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Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivaxin Kolkata, India

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10 Pages
English

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Plasmodium vivax malaria accounts for approximately 60% of malaria cases in Kolkata, India. There has been limited information on the genotypic polymorphism of P. vivax in this malaria endemic area. Three highly polymorphic and single copy genes were selected for a study of genetic diversity in Kolkata strains. Methods Blood from 151 patients with P. vivax infection diagnosed in Kolkata between April 2003 and September 2004 was genotyped at three polymorphic loci: the P. vivax circumsporozoite protein ( pvcs ), the merozoite surface protein 1 ( pvmsp 1) and the merozoite surface protein 3-alpha ( pvmsp 3-alpha). Results Analysis of these three genetic markers revealed that P. vivax populations in Kolkata are highly diverse. A large number of distinguishable alleles were found from three genetic markers: 11 for pvcs , 35 for pvmsp 1 and 37 for pvmsp 3-alpha. These were, in general, randomly distributed amongst the isolates. Among the 151 isolates, 142 unique genotypes were detected the commonest genotype at a frequency of less than 2% (3/151). The overall rate of mixed genotype infections was 10.6%. Conclusion These results indicate that the P. vivax parasite population is highly diverse in Kolkata, despite the low level of transmission. The genotyping protocols used in this study may be useful for differentiating re-infection from relapse and recrudescence in studies assessing of malarial drug efficacy in vivax malaria.

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Published 01 January 2006
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Malaria Journal
BioMedCentral
Open Access Research Genetic diversity ofPlasmodium vivaxin Kolkata, India 1 12 JungRyong Kim, Mallika Imwong*, Amitabha Nandy, 1 11 Kesinee Chotivanich, Apichart Nontprasert, Naowarat Tonomsing, 2 23 1,3 Ardhendu Maji, Manjulika Addy, Nick PJ Day, Nicholas J Whiteand 1,4 Sasithon Pukrittayakamee
1 2 Address: Departmentof Clinical Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand,Department of 3 Parasitology and Protozoology, the Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, India,Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, 4 Churchill Hospital, Old Road, Headington, Oxfordshire OX3 7LJ, UK andThe Royal Institute of Thailand, Grand Palace, Bangkok, Thailand Email: JungRyong Kim  lukimjy@yahoo.com; Mallika Imwong*  noi@tropmedres.ac; Amitabha Nandy  centromap@yahoo.com; Kesinee Chotivanich  nok@tropmedres.ac; Apichart Nontprasert  apichart@tropmedres.ac; Naowarat Tonomsing  tsnao@yahoo.com; Ardhendu Maji  centromap@yahoo.com; Manjulika Addy  centromap@yahoo.com; Nick PJ Day  nickd@tropmedres.ac; Nicholas J White  nickw@tropmedres.ac; Sasithon Pukrittayakamee  sasithon@tropmedres.ac * Corresponding author
Published: 14 August 2006Received: 16 February 2006 Accepted: 14 August 2006 Malaria Journal2006,5:71 doi:10.1186/1475-2875-5-71 This article is available from: http://www.malariajournal.com/content/5/1/71 © 2006 Kim et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract Background:Plasmodium vivaxmalaria accounts for approximately 60% of malaria cases in Kolkata, India. There has been limited information on the genotypic polymorphism ofP. vivaxin this malaria endemic area. Three highly polymorphic and single copy genes were selected for a study of genetic diversity in Kolkata strains. Methods:Blood from 151 patients withP. vivaxinfection diagnosed in Kolkata between April 2003 and September 2004 was genotyped at three polymorphic loci: theP. vivaxcircumsporozoite protein (pvcs), the merozoite surface protein 1 (pvmsp1) and the merozoite surface protein 3-alpha (pvmsp3-alpha). Results:Analysis of these three genetic markers revealed thatP. vivaxpopulations in Kolkata are highly diverse. A large number of distinguishable alleles were found from three genetic markers: 11 forpvcs, 35 forpvmsp1 and 37 forpvmsp3-alpha. These were, in general, randomly distributed amongst the isolates. Among the 151 isolates, 142 unique genotypes were detected the commonest genotype at a frequency of less than 2% (3/151). The overall rate of mixed genotype infections was 10.6%. Conclusion:These results indicate that theP. vivaxparasite population is highly diverse in Kolkata, despite the low level of transmission. The genotyping protocols used in this study may be useful for differentiating re-infection from relapse and recrudescence in studies assessing of malarial drug efficacy in vivax malaria.
Background Malaria remains one of the most important communica
ble diseases in the world. Despite enormous control efforts over many decades malaria is still a significant
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