The Nidoviruses

The Nidoviruses

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English

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This book summarizes the keynote and plenary speeches and posters of the Xth International Nidovirus Symposium: Toward Control of SARS and Other Nidovirus Diseases” that was held in Colorado Springs, Colorado, June 25–30, 2005. The nine previous meetings of scientists investigating the molecular biology and pathogenesis of coronaviruses, toroviruses, arteriviruses, and okaviruses were generally held every 3 years since the first meeting was convened in Wurzburg, Germany, in October, 1980. The Xth International Symposium was held just 2 years after the IXth International Symposium (Nido2003) in The Netherlands, because of the tremendously increased research on nidoviruses that resulted from the discovery that the global epidemic of severe acute res- ratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002–2003 was caused by a newly discovered coronavirus called SARS-CoV. A record 225 scientists from 14 countries attended the Xth International Nidovirus Symposium, and important advances in every aspect of nidovirus molecular biology and pathogenesis were reported and discussed. The meeting was divided into 12 sessions, with keynote speakers providing a general review of research pertinent to each one. This volume is a collection of scientific papers presented at the symposium. Once a coronavirus was recognized as the etiological agent of SARS, intensive work by many investigators resulted in determination of the sequence of the virus, engineering of reverse genetics systems, and identification of the host cell receptor used by the virus. With the increased interest in coronaviruses, new members of the family associated with human disease were identified.

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Published 01 May 2007
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I. VIRAL RNA SYNTHESIS
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.
1.6.
CONTENTS
THE CORONAVIRUS REPLICASE: INSIGHTS INTO A SOPHISTICATED ENZYME MACHINERY.......................................3 John Ziebuhr
BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF CORONAVIRUS REPLICATION ..................................................................................................13 Luis Enjuanes, Fernando Almazán, Isabel Sola, Sonia Zúñiga, Enrique Alvarez, Juan Reguera, and Carmen Capiscol
A PREVIOUSLY UNRECOGNIZED UNR STEM-LOOP STRUCTURE IN THE CORONAVIRUS 5’ UNTRANSLATED REGION PLAYS A FUNCTIONAL ROLE IN REPLICATION ...................................................25 Pinghua Liu, Jason J. Millership, Lichun Li, David P. Giedroc, and Julian L. Leibowitz
REGULATION OF CORONAVIRUS TRANSCRIPTION: VIRAL AND CELLULAR PROTEINS INTERACTING WITH TRANSCRIPTION-REGULATING SEQUENCES...............................31 Sonia Zúñiga, Isabel Sola, Jose L. Moreno, Sara Alonso, and Luis Enjuanes
DEUBIQUITINATING ACTIVITY OF THE SARS-CoV PAPAIN-LIKE PROTEASE ........................................................................................................37 Naina Barretto, Dalia Jukneliene, Kiira Ratia, Zhongbin Chen, Andrew D. Mesecar, and Susan C. Baker
NUCLEOCAPSID PROTEIN EXPRESSION FACILITATES CORONAVIRUS REPLICATION ....................................................................43 Barbara Schelle, Nadja Karl, Burkhard Ludewig, Stuart G. Siddell, and Volker Thiel
ix
x
1.7.
1.8.
1.9.
1.10.
1.11.
1.12.
1.13.
1.14.
1.15.
CONTENTS
NON STRUCTURAL PROTEINS 8 AND 9 OF HUMAN CORONAVIRUS 229E....................................................................................................................49 Rajesh Ponnusamy, Jeroen R. Mesters, John Ziebuhr, Ralf Moll, and Rolf Hilgenfeld
EFFECTS OF MUTAGENESIS OF MURINE HEPATITIS VIRUS NSP1 AND NSP14 ON REPLICATION IN CULTURE .............................................55 Lance D. Eckerle, Sarah M. Brockway, Steven M. Sperry, Xiaotao Lu, and Mark R. Denison
MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF MHV-A59 REPLICASE PROTEIN-NSP10...............................................................................................61 Eric F. Donaldson, Amy C. Sims, Damon J. Deming, and Ralph S. Baric
THE NSP2 PROTEINS OF MOUSE HEPATITIS VIRUS AND SARS CORONAVIRUS ARE DISPENSABLE FOR VIRAL REPLICATION ..................................................................................................67 Rachel L. Graham, Amy C. Sims, Ralph S. Baric, and Mark R. Denison
MOLECULAR DISSECTION OF PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY VIRUS PUTATIVE NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEIN 2........................................................................................................73 Kay S. Faaberg, Jun Han, and Yue Wang
DIFFERENTIAL ROLE OF N-TERMINAL POLYPROTEIN PROCESSING IN CORONAVIRUS GENOME REPLICATION AND MINIGENOME AMPLIFICATION…………………………………………...79 Carmen Galán, Luis Enjuanes, and Fernando Almazán
IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME CORONAVIRUS SUBGENOMIC RNAs ......85 Snawar Hussain, Ji’an Pan, Jing Xu, Yalin Yang, Yu Chen, Yu Peng, Ying Wu, Zhaoyang Li, Ying Zhu, Po Tien, and Deyin Guo
IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A UNIQUE RIBOSOMAL FRAMESHIFTING SIGNAL IN SARS-CoV ORF3A................................................................................................................89 Xiao X. Wang, Ying Liao, Sek M. Wong, and Ding X. Liu
ADP-RIBOSE-1”-PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITIES OF THE HUMAN CORONAVIRUS 229E AND SARS CORONAVIRUS X DOMAINS.............93 Ákos Putics, Jutta Slaby, Witold Filipowicz, Alexander E. Gorbalenya, and John Ziebuhr
1.19.
2.3.
2.5.
MHV-A59 ORF1A REPLICASE PROTEIN NSP7-NSP10 PROCESSING IN REPLICATION...........................................................................................101 Damon J. Deming, Rachel L. Graham, Mark R. Denison, and Ralph S. Baric
2.2.
2.1.
1.18.
STEM-LOOP 1 IN THE 5’ UTR OF THE SARS CORONAVIRUS CAN SUBSTITUTE FOR ITS COUNTERPART IN MOUSE HEPATITIS VIRUS ..............................................................................................................105 Hyojeung Kang, Min Feng, Meagan E. Schroeder, David P. Giedroc, and Julian L. Leibowitz
TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF RNA3 OF INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS VIRUS .....................................................................................109 Soonjeon Youn, Ellen W. Collisson, and Carolyn E. Machamer
NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS OF HUMAN CORONAVIRUS NL63...................................................................................................................97 Yvonne Piotrowski, Lia van der Hoek, Krzysztof Pyrc, Ben Berkhout, Ralf Moll, and Rolf Hilgenfeld
2.4.
xi
1.17.
CONTENTS
1.16.
SUMOYLATION OF THE NUCLEOCAPSID PROTEIN OF SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME CORONAVIRUS BY INTERACTION WITH UBC9 ..................................................................121 Qisheng Li, Han Xiao, James P. Tam, and Ding X. Liu
IMPORTANCE OF MHV-CoV A59 NUCLEOCAPSID PROTEIN COOH-TERMINAL NEGATIVE CHARGES……………………………….127 Valerie Bednar, Sandhya Verma, Andrew Blount, and Brenda G. Hogue
II. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, STRUCTURE, AND PROCESSING
STRUCTURE, EXPRESSION, AND INTRACELLULAR LOCALIZATION OF THE SARS-CoV ACCESSORY PROTEINS 7a AND 7b ........................................................................................................115 Andrew Pekosz, Scott R. Schaecher, Michael S. Diamond, Daved H. Fremont, Amy C. Sims, and Ralph S. Baric
EXPRESSION AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS VIRUS NUCLEOPROTEIN....................................................133 Kelly-Anne Spencer and Julian A. Hiscox
MOUSE HEPATITIS VIRUS INFECTION ACTIVATES THE IRE1/XBP1 PATHWAY OF THE UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE...........................139 John Bechill, Zhongbin Chen, Joseph W. Brewer, and Susan C. Baker
III. VIRAL ASSEMBLY AND RELEASE
THE NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNAL OF THE PRRS VIRUS NUCLEOCAPSID PROTEIN MODULATES VIRAL REPLICATIONIN VITROAND ANTIBODY RESPONSEIN VIVO.........................................................145 Changhee Lee, Douglas C. Hodgins, Jay G. Calvert, Siao-Kun Wan Welch, Rika Jolie, and Dongwan Yoo
3.3.
2.9.
2.8.
2.7.
3.2.
xii
2.6.
CONTENTS
3.4.
3.5.
ROLE OF MOUSE HEPATITIS CORONAVIRUS ENVELOPE PROTEIN TRANSMEMBRANE DOMAIN……………………………………………. 187 Ye Ye and Brenda G. Hogue
ULTRASTRUCTURE OF SARS-CoV, FIPV, AND MHV REVEALED BY ELECTRON CRYOMICROSCOPY .........................................................181 Benjamin W. Neuman, Brian D. Adair, Craig Yoshioka, Joel D. Quispe, Ronald A. Milligan, Mark Yeager, and Michael J. Buchmeier
MOUSE HEPATITIS CORONAVIRUS NUCLEOCAPSID PHOSPHORYLATION....................................................................................157 Tiana C. White and Brenda G. Hogue
3.1.
SARS CORONAVIRUS ACCESSORY ORFs ENCODE LUXURY FUNCTIONS....................................................................................................149 Matthew B. Frieman, Boyd Yount, Amy C. Sims, Damon J. Deming, Thomas E. Morrison, Jennifer Sparks, Mark Denison, Mark Heise, and Ralph S. Baric
PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES AGAINST THE NUCLEOCAPSID PROTEIN OF SARS-COV ................................................................................................153 Ying Fang, Andrew Pekosz, Lia Haynes, Eric A. Nelson, and Raymond R. R. Rowland
NEW INSIGHTS ON THE STRUCTURE AND MORPHOGENESIS OF BERNE VIRUS ..........................................................................................175 Ana Garzón, Ana M. Maestre, Jaime Pignatelli, M. Teresa Rejas, and Dolores Rodríguez
THE TRANSMEMBRANE DOMAIN OF THE INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS VIRUS E PROTEIN IS REQUIRED FOR EFFICIENT VIRUS RELEASE............................................................................................193 Carolyn E. Machamer and Soonjeon Youn
GENETIC AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERACTIONS IN CORONAVIRUS ASSEMBLY .....................................................................................................163 Paul S. Masters, Lili Kuo, Rong Ye, Kelley R. Hurst, Cheri A. Koetzner, and Bilan Hsue
PROTEOLYSIS OF SARS-ASSOCIATED CORONAVIRUS SPIKE GLYCOPROTEIN............................................................................................235 Graham Simmons, Andrew J. Rennekamp and Paul Bates
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SARS CORONAVIRUS AND ITS RECEPTOR .....................................................................................229 Fang Li, Wenhui Li, Michael Farzan, and Stephen C. Harrison
PORCINE ARTERIVIRUS ENTRY IN MACROPHAGES: HEPARAN SULFATE – MEDIATED ATTACHMENT, SIALOADHESIN-MEDIATED INTERNALIZATION, AND A CELL-SPECIFIC FACTOR MEDIATING VIRUS DISASSEMBLY AND GENOME RELEASE...............................................................................247 Peter L. Delputte and H. J. Nauwynck
FLUORESCENCE DEQUENCHING ASSAYS OF CORONAVIRUS FUSION............................................................................................................241 Victor C. Chu, Lisa J. McElroy, Beverley E. Bauman, and Gary R. Whittaker
EFFICIENT TRANSDUCTION OF DENDRITIC CELLS USING CORONAVIRUS-BASED VECTORS ...............................................203 Klara K. Eriksson, Divine Makia, Reinhard Maier, Luisa Cervantes, Burkhard Ludewig, and Volker Thiel
IV. VIRAL ENTRY
4.3.
VIROPORIN ACTIVITY OF SARS-CoV E PROTEIN.................................199 Ying Liao, James P. Tam, and Ding X. Liu
INSIGHTS FROM THE ASSOCIATION OF SARS-CoV S-PROTEIN WITH ITS RECEPTOR, ACE2........................................................................209 Wenhui Li, Hyeryun Choe, and Michael Farzan
xiii
4.6.
4.7.
ATTACHMENT FACTOR AND RECEPTOR ENGAGEMENT OF SARS CORONAVIRUS AND HUMAN CORONAVIRUS NL63............................ 219 Heike Hofmann, Andrea Marzi, Thomas Gramberg, Martina Geier, Krzysztof Pyrc, Lia van der Hoek, Ben Berkhout, and Stefan Pöhlmann
4.5.
4.4.
3.7.
4.2.
4.1.
CONTENTS
3.6.
ENHANCEMENT OF SARS-CoV INFECTION BY PROTEASES .............................................................................................253 Shutoku Matsuyama, Makoto Ujike, Koji Ishii, Shuetsu Fukushi, Shigeru Morikawa, Masato Tashiro, and Fumihiro Taguchi
xiv
4.8.
4.9.
4.10.
4.11.
4.12.
4.13.
4.14.
4.15.
4.16.
CONTENTS
INCREASED VIRAL TITERS AND SUBTLE CHANGES IN PLAQUE MORPHOLOGY UPON PASSAGE OF SARS-CoV IN CELLS FROM DIFFERENT SPECIES ....................................................................................259 Laura Gillim-Ross, Lindsay K. Heller, Emily R. Olivieri, and David E. Wentworth
HUMAN CORONAVIRUS 229E CAN USE CD209L (L-SIGN) TO ENTER CELLS..........................................................................................265 Scott A. Jeffers, Erin M. Hemmila, and Kathryn V. Holmes
INTRACELLULAR TRANSPORT OF THE S PROTEINS OF CORONAVIRUSES...................................................................................271 Christel Schwegmann-Weβels, Xiaofeng Ren, and Georg Herrler
ANALYSIS OF SARS-CoV RECEPTOR ACTIVITY OF ACE2 ORTHOLOGS ..................................................................................................277 Emily R. Olivieri, Lindsey K. Heller, Laura Gillim-Ross, and David E. Wentworth
INTERACTION BETWEEN THE SPIKE PROTEIN OF HUMAN CORONAVIRUS NL63 AND ITS CELLULAR RECEPTOR ACE2 ................................................................................................................281 Stefan Pöhlmann, Thomas Gramberg, Anja Wegele, Krzysztof Pyrc, Lia van der Hoek, Ben Berkhout, and Heike Hofmann
HUMAN ANGIOTENSIN - CONVERTING ENZYME 2 (ACE2) IS A RECEPTOR FOR HUMAN RESPIRATORY CORONAVIRUS NL63 ...................................................................................285 M. K. Smith, Sonia Tusell, Emily A. Travanty, Ben Berkhout, Lia van der Hoek, and Kathryn V. Holmes
MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS OF GROUP 1 CORONAVIRUSES WITH FELINE APN ........................................................................................289 Sonia M. Tusell and Kathryn V. Holmes
PSEUDOTYPED VESICULAR STOMATITIS VIRUS FOR FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF SARS CORONAVIRUS SPIKE PROTEIN ..........................293 Shuetsu Fukushi, Tetsuya Mizutani, Masayuki Saijo, Shutoku Matsuyama, Fumihiro Taguchi, Ichiro Kurane, and Shigeru Morikawa
SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION OF SARS-CoV STRUCTURAL PROTEINS .......................................................................................................297 Lisa A. Lopez, Ariel Jones, William D. Arndt, and Brenda G. Hogue
CONTENTS
4.17.
4.18.
4.19.
4.20.
4.21.
4.22.
4.23.
4.24.
4.25.
xv
SPIKE GENE DETERMINANTS OF MOUSE HEPATITIS VIRUS HOST RANGE EXPANSION.....................................................................................301 Willie C. McRoy and Ralph S. Baric
VIRION-LIPOSOME INTERACTIONS IDENTIFY A CHOLESTEROL-INDEPENDENT CORONAVIRUS ENTRY STAGE .............................................................................................................305 Joseph A. Boscarino, Jeffrey M. Goletz, and Thomas M. Gallagher
AVIAN INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS VIRUS ENTERS CELLS VIA THE ENDOCYTIC PATHWAY......................................................................309 Victor C. Chu, Lisa J. Mcelroy, A Damon Ferguson, Beverley E. Bauman, and Gary R. Whittaker
THREE-DIMENSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION OF THE NUCLEOLUS USING META-CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY IN CELLS EXPRESSING THE CORONAVIRUS NUCLEOPROTEIN...................................................313 Jae-Hwan You, Mark L. Reed, Brian K. Dove, and Julian A. Hiscox
DISSECTION OF THE FUSION MACHINE OF SARS-CORONAVIRUS ............................................................................319 Megan W. Howard, Brian Tripet, Michael G. Jobling, Randall K. Holmes, Kathryn V. Holmes, and Robert S. Hodges
CHARACTERIZATION OF PERSISTENT SARS-CoV INFECTION IN VERO E6 CELLS........................................................................................323 Tetsuya Mizutani, Shuetsu Fukushi, Masayuki Saijo, Ichiro Kurane, and Shigeru Morikawa
RECEPTOR-INDEPENDENT SPREAD OF A NEUROTROPIC MURINE CORONAVIRUS MHV-JHMV IN MIXED NEURAL CULTURE ...............327 Keiko Nakagaki, Kazuhide Nakagaki, and Fumihiro Taguchi
RECEPTOR-INDEPENDENT INFECTION OF MOUSE HEPATITIS VIRUS: ANALYSIS BY SPINOCULATION .................................................331 Rie Watanabe, Kazumitsu Suzuki, and Fumihiro Taguchi
SARS-CoV, BUT NOT HCoV-NL63, UTILIZES CATHEPSINS TO INFECT CELLS: VIRAL ENTRY ............................................................335 I-Chueh Huang, Berend Jan Bosch, Wenhui Li, Michael Farzan, Peter M. Rottier, and Hyeryun Choe
xvi
CONTENTS
V. PATHOGENESIS OF NONHUMAN CORONAVIRUSESCORONAVIRUS IMMUNITY: FROM T CELLS TO B CELLS...................341 Cornelia C. Bergmann, Chandran Ramakrishna, J. M. Gonzales, S.I. Tschen, and Stephan A. Stohlman RAT CORONAVIRUS INFECTION OF PRIMARY RAT ALVEOLAR EPITHELIAL CELLS ......................................................................................351 Tanya A. Miura, Jieru Wang, Robert J. Mason, and Kathryn V. Holmes INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS CORONAVIRUS INDUCES CELL-CYCLE PERTURBATIONS..........................................................................................357 Brian K. Dove, Katrina Bicknell, Gavin Brooks, Sally Harrison, and Julian A. Hiscox GENES 3 AND 5 OF INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS VIRUS ARE ACCESSORY PROTEIN GENES ..........................................................363 Paul Britton, Rosa Casais, Teri Hodgson, Marc Davis, and Dave Cavanagh NKG2D SIGNALING AND HOST DEFENSE AFTER MOUSE HEPATITIS VIRUS INFECTION OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM..................369 Kevin B. Walsh, Melissa B. Lodoen, Lewis L. Lanier, and Thomas E. Lane MURINE HEPATITIS VIRUS STRAIN 1 AS A MODEL FOR SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME (SARS).........................373 Nadine DeAlbuquerque, Ehtesham Baig, Max Xuezhong, Itay Shalev, M. James Phillips, Marlena Habal, Julian Leibowitz, Ian McGilvray, Jagdish Butany, Eleanor Fish, and Gary Levy PERSISTENT CORONAVIRUS INFECTION OF PROGENITOR OLIGODENDROCYTES.................................................................................379 Yin Liu and Xuming Zhang CD8+ T-CELL PRIMING DURING A CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTION WITH MOUSE HEPATITIS VIRUS .........................................385 Katherine C. MacNamara and Susan R. Weiss ANTIBODY-MEDIATED VIRUS CLEARANCE FROM NEURONS OF RATS INFECTED WITH HEMAGGLUTINATING ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS ...................................................................391 Norio Hirano, Hideharu Taira, Shigehiro Sato, Tsutomu Hashikawa, and Koujiro Tohyama
5.1. 5.2. 5.3. 5.4. 5.5. 5.6. 5.7. 5.8. 5.9.
DEVELOPING BIOINFORMATIC RESOURCES FOR CORONAVIRUSES ................................................................................395 Susan C. Baker, Dalia Jukneliene, Anjan Purkayastha, Eric E. Snyder, Oswald R. Crasta, Michael J. Czar, Joao C. Setubal, and Bruno W. Sobral
5.13.
5.12.
DIFFERENTIAL INDUCTION OF PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES IN PRIMARY MOUSE ASTROCYTES AND MICROGLIA BY CORONAVIRUS INFECTION .................................................................407 Dongdong Yu and Xuming Zhang
5.14.
ANALYSIS OF THE N PROTEIN IN FELINE CORONAVIRUS STRAINS IN ITALY .......................................................................................403 Mara Battilani, Ambra Foschi, Alessandra Scagliarini, Sara Ciulli, Santino Prosperi, and Luigi Morganti
AUTOANTIBODIES EXACERBATE THE SEVERITY OF MHV-INDUCED ENCEPHALITIS...........................................................399 Renaud Burrer, Matthias G. von Herrath, Tom Wolfe, Julia D. Rempel, Antonio Iglesias, and Michael J. Buchmeier
IDENTIFICATION OF THE RECEPTOR FOR FGL2 AND IMPLICATIONS FOR SUSCEPTIBILITY TO MOUSE HEPATITIS VIRUS (MHV-3)-INDUCED FULMINANT HEPATITIS ..........................................421 Hao Liu, Li Zhang, Myron Cybulsky, Reg Gorczynski, Jennifer Crookshank, Justin Manuel, David Grant, and Gary Levy
ROLE OF THE REPLICASE GENE OF MURINE CORONAVIRUS JHM STRAIN IN HEPATITIS..................................................................................415 Sonia Navas-Martín, Maarten Brom, and Susan R. Weiss
PREFERENTIAL INFECTION OF MATURE DENDRITIC CELLS BY THE JHM STRAIN OF MOUSE HEPATITIS VIRUS.............................411 Haixia Zhou and Stanley Perlman
EQUINE VIRAL ARTERITIS .........................................................................429 N. James MacLachlan and Udeni B. Balasuriya
VI. PATHOGENESIS OF ARTERIVIRUSES AND TOROVIRUSES
xvii
USE OF A PRRSV INFECTIOUS CLONE TO EVALUATE IN VITROQUASISPECIES EVOLUTION..................................................... 435 Susan K. Schommer and Steven B. Kleiboeker
6.1.
6.2.
5.15.
5.16.
5.11.
5.10.
CONTENTS
HCoV-OC43–INDUCED APOPTOSIS OF MURINE NEURONAL CELLS ..............................................................................................................473 Hélène Jacomy and Pierre J. Talbot
INFECTION OF HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIA BY SARS CORONAVIRUS IS ASSOCIATED WITH ACE2 EXPRESSION AND LOCALIZATION ...................................................................................479 Hong Peng Jia, Dwight C. Look, Melissa Hickey, Lei Shi, Lecia Pewe, Jason Netland, Michael Farzan, Christine Wohlford-Lenane, Stanley Perlman, and Paul B. McCray, Jr.
7.2.
ANIMAL MODELS FOR SARS .....................................................................463 Anjeanette Roberts and Kanta Subbarao
EFFICACY OF AN INACTIVATED PRRSV VACCINE: INDUCTION OF VIRUS-NEUTRALIZING ANTIBODIES AND PARTIAL VIROLOGICAL PROTECTION UPON CHALLENGE.................................449 Gerald Misinzo, Peter L. Delputte, Peter Meerts, Christa Drexler, and Hans J. Nauwynck
6.5.
SARS AND OTHER CORONAVIRUSES IN HUMANS AND ANIMALS ..............................................................................................457 Leo L. M. Poon
VII. PATHOGENESIS OF HUMAN CORONAVIRUSES
HUMAN CORONAVIRUS NL63 INFECTION IS ASSOCIATED WITH CROUP .................................................................................................485 Lia van der Hoek, Klaus Sure, Gabriele Ihorst, Alexander Stang, Krzysztof Pyrc, Maarten F. Jebbink, Gudula Petersen, Johannes Forster, Ben Berkhout, and Klaus Überla
A SARS-CoV–SPECIFIC PROTEIN ENHANCES VIRULENCE OF AN ATTENUATED STRAIN OF MOUSE HEPATITIS VIRUS.............493 Lecia Pewe, Haixia Zhou, Jason Netland, Chandra Tangadu, Heidi Olivares, Lei Shi, Dwight Look, Thomas Gallagher, and Stanley Perlman
7.5.
7.6.
7.1.
7.3.
6.4.
xviii
7.4.
6.3.
REPLICATION AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF PRRSV DEFECTIVE RNA ...........................................................................................445 Jun Han, Kelly M. Burkhart, Eric M. Vaughn, Michael B. Roof, and Kay S. Faaberg
GAMMA-INTERFERON INVOLVEMENT IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE–ELEVATING VIRUS INFECTION .....................................................................................................439 Andrei Musaji, Dominique Markine-Goriaynoff, Stéphanie Franquin, Gaëtan Thirion, Thao Le Thi Phuong, and Jean-Paul Coutelier
CONTENTS