Harrington and his Oceana; a study of a 17th century Utopia and its influence in America

Harrington and his Oceana; a study of a 17th century Utopia and its influence in America

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HARRINGTON AND HIS OCEANA UNIVERSITY PRESSCAMBRIDGE : FETTER E.C.LANE, F. MANAGERC. CLAY, 100 PRINCES STREET6mlmrflh: AND CO.gnlm: A. ASHER : F. A. BROCKHAUS SONS : G. P. PUTNAM'S LTD.mi Calcutta : MACMILLAN AND CO.,oiab*B LTD.Toronto: M. DENT & SONS,]. MARUZEN-KABUSHIKI-KAISHATHEokfi: All reitrvedrights HARRINGTON [/yBuSh-iejtfitft) AND HIS AOCEAN A STUDY OF A 17xn CENTURY UTOPIA AND ITS ININFLUENCE AMERICA BY H. F. RUSSELL M.A.SMITH, Fellow and Lecturer in at StHistory John's College, Cambridge Author of The in theTheory ofReligious Liberty Charles II. and antes II.of JReigns :Cambridge at the PressUniversity 1914 PREFACE MY attention was drawn to the ideas of Harrington when I was the of toleration instudying history the that his influ-Stuart It to meperiod. appeared ence in and in her both at his owncolonies,England time than itand deserved a fuller examinationsince, had received. tenure of the Allenyet ScholarshipMy in me some researches both inenabled to make1911 and which I haveAmerica,England brought together in the I have in the firstfollowing essay.

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HARRINGTON AND HIS OCEANAUNIVERSITY PRESSCAMBRIDGE
: FETTER E.C.LANE,
F. MANAGERC. CLAY,
100 PRINCES STREET6mlmrflh:
AND CO.gnlm: A. ASHER
: F. A. BROCKHAUS
SONS
: G. P. PUTNAM'S
LTD.mi Calcutta : MACMILLAN AND CO.,oiab*B
LTD.Toronto: M. DENT & SONS,].
MARUZEN-KABUSHIKI-KAISHATHEokfi:
All reitrvedrightsHARRINGTON
[/yBuSh-iejtfitft)
AND HIS
AOCEAN
A STUDY OF A 17xn CENTURY UTOPIA
AND ITS ININFLUENCE AMERICA
BY
H. F. RUSSELL M.A.SMITH,
Fellow and Lecturer in at StHistory John's College, Cambridge
Author of The in theTheory ofReligious Liberty
Charles II. and antes II.of JReigns
:Cambridge
at the PressUniversity
1914PREFACE
MY attention was drawn to the ideas of Harrington
when I was the of toleration instudying history
the that his influ-Stuart It to meperiod. appeared
ence in and in her both at his owncolonies,England
time than itand deserved a fuller examinationsince,
had received. tenure of the Allenyet ScholarshipMy
in me some researches both inenabled to make1911
and which I haveAmerica,England brought together
in the I have in the firstfollowing essay. attempted
to some account ofplace give Harrington's political
their their and theirideas, describing origin, history,
influence on two centuries ofsubsequent English
ain the second to trace con-;political thought place,
which has often been surmised but nevernection,
institu-between Oceana and theestablished, political
tions of America and to discuss the revival
; finally
of chief constitutions oftheories in theHarrington's
France. In this I hope incidentallyrevolutionary way
to have a new illustration of the connectiongiven
between and to haveandpolitical theory practice,
shown afresh the essential of the three greatunity
revolutions of modern Europe.
The authorities for a like this arestudy necessarily
but are for the most access-various, they part readily
ible. The of life ishistory Harrington's public
indrawn from the Thomason thelargely Pamphlets
British Museum. The contention that Grote's
of the ballot was due to his of Har-advocacy study
rests on Grote's on Oceana,rington unpublished essayvi PREFACE
also in the Museum. The mostBritish important
evidence for influence inestablishing Harrington's
is the draftsPennsylvania supplied by preliminary
of the first constitution of which existPennsylvania,
in in the of themanuscript possession Pennsylvania
Historical Society.
Of authorities little more beneedsecondary
said. There have not been recent notices ofmany
work. The article theinHarrington's English
Historical Review and the on(April 1891), chapter
in Franck's et PublicistesHarrington Reformateurs
de I' are but summaries of Oceana.Europe nothing
The article Theodore in the Politicalby Dwight
Science is more valuable,Quarterly (March 1887)
written from the American of view.being partly point
The best accounts are to be found in Masson's Life
Prof. H.C. Firth's Last Years theof Milton, of
and in Mr G. P. Gooch'sProtectorate, ofHistory
Democratic Ideas in the Seventeenth to all ofCentury,
which I am much indebted. I had concluded that
there must have been some connection between Penn
and before I discovered the samethatHarrington
idea had tooccurred Dr W. R. the authorShepherd,
of as a I hadPennsylvania Proprietary Colony.
studied the influence of on Sieves beforeHarrington
the of Mr H. recent book,appearance J. Clapham's
The Abb/ from which I have, however,Sieyes,
borrowed one fact that thesevaluable reference. The
connections have been seen writers who can beby
said to have no to mein the matter seemsprejudices
to lend additional to a contention whichsupport
to be to made in andue whenmight bias,appear
written for the ofessay tracing Harrington'spurpose
influence.
Of the editions of works somethingHarrington's