Freedom of speech and other constitutional values: issues of balancing ; Žodžio laisvė ir kitos konstitucinės vertybės: pusiausvyros nustatymo problemos
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Freedom of speech and other constitutional values: issues of balancing ; Žodžio laisvė ir kitos konstitucinės vertybės: pusiausvyros nustatymo problemos

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MYKOLAS ROMERIS UNIVERSITYAlgimantas ŠindeikisFREEDOM OF SPEECH AND OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL VALUES: ISSUES OF BALANCINGSummary of Doctoral DissertationSocial Sciences, Law (0 S)Vilnius, 20The Doctoral Dissertation was prepared during the period of 2008–20 at Myko-las Romeris University.Scientific Supervisor:Prof. Dr. Juozas Žilys (Mykolas Romeris University, Social Sciences, Law – 0 S) (20)Prof. Dr. Egidijus Jarašiūnas (Mykolas Romeris University, Social Sciences, Law – 0 S) (2008–20)Scientific Consultant:Prof. Dr. Gediminas Mesonis (Mykolas Romeris University, Social Sciences, Law – 0 S) (2008–20) The Doctoral Dissertation is defended at Law Research Council of Mykolas Romeris UniversityChairman: Prof. Dr. Vytautas Sinkevičius (Mykolas Romeris University, Social Sciences, Law – 0 S)Members: Prof. Dr. Habil. Mindaugas Maksimaitis (Mykolas Romeris University, Social Sci-ences, Law – 0 S)Prof. Dr. Beinoravičius (Mykolas Romeris University, Social Sciences, Law – 0 S)Prof. Dr. Dainius Žalimas (Vilnius University, Social Sciences, Law – 0 S)Assoc. Prof. Dr. Vaidotas Vaičaitis (Vilnius University, Social Sciences, Law – 0 S)Opponents: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Edita Žiobienė (Mykolas Romeris University, Social Sciences, Law – 0 S)Prof. Dr.

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Published 01 January 2011
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MYKOLAS ROMERIS UNIVERSITY
Algimantas Šindeikis
FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL VALUES: ISSUES OF BALANCING
Summary of Doctoral Dissertation Social Sciences, Law (01 S)
Vilnius, 2011
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e Doctoral Dissertation was prepared during the period of 2008–2011 at Myko -las Romeris University.
Scientific Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Juozas Žilys (Mykolas Romeris University, Social Sciences, Law – 0 1 S) (2011) Prof. Dr. Egidijus Jarašiūnas (Mykolas Romeris University, Social Sciences, Law – 0 1 S) (20082011)
Scientific Consultant: Prof. Dr. Gediminas Mesonis (Mykolas Romeris University, Social Sciences, Law – 01 S) (20082011) 
e Doctoral Dissertation is defended at Law Research Council of Mykolas Romeris University
Chairman: Prof. Dr. Vytautas Sinkevičius (Mykolas Romeris University, Social Sciences, Law – 01 S)
Members:  Prof. Dr. Habil. Mindaugas Maksimaitis (Mykolas Romeris University, Social Sci -ences, Law – 01 S) Prof. Dr. Beinoravičius (Mykolas Romeris University, Social Sciences, Law 0 1 S) Prof. Dr. Dainius Žalimas (Vilnius University, Social Sciences, Law – 01 S) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Vaidotas Vaičaitis (Vilnius University, Social Sciences, Law – 0 1 S)
Opponents: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Edita Žiobienė (Mykolas Romeris University, Social Sciences, Law – 01 S) Prof. Dr. Egidijus Šileikis (Vilnius University, Social Sciences, Law – 01 S)
e public defence of the Doctoral Dissertation will take place at the Law Research Council at Mykolas Romeris University on August 26, 2011 at 10:00 AM in the Confer-ence Hall of Mykolas Romeris University (Room I-414). Address: Ateities str. 20, LT-08303 Vilnius, Lithuania.
e Summary of the Doctoral Dissertation was sent out on July 26, 2011.
e Doctoral Dissertation is available at Martynas Mažvydas National Library of Lithuania (Gedimino ave. 51, Vilnius, Lithuania) and the library of Mykolas Romeris University (Ateities str. 20, Lithuania).
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MYKOLO ROMERIO UNIVERSITETAS
Algimantas Šindeikis
ŽODŽIO LAISVĖ IR KITOS KONSTITUCINĖS VERTYBĖS: PUSIAUSVYROS NUSTATYMO PROBLEMOS
Daktaro disertacijos santrauka Socialiniai mokslai, teisė (01 S)
Vilnius, 2011
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Disertacija rengta 2008–2011 metais Mykolo Romerio universitete.
Moksliniai vadovai: Prof. dr. Juozas Žilys (Mykolo Romerio universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, teisė – 01 S) (2011) Prof. dr. Egidijus Jarašiūnas (Mykolo Romerio universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, teisė – 01 S) (2008–2011)
Konsultantas: Prof. dr. Gediminas Mesonis (Mykolo Romerio universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, teisė – 01 S) (2008–2011)
Disertacija ginama Mykolo Romerio universiteto Teisės mokslo krypties tary -boje:
Pirmininkas: Prof. dr. Vytautas Sinkevičius (Mykolo Romerio universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, teisė – 01 S)
Nariai: Prof. habil. dr. Mindaugas Maksimaitis (Mykolo Romerio universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, teisė – 01 S)  Prof. dr. Beinoravičius (Mykolo Romerio universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, teisė – 01 S) Doc. dr. Vaidotas Vaičaitis (Vilniaus universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, teisė – 0 1 S)  Prof. dr. Dainius Žalimas (Vilniaus universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, teisė – 01 S)
Oponentai: Doc. dr. Edita Žiobienė (Mykolo Romerio universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, teisė – 01 S) Prof. dr. Egidijus Šileikis (Vilniaus universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, teisė – 01 S)
Disertacija bus ginama viešame Teisės mokslo krypties tarybos posėdyje 2011 m. rugpjūčio 26 d. 10 val. Mykolo Romerio universiteto konferencijų salėje (I-414 aud.). Adresas: Ateities g. 20, LT-08303 Vilnius.
Disertacijos santrauka išsiuntinėta 2011 m. liepos 26 d.
Disertaciją galima peržiūrėti Lietuvos nacionalinėje Martyno Mažvydo bibliote -koje (Gedimino pr. 51, Vilnius) ir Mykolo Romerio universiteto bibliotekoje (Ateities g. 20, Vilnius).
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Algimantas Šindeikis
FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL VALUES: ISSUES OF BALANCING
Summary
Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania sets the principal democratic values of society. Human rights assume special role in the system of constitutional values. Article 25 of the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania establishes the right of a human being to have his own convictions and freely express them. Article 25 of the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania establishes the right to everyone to have freedom to express his opinion and convictions and to freely impart them. is is an essential clause for the creation and protection of democracy. Constitutional freedom of expression is realised in ordinary laws. Article 25 of the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania establishes the principle of free -dom of expression that is realised in the Civil Code of the Republic of Lithuania, Law on Provision of Information to the Public and other ordinary laws. Freedom of expression, just like other constitutional human rights and freedoms, is not absolute. Employment of the freedom of expression faces such requirements that are required in the democratic society to protect the rights and freedoms of other human beings, as well as the constitutional arrangement. Ordinary courts (general jurisdiction and specialised), which examine cases for determining balance of freedom of expression and other constitutional values, must construe the content of constitutional rights of human beings. Decisions by ordinary courts in the cases of determining the balance of freedom of expression and other constitutional values must be based on the constitutional dimension of the freedom of expression and other constitutional values. With the freedom of expression1 -in the contemporary world versatile infor mation (news and opinions) instantly spreads and reaches wide public. Abun -dance of modern electronic mass media, its specific nature in relation to free of charge and easily accessible abundant means of dissemination and gathering of information also require new means of regulation, efficient methods of hon -our and dignity protection, protection of private life, as well as means for the determination of balance of the freedom of expression and other constitutional principles. e age of the Internet created almost ideal conditions for personal 1 this dissertation  Inthe legal concepts “freedom of expression” and “freedom of speech” are used as synonyms just like in international case-law (in Englishfreedom of speech, in GermanRedefreiheit, in Frenchla liberté d’expression). 5
freedom of expression. Alongside with the newspapers, magazines, TV channels, also the wide Internet space provides a possibility for finding and disseminating a lot of opinions, interpretations of facts, direct participation in spreading and commenting on the news by the citizens themselves. Today one may exchange opinions and news with hundreds of thousands of people in a flash. e tenden -cies of Internet use by the public during the first decade of the 21stcentury suggest that professional mass media and journalism gradually lose ground against Web 2.0 Internet era which rendered the global Internet network the space of debates among 1.6 billion Internet users lasting all day long. Exercise of the constitutional freedom of expression (Article 25 of the Con -stitution of the Republic of Lithuania) within the societies following constitutional values is the major factor shaping the political will of citizens. Wide-ranging, all-round public discussion about all public interest issues is possible only subject to due freedom of information. In indirect democracy, strong disseminator of information acting between citizens and the Parliament able to create the field for discussion and mutual impact is a necessity. Significance, quality, all-roundedness of discus -sion on all public interest issues is the major factor determining correct choices of citizens and politicians. Restriction of freedom of expression and information or prohibition of free search, receipt and dissemination thereof shall be considered as subjugation of a human being, as a free and autonomous creature. In the daily life of contemporary democracy communication of political parties with citizens is first of all assisted by free mass media2. e role of the “watchdog” (the term of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) –engl. watchdog) is of major importance in revealing the circumstances under which politicians or other public persons take one or another political and administra -tive decision, allows identifying the reasons and circumstances of taking such de -cisions. No citizens (even the citizens of the most democratic country) are satis -fied with the quality of mass media. is is evidenced both by general intellectual discourse and the number of conflicts arising due to statutory freedom of speech and other constitutional values in international and national courts. And this does not imply only dissatisfaction with the quality of mass media; this implies dissatisfaction with the quality of democracy. e question “Quo vadis– press” implies the question “Quo vadis – democracy”, since press and democracy are interrelated like Siamese twins3 -. erefore, it is particularly important how con flicts over the freedom of speech and other constitutional values will be directed 2 Feckner, F.MedienrechtAuflage. Mohr Siebeck Tübingen verlag, 2009, p. 9.. 10 3 Quo vadis – Presse? Die Zukunf der Presse im digitalen Zeitalter. Von Professor Dr.Jürgen Becker. Yeitschriſt für Urheber und Medienrecht 2010 I. Einführung zum Symposion des Instituts für Urheber- und Medienrecht im Rahmen der Medientage München 2009 am 30. Oktober 2009. 54. Jahrgang Heſt 1/2010. 6
in the future. e concept “democratic society” may be interpreted as the society characterised by the elements of democratic society, i.e. distinctive “features of democratic society , namely, pluralism, tolerance and liberalism4. e Lithuanian media and persons actively exercising the freedom of expression become more and more dependent on the judicial authority. e Lithuanian courts of general jurisdiction acting within the institutional system established by the Constitution and ordinary laws of the Republic of Lithuania in cooperation with the Seimas, Government, Constitutional Court, European Court of Human Rights, Inspector of Journalist Ethics, Ethics Commission of Journalists and Publishers are likely to become more and more important in shaping the jurisprudence of implemen -tation of the freedom of expression and resolutions of contradictions between personal honour and dignity, private life5. Upon implementation of the operating principles of courts in the law doctrine of the Republic of Lithuania, the Lithua -nian case-law becomes a source of law equivalent to ordinary law. e lawsad hoc enacted by the legislature must be interpreted and applied at courts. e effective judgements of the Supreme Court of Lithuania, the Court of Appeal of Lithuania, regional and district courts become the document which must be followed in shaping further culture of actions in the public space for all participants in the public discourse, i.e. citizens, politicians and journalists. Problem of the object of the research. e thesis aims at identifying the tests of balancing between the freedom of self-expression and personal honour and dignity, and private life within the Lithuanian case-law and evaluating if the Lithuanian case-law is in compliance with the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania, European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fun -damental Freedoms and the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights. is dissertation aims at evaluating whether the jurisprudence of the Lithuanian ordinary courts of determining the balance of freedom of speech and other con -
4 29/06/2004 case ECHRLeyla Sabin v.Turkey(GC), case No 444/98, par. 108. 5Court of the Republic of Lithuania “On Decision of 16 January 2006 of the Constitutional the compliance of Article 131 paragraph 4 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of the Re -public of Lithuania (version of 11 September 2001) with the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania, compliance of Article 34 paragraph 5 (versions of 10 April 2003, 16 Septem-ber 2003), Article 244 paragraph 2 (versions of 10 April 2003, 16 September 2003), Article 40 (version of 19 June 2003), Article 408 paragraph 1 (version of 14 March 2002), Article 412 paragraphs 2 and 3 (version of 14 March 2002), Article 413 paragraph 5 (version of 14 March 2002), Article 414 paragraph 2 (version of 14 March 2002) of the Code of Criminal Procedure with the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania and requests of the District Court of Šiauliai Region for investigation if Article 4 10 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of the Republic of Lithuania (version of 14 March 2002) does not contravene the Constitu -tion of the Republic of Lithuania”.Official Gazette. 2006, No -254.
stitutional values corresponds to the wide-ranging and deep in constitutional terms jurisprudence of constitutional and ordinary courts of the countries with the longer history under democratic conditions. e thesis analyses if the Lithua -nian courts of general and special jurisdiction duly determine the balance be -tween equivalent constitutional values, i.e. contradictions between the freedom of speech and personal honour and dignity or protection of personal life. e thesis establishes the tests of resolution of the afore-mentioned contradictions employed by the Lithuanian courts, evaluates if the Lithuanian courts resolving contradictions between the freedom of self-expression and personal honour and dignity or private live properly confine their discretion and having widely re -vealed the conflicting constitutional and conventional valuesad hocproperly bal-ance between them prior to delivering a court judgment. On the basis of the recognised and developed methodology on the analysis of balancing and proportionality of constitutional principles by the Western re -searchers in law (Robert Alexy, Aharon Barak, Carlos Bernal Pulido, Kai Möller, T. Alexander Aleinikoff) over several recent years, the thesis presents the meth -odology for determining the balance of freedom of expression and other consti -tutional principles. is methodology is composed of the unity of three tests for determining the balance of constitutional principles: 1. Rules of balancing of constitutional principles 2. Weight formula of constitutional principles and their balancing elements 3. Burden of argumentation in revealing the contents of balancing elements of constitutional principles in triadic scalead hoc. Development of such methodology for determination of balance of freedom of speech and other constitutional principles required revealing the balancing elements of the weight formula of constitutional principles and their contents in the triadic scale. Test of determining the balance of specific, freedom of expres -sion and other constitutional values – proportionalitystricto sensurequires deep constitutional revelation of balancing elements. e absence of this make impos -sible the balancing of constitutional principles against each other inad hoccase. e major hypothesis of the dissertation is as follows: following the modern theory of proportionate analysis, it is possible to develop the methodology of balancing determination between the freedom of speech (freedom of expression protected by Article 25 of the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania) and other constitutional principles based not on substance methodology, but on methodol -ogy of balancing and proportionality between constitutional principles and pro -vide practical aspects of application of this methodology in the case-law reveal -ing the most common universal judicial precedents of resolutions of the above contradictions (based on the case-law of the ECHR binding upon the Lithuanian courts and precedent case-law of the courts of the USA and Continental Europe)
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which may serve both as a methodological and practical tool in resolving the afore-mentioned contradictions. is methodology is rather complete and may be applied in the case-law in dealing with the problems of determining the bal -ance of particular cases of freedom of speech and other constitutional values. Af -ter introducing the general methodology of resolution of contradictions between the freedom of expression and other constitutional values the thesis considers the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania. Fol -lowing the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithua -nia, this analysis allows to disclose the contents of the balancing elements of the weight formula of the constitutional principle, namely the freedom of speech. Furthermore, the cases of the ECHR and constitutional and ordinary courts of other countries relevant to this issue are considered. Cases of the Lithuanian courts, analysed in this dissertation, were created on the basis of the aspects of the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania and the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms in terms of determination of balance of principles and the analysis of balancing and proportionality. e thesis tries to answer whether the courts of Lithuania “balance” and “weigh”, look for wide-ranging public content of the public interest and freedom of speech,ad hocweight in contemporary political, economic or social life of Lithuania. e author of the paper tries to give the answer whether the consideration of cases on human rights may include a mathematised part of the argumentation burden, whether the mathematization of judge’s argumentation and mathematic structuring of revealing his arguments may lead to a more transpar -ent and persuasive consideration of determination of the balance of constitutional principles. e conclusions of the thesis suggest that there are a lot of cases when the ordinary courts remain within the framework of their legal positivism and fail to provide a more detailed “weighing” or “balancing” of constitutional principles in their judgement. Failing to do this the court leaves true justice behind its judge -ment and renders its content hardly understandable or even not understandable at all not only to the public, but also to courts of other chains which aſter the decision of the Constitutional Court delivered in 2006 should look for precedents in the ju -risprudence of the Lithuanian courts of higher instances. Decisions of these courts most usually are reached on the basis of intuitive perception of justice or applica -tion of positivist subsumption of legal norms in anad hoccase. Structure of the thesis.e first part of the thesis (eoretical Aspects of Balancing between the Constitutional Principles) reveals and analyses the general methodologies of balancing between the constitutional principles. During the pe -riod of 2004-2010, the general methodology of balancing between the constitu -tional principles was developed in Germany, mainly by Prof. Robert Alexy and
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his colleagues from other world countries (Aharon Barak, Carlos Bernal Pulido, Kai Möller, T. Alexander Aleinikoff) who put efforts to analyse and summarise the case-law of the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany and other constitu -tional and ordinary courts, systemise and structure it into universal methodology of balancing and between the constitutional principles and proportionate analy -sis thereof. During this decade Prof. Barako, the former chairman of the Supreme Court of Israel, also has made a highly significant contribution to development of the general methodology of proportionate analysis. e first chapter analyses the general genesis of the method of balancing and proportionate analysis, its methodological peculiarities and application in different countries and various international courts. e summarised balancing and proportionate analysis methodology at the end of the first chapter shows how such methodology may be applied both on theoretical and practical levels of resolution of determination of balancing between the constitutional principles. e second part of the thesis summarises the issues of resolution of balanc -ing problem between the freedom of speech and other constitutional values in the jurisprudence of the ECHR, the USA, Germany and the national constitutional and ordinary courts of other countries. is part reveals and analyses the balanc -ing elements used for resolution of contradictions between the freedom of speech and other constitutional values in the final phase of proportionate analysis, i.e. the phase of proportionalitystricto sensu. Such legal concepts as public interest, shaping of public opinion, public persons, framed issue of distinction between opinion and fact, determined forms of the constitutional self-expression and le -gal aspects of the quality of content of self-expression are defined as balancing elements. e second section analyses e second chapter analyses the scope of application of methodology of balancing or balancing-proportionate analysis of constitutional principles in the case-law of the ECHR, the Federal Constitutional Court of German and the Supreme Court of the United States of America. It brings to light how particular issues concerning contradictions between the free -dom of speech and other constitutional values are solved in accordance withstare decisis doctrine. All cases of the above contradictions are divided according to particular generalised classification. e third part of the thesis introduces a summary of the methodology of balancing proportionate analysis of constitutional principles and reveals the bal -ancing elements of “Formula of Weights”, i.e. balancing between the freedom of speech and other constitutional values, and legal content thereof. Balancing ele -ments are revealed through the analysis of the case-law of the cases of contra -dictions between the freedom of speech and other constitutional values in the ECHR, the courts of the USA, continental Europe. eir contents is provided on the triadic scale (serious, moderate, light) by means of displaying the influence
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of the above balancing elements on the abstract application of the constitutional principle of the freedom of speech establishing its particularad hocweight in the case under consideration. e fourth section of the thesis introduces the generalised methodology of balancing and proportionate analysis of the freedom of speech and other consti -tutional values by making the “Weight Formula” of the constitutional principles under consideration and establishing the place of the balancing elements of the contradictions between the freedom of speech and other constitutional values. e fiſth part of the thesis considers the concept of judicial precedence rel -evant to resolution of the contradiction between the freedom of speech and other constitutional values related both to revealing of the balancing elements and the necessity for confinement of the judge’s discretion and the issue of depersonalisa -tion of judicial procedural documents which significantly impedes the procedure of balancing and appropriate analysis of the constitutional principles; sets out the obstacles of depersonalisation in certain cases for balancing of the constitutional principlesad hocand possible ways of solution of the said issue. e sixth section of the thesis analyses the jurisprudence of the Constitu -tional Court and ordinary courts of the Republic of Lithuania concerning con -tradictions between the freedom of speech and other constitutional principles. e doctrine of the freedom of speech developed by the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania during 1 years is considered. e peculiarities of the method of balancing and proportionate analysis are identified in the jurispru -dence of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania. is part of the thesis also analyses how the case-law of the Lithuanian courts of general jurisdiction resolves the cases of contradictions between the freedom of speech and other constitutional values directly applying the Constitu -tion of the Republic of Lithuania and the regulations established in the ordinary laws. In the light of the methodology on the balancing and proportionate analysis described in the first chapter and the precedents ofstare decisis set out in the second part, the thesis shows how analogous cases are handled (to what extent the above methodology of balancing and proportionate analysis is applied) in the jurisprudence of ordinary courts of Lithuania. Moreover, it gives a summary of methodology on balancing and proportionate analysis applied by the ECHR and the national courts of other countries in pursuance of establishing to what extent the methodology of balancing and proportionate analysis of the constitutional principles is applied in the case-law of the Lithuanian ordinary courts. Possible alternative resolutions of contradictions between the freedom of speech and other constitutional principles according to the balancing elements of proportionate analysisstricto sensu by means of the generalised weight and formula of the constitutional principles (deduced by Prof. R. Alexy) are set out in
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