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Causes of international migration

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Proceedings of a workshop Luxembourg, 14-16 December 1994
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eurostat
CAUSES
OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
Proceedings of a workshop
Luxembourg, 14-16 December 1994
0
D eurostat
STATISTISCHES AMT DER EUROPAISCHEN GEMEINSCHAFTEN
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Y. Franchet
vidéotex. Um Benutzem die Datensuche zu erleich­
Director-General
tem, hat Eurostat Themenkreise, d. h.
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Y. Franchet Y. Franchet
Generaldirektor Directeur général CAUSES
OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
Proceedings of a workshop
Luxembourg, 14-16 December 1994
This publication was compiled by the
Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI)
on behalf of the European Commission
Editors: Rob van der Erf and Liesbeth Heering
Miscellaneous
Studies and research
STATISTICAL DOCUMENT Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication.
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1995
ISBN 92-827-4011-0
© ECSC-EC-EAEC, Brussels · Luxembourg, 1995
Reproduction is authorized, except for commercial purposes, provided the source is acknowledged
Printed in Italy
Printed on non-chlorine bleached paper Preface
EUROSTAT is currently involved in an internationally comparative survey research project on the determinants of
international migration to the countries of the European Union. The project is entitled 'Analysis of push and pull
factors determining international migration', and is being implemented with the assistance of the Netherlands
Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI).
The objective of the project is to study the system of factors that influence the growth, continuation, composition,
and direction of international migration to the countries of the European Union, and to increase understanding of the
causes ofl migration. Research results should provide relevant tools for policy-makers, and should
increase understanding of why and where people move and, in particular, also why so many do not move.
The project started with a feasibility study in 1994 to prepare for the organisation and execution of survey studies
and analyses in sending and receiving countries, focusing primarily on South-North, and in addition on East-West
flows to the European Union. A workshop, bringing together researchers studying the causes of international
migration from different disciplinary and theoretical approaches, concluded this part of the project. This workshop,
organised by EUROSTAT and the NIDI, and hosted by EUROSTAT, took place from 14 to 16 December 1994 in
Luxembourg.
The purpose of the workshop was to review the current state of the art in research on the causes of international
migration, and to prepare scientifically for the organisation and execution of migration surveys and analytical studies
in sending and receiving countries. This volume contains a selection of the papers presented at the workshop.
Various persons have contributed to the current volume and we gratefully acknowledge their support, especially the
authors of the papers. In addition, we would like to thank all the participants in the workshop for their stimulating
contribution and discussion, as well as the NIDI, which has been responsible for the editing process.
Finally we extend our gratitude to DGI for their continuing and valuable support, without which this project could
never have been possible.
Y. Franchet
Director-General
EUROSTAT Causes of International Migration
Table of Contents
Preface iii
1. Introduction 1
Rob van der Erf and Liesbeth Heering
2. Determinants of International Migration: Theoretical Approaches and Implications for
Survey Research 3
Jeannette Schoorl
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Main theoretical approaches
2.2.1 Models explaining the Initiation of migration
2.2.2sg the continuation of migration 5
2.3 Implications for survey research designs and data collection 6
2.3.1 Types of data collection 7
2.3.2 The definition of migration
2.3.3 Multi-level data collection 8
2.3.4 Multi-site research designs
2.3.5 Migrants and nonmigrants 10
2.3.6 Longitudinal versus cross-sectional designs
2.4 Conclusions1
3. Determinants of International Migration: an Inventory of Research 15
Liesbeth Heering and Ingrid Esveldt
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Topics in migration studies
3.2.1 South-North migration6
3.2.2 East-Westn7
3.2.3 Policy8
3.2.4 Conclusion :
3.3 Survey research in migration studies
3.4 Regional focus inns 20
3.5 Conclusion2
3.6 Appendices3
3.6.1 Overview of selected studies, part 14
3.6.2w ofd, part
3.6.3 Explanation of keywords and notations in the overview table 3
3.6.4 Institutes listed in the overview table 3
3.6.5 Questionnaire on international migration and its root causes6
3.6.6 Addresses of institutes and persons approached for the inventory9
3.6.7 Bibliography of selected studies 5
4. The Systems Approach and the Measurement of the Determinants of International Migration 61
Richard Bilsborrow and Hania Zlotnik
4.1 Introduction 61
4.2 Defining and measuring migration
4.3 The identification of international migration systems 63
4.4e systems approach and the macro-level analysis of the determinants of international migration 66
4.5 Implications of the systems approach for the study of the causes of migration at the micro-level 68
4.5.1 The need to collect data in both countries of origin and of destination 6
4.5.2 Sample design9
4.5.3 Questionnaire content 72
4.5.4 Statistical estimation via multi-level modelsCauses of International Migration
. 5. International Migration: Data Availability 77
John Sait and Ann Singleton
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Major paradigms of migration theory
5.3 Migration data sources in European 'receiving countries'9
5.3.1 Problems of definition
5.3.1.1 Measuring the time dimension 80
5.3.1.2 Recording changes of residence
5.3.1.3 Definitions of geographical regions
5.3.1.4s of citizenship
5.3.2 Data on stocks of foreign population1
5.3.2.1 Population registers
5.3.2.2 Censuses
5.3.3 Flows of international migrants
5.3.3.1 The Eurostat historical series on international migration 8
5.3.3.2 Sources and quality of flow data 82 3 Data on characteristics , 8
5.3.3.4 Border data
5.3.3.5 Emigration data
5.3.4 Data on labour migration3
5.3.4.1 Variety of sources2 Undocumented labour migrants
5.3.4.3 Selective reliability of labour migration data4
5.3.4.4 Incompatibility of labour migration data within each country 8
5.3.5 Data on asylum-seekers and refugees
5.4 Migration data sources in sending countries 85
5.4.1 Official data sources in the sending countries
5.4.2 The use of surveys in the collection of migration data
5.4.2.1 Advantages and disadvantages of surveys
5.4.2.2 Examples of specific surveys , 86
5.4.2.3 Surveys and rapid information systems
5.5 Rich world - poor world: development-related requirements7
5.5.1 Migration-related data
5.5.2 Data requirements for standard economic models of migration 88
5.5.3 Labour force data requirements
5.5.4 Remittances and savings 89
5.6 Suggestions for future research
5.6.1 Destination country data
5.6.2 Sending countries 90
6. Modelling International Migration: Economic and Econometric Issues 95
Thomas Bauer and Klaus Zimmermann
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Theoretical approaches to the migration decision6
6.2.1 The neoclassical approach
6.2.2 Human capital theory
6.2.3 Asymmetric information about worker skills8
6.2.4 Family migration
6.2.5 Networkn9
6.2.6 A general view: push and pull migration 9
6.3 Econometric issues 101
6.3.1 Data availability and the case for econometrics
6.3.2 Time-series issues2
6.3.3 Individual data analysis
6.4 Empirical findings3
6.4.1 Aggregated data research
6.4.2 Micro data analysis5
6.5 Suggestions for future research ·. 108
vi Causes of International Migration
7. Les déterminants de la migration internationale à partir des pays tiers méditerranéens du Sud
et de l'Est 117
AbdellatifBencherifa
7.1Introduction et questions méthodologiques 117
7.2Structure du modèle explicatifconventionneldans les trois rapports: étude comparative118
7.2.1Défaillances socio-économiquesinternes et migrations extérieures118
7.2.2Disparités régionales,localisationmarginale, et migration extérieure119
7.2.3Contexte relationnelinternationaletmigrations extérieures:120
7.2.4Les spécificitésrelevéesdanschaquerapport national Individuel120
7.2.4.1 Au Maroc:ledéveloppementd'une culture de la migration120
7.2.4.2 La findesopportunitésmigratoires en Europe: mythe ou réalité?121
7.2.4.3 Modèledetinterne et migration extérieure,121
7.2.4.4 Problèmes politiques des minorités et n e121
7.3 Quelques données de l'enquête conduite au Maroc sur les déterminants de la migration
internationale 122
7.3.1 La recherche du travail comme motif de migration 122
7.3.2Migrationetfacteurs non liésàlarecherchedutravail123
7.3.3Potentielmigratoire: les nouveauxdéterminants123
7.4Observationsfinales: prolongements théoriquesetpratiques124
7.4.1Observations conceptuelles124
7.4.2s méthodologiques125
8. Migrationsetdéveloppement en Méditerranée: transfertsetacteurs'.127
EtienneButzbach
8.1Introduction127
8.1.1 Le contexte de la recherche127
8.1.2 La problématique générale127
8.2 La méthode 128
8.2.1Uneéquipeinternationale et pluridisciplinaire 128
8.2.2Problèmesde concepts et de sources129
8.2.2.1Intérêts et limitesdel'approchemacro-économique des transferts129
8.2.2.2νLa place des variablesdémographiques;leconcept de migrant133
8.2.3 Les études proposées134
8.2.3.1 L'impact localisé destransfertsauMaroc134
8.2.3.2 Les migrants: acteurspotentielsdeco-développement 135 3 Mécanismes de transfertsautresquefinanciers135
8.3 L'importance relative des transferts dans leséconomiesdespays135
8.3.1 Éliminer l'effet du taux de change 135
8.3.2 L'effet population:effectifsglobauxettransfert par émigré136
8.4 Premiers résultats137
8.4.1 Les transfertsenespèces137
8.4.1.1 Unetendanceàlastagnation137
8.4.1.2 Un poidsconsidérable139
8.4.2 Les transfertsennature139
8.4.2.1 L'importationdesvéhiculessans paiement1392 Lestransfertsàlavalise140
8.4.3 L'impact des s dans les pays d'émigration 141
8.4.3.1 La Tunisie 141
8.4.3.2LeMaroc141
8.4.3.3L'Algérie142
8.5 En guisedeconclusion142
8.6 Tableaux·.144
VII Causes of International Migration
9. Migration Networks: Turkish Migration to Western Europe 151
Anita Böcker
9.1 Introduction 15
9.2 The literature on the role of networks2
9.2.1 The role of families or households in migration decision-making3
9.2.2e role of migrant networks in the persistence of migration flows4
9.2.3 Methods of research6
9.3 Turkish migration to Western Europe7
9.3.1 Studies on the recruitment period
9.3.2s on the period after the recruitment halts 158
9.3.3 The varying importance of social networks in Turkish migration9
9.4 The role of settled immigrants in Turkish migration chains 160
9.4.1 Pressure exerted by the kin group in Turkey
9.4.1.1 The case of Hikmet and his younger brothers
9.4.1.2e case of the Güzel family1
9.4.2 Effects on the marriage market
9.4.3 'Tourists' , 163
9.4.4 Conclusions 164
9.5 Suggestions for future research5
9.5.1 Migrants in different receiving countries/areas6
9.5.2s fromt sendings
9.5.3 Historical trends
9.5.4 Different categories of migrants7
10. Development and Immobility: Why have not many more Emigrants left the South? 173
Tomas Hammar
10.1 Introduction 17
10.2 More knowledge is required about the causes of migration 17
10.3 Why is there not more migration?5
10.4 Old flows and new6
10.5 The Idea of migration pressure
10.6 Migration potential
10.7 Why not more potential migration?9
10.8 The diffusion of the idea of emigration 181
10.9 Degrees of economic development2
10.10 The Scandinavian project on migration and development
10.11 Suggestions for future research4
11. The Dynamics of Emigration: Sub-Saharan Africa7
Aderanti Adepoju
11.1 Introduction
11.2 The conceptual framework 188
11.3 The building blocks of the model9
11.4 Data sources 191
11.5 Typologies of migration
11.5.1 Dominant migration paths
11.6 The case studies3
11.6.1 Western Africa
11.6.2 Eastern Africa4
11.6.3 Southern Africa
11.7 The Sahelian situation5
11.8 Conclusion6
11.9 Suggestions for future research7
VIII