proportion of meat and vegetable protein, subject to adequately informative names
being used, to quantitative declarations on the label of meat and vegetable protein
and to an appropriate list of ingredients. The term "combination e n
and meat product" with substitution of specific names would distinguish the type
(paragraphs 66, 67, 73).
(iv)