Tutorial-neu
99 Pages
English
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Tutorial-neu

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99 Pages
English

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Spatial Database SystemsTutorial NotesRalf Hartmut GütingFernuniversität HagenPraktische Informatik IVD-58084 HagenGermanygueting@fernuni-hagen.de Ralf Hartmut Güting, Tutorial Spatial Database Systems1 What is a Spatial Database System?Requirement: Manage data related to some space.Spaces:2D • geographic space (surface of the earth, at large or small (or"2.5D") scales)fi GIS, LIS, urban planning, ...3D • the universefi astronomy2D • a VLSI design3D • a model of the brain (or someone's brain)fi medicine3D • a molecule structurefi biological researchCharacteristic for the supporting technology: capability of man-aging large collections of relatively simple geometric objects Ralf Hartmut Güting, Tutorial Spatial Database SystemsTerms:pictorial database systemimagegeometricgeographicspatialA database may containcollections of raster images objects in some of some spacespaceclear identity, location,extentspatial database image databasesystem systemanalysis,feature extraction Ralf Hartmut Güting, Tutorial Spatial Database SystemsMy personal definition of a spatial DBMS:(1) A spatial database system is a database system(2) It offers spatial data types in its data model and query language(3) It supports spatial data types in its implementation, pro-viding at least spatial indexing and efficient algorithms for spatial join.Focus of this tutorial: describe fundamental problems and known solutions in a ...

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Spatial Database Systems Tutorial Notes Ralf Hartmut Güting Fernuniversität Hagen Praktische Informatik IV D-58084 Hagen Germany gueting@fernuni-hagen.de Ralf Hartmut Güting, Tutorial Spatial Database Systems 1 What is a Spatial Database System? Requirement: Manage data related to some space. Spaces: 2D • geographic space (surface of the earth, at large or small (or"2.5D") scales) fi GIS, LIS, urban planning, ... 3D • the universe fi astronomy 2D • a VLSI design 3D • a model of the brain (or someone's brain) fi medicine 3D • a molecule structure fi biological research Characteristic for the supporting technology: capability of man- aging large collections of relatively simple geometric objects Ralf Hartmut Güting, Tutorial Spatial Database Systems Terms: pictorial database system image geometric geographic spatial A database may contain collections of raster images objects in some of some space space clear identity, location, extent spatial database image database system system analysis, feature extraction Ralf Hartmut Güting, Tutorial Spatial Database Systems My personal definition of a spatial DBMS: (1) A spatial database system is a database system (2) It offers spatial data types in its data model and query language (3) It supports spatial data types in its implementation, pro- viding at least spatial indexing and efficient algorithms for spatial join. Focus of this tutorial: describe fundamental problems and known solutions in a coherent manner. 2 Modeling 3 Querying 4 Tools for Implementation: Data Structures and Algo- rithms 5 System Architecture Tutorial based on article: R.H. Güting, An Introduction to Spatial Database Sys- tems. VLDB Journal 3 (4), 1994 , pp. 357-399. but revised and extended recently Additional references there. Ralf Hartmut Güting, Tutorial Spatial Database Systems 2 Modeling 2.1 What needs to be represented? 2.2 Discrete Geometric Bases 2.3 Spatial Data Types / Algebras 2.4 Spatial Relationships 2.5 Integrating Geometry into the DBMS Data Model « Ralf Hartmut Güting, Tutorial Spatial Database Systems 2.1 What needs to be represented? Two views: (i) objects in space (ii) space itself (i) Objects in space city Berlin, …, population: 3 000 000, city area: river Rhine, …, route: (ii) Space Statement about every point in space ( raster images) • land use maps (“thematic maps”) • partitions into states, counties, municipalities, … Ralf Hartmut Güting, Tutorial Spatial Database Systems We consider: 1. modeling single objects 2. modeling spatially related collections of objects 1. Basic abstractions for modeling single objects : city• point geometric aspect of an object, for which only its loca- tion in space, but not the extent, is relevant river • line (polyline) cable highway moving through space, connections in space • region forest lake city abstraction of an object with extent Ralf Hartmut Güting, Tutorial Spatial Database Systems 2. Basic abstractions for spatially related collections of objects • Partition • land use • districts • land ownership • “environments” of points Voronoi diagram • Spatially embedded network (graph) • highways, streets • railways, public Others: transport • rivers • nested partitions • electricity, phone • digital terrain models ˛ ˛ · Ralf Hartmut Güting, Tutorial Spatial Database Systems 2.2 Organizing the Underlying Space: Discrete Geomet- ric Bases Is Euclidean geometry a suitable base for modeling? Problem: space is continuous computer numbers are discrete 2 p = (x, y) |R real real D’ D B A • Is D on A? • Is D properly contained in the area below AB ? Ralf Hartmut Güting, Tutorial Spatial Database Systems Goal: Avoid computation of any new intersection points within geometric operations Definition of geometric types and operations geometric basis Treatment of numeric problems upon updates of the geometric basis Two approaches: • Simplicial complexes Frank & Kuhn 86 Egenhofer, Frank & Jackson 89 • Realms Güting & Schneider 93 Schneider 97