Historical development of consumerism in Thai society [Elektronische Ressource] / vorgelegt von Sunate Suwanlaong
249 Pages
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Historical development of consumerism in Thai society [Elektronische Ressource] / vorgelegt von Sunate Suwanlaong

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Fachgebiet (Neuere und Neueste Geschichte) Historical Development of Consumerism in Thai Society Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Philosophischen Fakultät der Westfälischen Wilhelms-Universität zu Münster (Westf.) Vorgelegt von Sunate Suwanlaong aus Chonburi,Thailand 2006 Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 19 September 2006 Dekan: Prof. Dr. Dr. Wichard Wayke Referent: Prof. Dr. Volker Grabowsky Korreferent: Prof. Andreas Hartmann Contents Page Preface XIII Acknowledgements XIV Chapter 1. Historical Development of Consumerism in Thai Society 1.1 Background 1 1.2 Research Objectives 5 1.3 The Field of Research 5 1.4 The Contribution of this Research 5 1.5 Data and Research Methodology 5 1.6 Theoretical Framework 6 1.7 Review of the Literature 16 1.8 Consumerism: Its Meaning and Development in Thai Society 19 Chapter 2. Four Basic Necessities in the Era of Social Establishment 2.1 The Era of Social Establishment 23 2.1.1 Society as a Whole 23 2.1.2 The Population 24 2.1.3 The Economy and Foreign Trade 26 2.1.4 Social Structure 29 2.2 Characteristics of People’s Consumption of the 4 Basic Necessities in the Era of Social Establishment 30 2.2.1 Housing (Shelter) 30 2.2.1.1 General Characteristics of Housing in the Establishment Era 32 a. Aquatic Society b. Locations 33 c. Houses on both the Water and on Land 33 2.2.1.

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Published 01 January 2006
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Fachgebiet
(Neuere und Neueste Geschichte)


Historical Development of Consumerism in Thai Society

Inaugural-Dissertation

zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades

der

Philosophischen Fakultät

der

Westfälischen Wilhelms-Universität

zu

Münster (Westf.)

Vorgelegt von

Sunate Suwanlaong

aus Chonburi,Thailand

2006

Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 19 September 2006
Dekan: Prof. Dr. Dr. Wichard Wayke
Referent: Prof. Dr. Volker Grabowsky
Korreferent: Prof. Andreas Hartmann Contents
Page

Preface XIII
Acknowledgements XIV

Chapter 1. Historical Development of Consumerism in Thai Society
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Research Objectives 5
1.3 The Field of Research 5
1.4 The Contribution of this Research 5
1.5 Data and Research Methodology 5
1.6 Theoretical Framework 6
1.7 Review of the Literature 16
1.8 Consumerism: Its Meaning and Development in Thai Society 19
Chapter 2. Four Basic Necessities in the Era of Social Establishment
2.1 The Era of Social Establishment 23
2.1.1 Society as a Whole 23
2.1.2 The Population 24
2.1.3 The Economy and Foreign Trade 26
2.1.4 Social Structure 29
2.2 Characteristics of People’s Consumption of
the 4 Basic Necessities in the Era of Social Establishment 30
2.2.1 Housing (Shelter) 30
2.2.1.1 General Characteristics of Housing in the
Establishment Era 32
a. Aquatic Society
b. Locations 33
c. Houses on both the Water and on Land 33
2.2.1.2 Houses: Differences between Classes 35
a. Houses of the Governing Class 35
b. Housing among the Governed Class 36
III2.2.1.3 Types of Houses 38
2.2.1.4 Limitations in Housing Construction 38
2.2.1.5 Materials, Technologies and Labour 39
2.2.1.6 Factors Influencing Differentiation:
Beliefs, Values and Social Regulations 40
2.2.2 Clothing 41
2.2.2.1 Clothing: Social Classification Controller 42
a. Clothing for the Governing Class 42
b. Clothing for the Governed Class 44
2.2.3 Food 47
2.2.3.1 Food: the Social Class Differentiation 51
a. Food of the Governing Class 51
b. The Foods of the Governed Class 53
2.2.4 Medicine 54
2.2.4.1. Varieties of Healthcare Knowledge 54
2.2.4.2. The Era of Royal Doctors and
Unofficial Doctors, or Mò Chaloeysak 56
2.2.4.3. Ways of Thinking on the Causes
of Illness among People in the Past 58
2.2.4.4. The Differentiation of Terms: Medical Scriptures,
Royal Medical Textbooks, and Textbooks 59
2.2.4.5. The Fundament of Western Medical Treatment 59
2.2.4.6. Medicine and Social Class 61
a. Governing Class: Potential for Collecting
Medical Textbooks 61
b. The Governed Class: Oral Traditions and
Received Wisdom Concerning Health Care 62
2.3 Conclusion: People’s Consumption of the Four Basic
Necessities during the Era of Social Establishment 63
Chapter 3. The Four Basic Necessities in the Era of Change and Reform
3.1 Population Change 66
3.2 Changes in Perception 67
3.2.1 Changes in Ideology 67
IV3.2.1.1 The Changes in Social and Religious Ideology 67
3.2.1.2 The Transformation of a Political Idea: from the
Universal King to an Absolute Monarchy 73
3.3 Imperialism and Colonialism 74
3.4 The Abolition of Slavery 77
3.5 Influence of Western and Novelty in Thai Society 77
3.6 Economic Change: International Trades 79
3.7 The Increase in Imported and Exported Goods in Thailand 80
3.8 Changes in Physical Geography 84
3.9 Consumption of the Four Basic Necessities in the Era of
Change and Reform 85
3.9.1 Housing 85
3.9.1.1 Varieties in Housing 86
3.9.1.2 Characteristics of Housing in Bangkok,
from the Address Registration Survey by
the Department of Post and Telegraph 87
3.9.1.3 Styles, Prices and Standards of Housing,
and Economic and Social Status 88
3.9.1.4 Towards the International 89
3.9.1.5 Decreasing Popularity of Thai Houses 91
3.9.2 Clothing 91
3.9.2.1 Symbol of Modernization 91
3.9.2.2 Concepts of Time, Place and Clothing 93
3.9.2.3 Imitation of Western Values 93
3.9.3 Food 94
3.9.3.1 Western Eating Cultures 95
3.9.3.2 Eating Out 96
3.9.3.3 Chinese and Thai Eating Habits:
Developments and Changes 97
3.9.3.4 The Creation of Nutrition Awareness 98
3.9.4 Medicine 98
3.9.4.1 Thai Traditional Medicine and the
Growth of Western Medicine 98
3.9.4.2 O-sotsala; Thai-Style Pharmacies 100
V3.9.4.3 Healthcare: Relaxation through Travel 100
3.9.4.4 Sanitation: Cleanliness and Water Supplies 101
3.10 Conclusion: The Consumption of the Basic Necessities in the
Era of Change and Reform 102
Chapter 4. The Four Basics Necessities during the Era of Democracy
and Nationalism
4.1 The Era of Democracy and Nationalism: Overview
of the country 104
4.2 People’s Consumption of the Four Basic Necessities
during the Era of Democracy and Nationalism 106
4.2.1 Housing 106
4.2.1.1 Settlement 107
4.2.1.2 The Allocation of Housing to Low-income
Persons 108
4.2.2 Clothing 109
4.2.2.1 Ratthaniyom 110
4.2.3 Food 115
4.2.3.1 Ratthaniyom: The Noodle and the Developing
Nation 115
4.2.3.2 Specifying the Times for Eating 116
4.2.3.3 The Cessation of Betel-chewing 117
4.2.3.4 The Policy of Increasing Agricultural Production 117
4.2.3.5 Nutrition Propaganda “Good Food and Good
Life” 118
4.2.3.6 Food and Changing Times
4.2.4 Medicine 119
4.2.4.1 A Joining of Medical Practices in Thai Society 119
4.2.4.2 The Birth of the Ministry of Public Health 121
4.3 Conclusion; People’s Consumption of the Four Basic
Necessities during the Era of Democracy and Nationalism 122
Chapter 5. The Four Basic Necessities in the Era of Development
and Consumerism
VI5.1 An Overview of the Society 124
5.1.1 Population 125
5.1.2 Economy and Income of the Population 126
5.2 The Development of the Advertising Industry in Thailand 129
5.3 Changes in People’s Consumption of the Four Basic
Necessities in the Era of Development and Consumerism 131
5.3.1 Housing 131
5.3.1.1 Housing: Tracing Changes in the Definition
of types of Dwelling in Censuses of Population
and Housing 131
5.3.1.2 Housing and Advertising 133
5.3.1.3 Changes in Housing in the Era of Development 133
5.3.1.4 Construction Skills and Materials 136
5.3.2 Clothing 137
5.3.3 Food 141
5.3.3.1 Nutrition and Health Concerns 142
5.3.3.2 Food in the Period of Haste 143
5.3.3.3 Awareness of Social Class and Food Consumption:
Western, Chinese, Japanese Cuisine 145
5.3.3.4 Consumerism and Food Culture 146
5.3.3.5 Changes in Thai People’s Cultural Values as
Seen in Food Consumption Behavior 147
5.3.4 Medicine 148
5.3.4.1 Health Index 148
5.3.4.2 The Setting up of District Hospitals 149
5.3.4.3 The Renaissance of the Traditional Thai Doctor 149
5.3.4.4 Results of Developments and Changes in the
Conditions of Health in Thai People 150
5.4 Conclusion: People and Objects 152
Chapter 6. An Analysis of the Content of Advertising Relating to the
Four Basic Necessities
6.1 The Influence of Advertising in Modern Society 156
VII6.2 Advertising in Thailand 158
6.3 An Analysis of Advertising with Relation to the Four Basic
Necessities from 1957 to 1997 159
6.4 Methodology 159
6.5 The Hypothesis Adopted in the Analysis 162
6.6 Presentation of Data Analysis 162
6.7 Quantitative Analysis 163
6.7.1 Data form all Samples Related to the Four Basic
Necessities between 1957 and 1997 (4 Decades) 163
6.7.2 Samples of Data over the Four Decades between
1957 and 1997 163
6.7.3 Conclusions from the Quantitative Analysis 187
6.8 Qualitative Analysis 187
6.8.1 An Analysis of Slogans by Interpretation 190
6.8.2 Conclusion of the Analysis of Slogans 197
6.9 Conclusion: An Analysis of the Content of Advertisements 199
Chapter 7. Conclusion: Historical Development of Consumerism in Thai
Society
7.1 Development toward Consumerism 202
7.2 Changes in the Consumption of the Four Basic Necessities:
from Simple to More Complex 205
7.3 The Cultural Phenomenon of Consumerism in Thai Society 207
7.4 What Similarities or Differences Are there between the Four
Basic Necessities in Each Period of Time 209
7.5 Why and When Did the Four Basic Necessities Become
Commodities with Cultural Value and Purpose, 209

Appendix I. Questions in the Criteria for Analysis of the Content of
Advertisements 211
Appendix II. Example of Advertisement in 1961 213
Appendix III. Short Chronology 216
Bibliography 218
VIII Table
Page
Table 2.1 Ethnic composition of Siam’s Population according to various
estimate in the nineteenth centuries 25
Table 3.1 The Population of Bangkok during 1900-1929 66
Table 3.2 Thai export in 1867 (the reign of King Rama IV) 81
Table 3.3 Thailand’s imported goods in 1867 82
Table 3.4 Thailand’s imported and exported goods in 2000 83
Table 3.5 Quantities and values of Thai Rice exports 83
Table 3.6 Residential houses on the roadsides in Bangkok in 1883 87
Table 5.1 Changes in population in Thailand from 1911-1960 125
Table 5.2 Population of 2 largest cities in Thailand 126
Table 5.3 Expansion in the economy from 1961 to 1995 127
Table 5.4 Gross National Product (GNP) per head, average per year at market
price from 1960 to 1996 127
Table 5.5 Income distribution of the Thai population divided into 2 groups
according to level of income; specifically, the group with 20% highest income and 20% lowest income 128
Table 5.6 Development of the advertising industry (1986-1995) 131
Table 5.7 Changes in types of dwelling between 1970 and 2000 132
Table 5.8 Spending in the advertising industry by various media 133
Table 5.9 Real estate advertising budget in various media (Year 1995) 134
Table 5.10 Death rate, infant death rate, and average life span in Thailand 148
Table 6.1 Data form all samples of advertising relating to the four basic
necessities between 1957 and 1977 between 1960 and 1993 163
Table 6.2 Advertisements 1957-1967 that do or do not contain slogans 164
Table 6.3 ents 1968-1977 that do or do not contain slogans 164
Table 6.4 Advertisements 1978-1987 that do or do not contain slogans 164
Table 6.5 ents 1988-1997 that do or do not contain slogans 164
Table 6.6 Type of phrases in slogans in the first decade (1957-1967) 165
Table 6.7 ns in the second decade (1968-1977) 165
Table 6.8 ns in the third decade (1978-1987) 166
Table 6.9 Type of phrases in slogans in the 4td decade (1988-1997) 166
IXTable 6.10 The numbers of advertisements with or without promotion in
the first decade (1957-1967) 167
Table 6.11 The numbers of advertisemotion in
the second decade (1968-1977) 167
Table 6.12 The numbers of advertisements with or without promotion in
the third decade (1978-1987) 167
Table 6.13 The numbers of advertisemenotion in
the fourth decade (1978-1987) 168
Table 6.14 Types of promotion in the first decade (1957-1967) 168
Table 6.15 the second decade (1968-1977) 169
Table 6.16 the third decade (1978-1987) 169
Table 6.17 Types of promotion in the fourth decade (1978-1987) 169
Table 6.18 Types of concept appearing in advertisements in the first decade
(1957-1967) 170
Table 6.19 Types of concept appearing in advertisements in the 2nd decade
(1968-1977) 170
Table 6.20 Types of concept appearing in advertisements in the third decade
(1978-1987) 170
Table 6.21 advertisements in the fourth decade
(1988-1997) 171
Table 6.22 Logic of concepts appearing in advertisements in the first decade
(1957-1967) 172
Table 6.23 Logic of concepts appearing in advertisements in the 2nd decade
(1968-1977) 172
Table 6.24 Logic of concepts appearing in advertisements in the third decade
(1978-1987) 172
Table 6.25 advertisements in the fourth decade
(1988-1997) 172
Table 6.26 The impact of headlines in the first decade (1957-1967) 174
Table 6.27 The impact of headlines in the second decade (1968-1977) 174
Table 6.28 The impact of headlines the third decade (1978-1987) 174
Table 6.29 The im the fourth decade (1988-1997) 174
Table 6.30 The main formats for product description in advertisements in
the first decade (1957-1967) 175
X