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Composante du produit no 85-002 au catalogue de Statistique Canada

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Component of Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 85-002-X Juristat Juristat Article An International Perspective on Criminal Victimisation by Julie Sauvé and Kwing Hung December 2008 Vol. 28, no. 10 How to obtain more informationFor information about this product or the wide range of services and data available from Statistics Canada, visit our website at www.statcan.gc.ca, e-mail us at infostats@statcan.gc.ca, or telephone us, Monday to Friday from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., at the following numbers:Statistics Canada’s National Contact CentreToll-free telephone (Canada and United States): Inquiries line 1-800-263-1136 National telecommunications device for the hearing impaired 1-800-363-7629 Fax line 1-877-287-4369Local or international calls: Inquiries line 1-613-951-8116 Fax line 1-613-951-0581Depository Services Program Inquiries line 1-800-635-7943 Fax line 1-800-565-7757To access this productThis product, Catalogue no. 85-002-X, Vol. 28, no. 10 is available free in electronic format. To obtain a single issue, visit our websiteat www.statcan.gc.ca and select “Publications” > “Free Internet publications.” Standards of service to the publicStatistics Canada is committed to serving its clients in a prompt, reliable and courteous manner. To this end, Statistics Canada has developed standards of service that its employees observe. To obtain a copy of these service standards, please ...

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Component of Statistics CanadaCatalogue no. 85-002XJuristat
Juristat Article
An International Perspectiveon Criminal Victimisation
byJulie Sauvé and Kwing Hung
December 2008 Vol. 28,no. 10
How to obtain more information
For information about this product or the wide range of services and data available from Statistics Canada, visit our website at www.statcan.gc.ca, email us at infostats@statcan.gc.ca, or telephone us, Monday to Friday from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., at the followingnumbers:
Statistics Canada’s National Contact Centre Tollfree telephone (Canada and United States):  Inquiries line  National telecommunications device for the hearing impaired  Fax line
Local or international calls:  Inquiries line  Fax line
Depository Services Program  Inquiries line  Fax line
To access this product
18002631136 18003637629 18772874369
16139518116 16139510581
18006357943 18005657757
This product, Catalogue no.85002X,Vol. 28, no.10is available free in electronic format. To obtain a single issue, visit our website atwww.statcan.gc.ca and select “Publications” > “Free Internet publications.”
Standards of service to the public
Statistics Canada is committed to serving its clients in a prompt, reliable and courteous manner. To this end, Statistics Canada has developed standards of service that its employees observe. To obtain a copy of these service standards, please contact Statistics Canada tollfree at 18002631136. The service standards are also published on www.statcan.gc.ca under “About us” > “Providing services to Canadians.”
Statistics Canada Juristat
An International Perspective on Criminal Victimisation
December 2008,Vol.28no.10
Published by authority of the Minister responsible for Statistics Canada
© Minister of Industry, 2008
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December2008
Catalogue no.85002X, Vol. 28, no.10 ISSN12096393
Frequency:Irregular
Ottawa
o o La version française de cette publication est disponible sur demande (n85002X, Vol. 28, n10au catalogue).
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Juristat Article — An international perspective on criminal victimisation Symbols . not available for any reference period .. not available for a specific reference period ... not applicable 0 true zero or a value rounded to zero s 0 value rounded to 0 (zero) where there is a meaningful distinction between true zero and the value that was rounded p  preliminary r  revised x suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of theStatistics Act E  use with caution F too unreliable to be published
Statistics Canada — Catalogue no. 85002X, vol. 28, no. 10
Juristat Article — An international perspective on criminal victimisation An international perspective on criminal victimisation: Highlights According to the results of the International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS), in 2004 17% of Canadians aged 16 and over had been victims of at least one of the ten crimes measured by the survey. The overall international victimization rate was 16%. Canada's highest victimization rate was for theft from a vehicle. For almost all countries participating in the ICVS, the offences with the highest victimization rates were theft of personal property, theft from a car and theft of a bicycle. Canada, along with Finland and Luxembourg, ranked relatively low with respect to the proportion of incidents (theft from a car, theft of a bicycle, burglary, attempted burglary and theft of personal property) which were reported to the police. At 48%, the proportion of Canadian victims of these crimes who reported the incident to the police in 2004 was below the international average (53%). In 2004, 86% of Canadians aged 16 and over believed that the police were doing a good or excellent job at controlling crime in their area. Canada, along with Finland and the United States, were among the countries whose populations were the most satisfied with the job done by the police.
Statistics Canada — Catalogue no. 85002X, vol. 28, no. 10
Juristat Article — An international perspective on criminal victimisation An international perspective on criminal victimisation by Julie Sauvé and Kwing Hung Results of the International Crime Victimization Survey 20042005 Ada tation of the ublicationfindin s from the 2004Criminal Victimisation in International Pers ective — Ke 12005 ICVS and EU ICS Data on crime in Canada are drawn from two main sources: olicere orted surve s and selfre orted victimization surve s. Policere orted surve s ca ture criminal incidents that have come to the attention of the olice as well as those that have been detected throu h olice investi ation. Policere orted data are drawn from the Uniform Crime Re ortin (UCR) Surve and have been submitted to Statistics Canada each ear since 1962. Victimization surve s collect information on res ondents' ersonal accounts of criminal victimization and whether these incidents were re orted to the olice. Canada's national victimization surve is conducted ever 5 2 ears b Statistics Canada throu h the General Social Surve (GSS). These two data sources are com lementar tools for determinin the nature and extent of crime and victimization in Canada. Canada also artici ates in the International Crime Victimization Surve (ICVS). The most recent c cle of the surve was conducted in 2004 b Lé er Marketin throu h the De artment of ustice of Canada. The surve 3 collected selfre orted information from residents of 30 countries on their ex eriences of criminal victimization. Throu h the use of a standard uestionnaire, surve rocedures and techni ues for roducin the results, the ICVS has been able to address the challen es in com arin victimization data from various countries. While data from the international surve are not directl com arable with data from Canada's national surve of victimization (GSS) given different definitions of criminal offences, methodology and samples, these data allow for a com arisons of Canada's results to those of other countries who artici ated in the 20042005 ICVS 4 surve . The ur ose of thisuristatrevalencethose results, focusin on victimization article is to hi hli ht  5 6 rates, rates of re ortin to the olice and res ondents' satisfaction with the olice work.
1. International Criminal Victimization Survey and European Survey on Crime and Safety 2. General Social Survey (GSS) on Victimization. For specific trends and more detailed information on victimization in Canada, the GSS remains the main source of data. 3. To date, five cycles of the Survey have been conducted, in 1989, 1992, 1996, 2000 and 20042005, with a number of countries participating (in all, more than 60 countries have participated at least once since the first cycle). Canada has participated in all the cycles. Some countries were surveyed in 2004 and others in 2005. A large portion of the 20042005 data were derived from the EU ICS. 4. Van Dijk, Jan, John Van Kesteren, Paul Smit, Tilburg University, UNICRI and UNODC, (2007) 'Criminal Victimisation in International Perspective: Key Findings from the 20042005 ICVS and EU ICS'. The Hague, Ministry of Justice, WODC. 5. Throughout this report, any differences reported are statistically significant. When reference is made to rates or proportions being similar, the differences are not statistically significant 6. The ICVS collects data on ten conventional crimes but also on corruption, consumer fraud including Internet and credit card fraud, drug problems and hate crimes. Also covered by the ICVS are reporting to the police, satisfaction with the police response, victim support, fear of crime, use of crime prevention measures and attitudes toward sentences.
Statistics Canada — Catalogue no. 85002X, vol. 28, no. 10
Juristat Article — An international perspective on criminal victimisation Accordin to the ICVS, revalence rates of victimization in Canada differed little from international avera es The international surve measures the revalence of victimization amon eo le a ed 16 and over, based on a series of ten offences (Text box 1). For all offences, victimization revalence rates in Canada were similar to the international avera es of the 30 countries that artici ated in the ICVS.
Text box 1 The International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) collects information on the following 10 types of offences: Property offences: Vehicle related crimes Theft of a car/van/truck (excludes attempted robbery) Theft from a car Theft of a motorcycle/moped/scooter Theft of a bicycle 1 Burglary (residence) Attempted burglary (residence) Theft of personal property (such as a purse, wallet, clothing; includes pick pocketing) Offences against the person: Contact crimes Robbery/attempted robbery (use of force or threats) 2 Sexual offences (unwanted sexual harassment or assault) Physical assault/threats Notes: 1. The term "burglary" is used by the ICVS. In Canada, the term "break and enter" is often used instead of burglary. 2. In previous cycles, only women were surveyed. However, in the 20042005 cycle men were equally surveyed. Questions pertaining to sexual offences were excluded from the Australian survey.
7 Accordin to the 2004 surve , 17% of Canadians a ed 16 and over had been victims of at least one crime measured b the ICVS durin the ear recedin the surve . This rate was similar to the overall international victimization rate (16%) (Chart 1). Victimization revalence rates for 20042005 varied from one countr to another, with S ain, Ja an, Hun ar and Portu al re isterin the lowest victimization rates (between 9% and 10%). In contrast, Ireland, En land & Wales and New Zealand were amon the countries with the hi hest overall victimization rates.
7. Although the victimization rates are referred to as being for 2004, the incidents of victimization actually occurred in 2003. Prevalence rates for the fiveyear period preceding the survey are also available, but this analysis concerns only those for 2004.
Statistics Canada — Catalogue no. 85002X, vol. 28, no. 10
Juristat Article — An international perspective on criminal victimisation Chart 1 Accordin to the ICVS, Canada's victimization rate was similar to the avera e of the 30 artici atin countries, 20042005 Partic ipating c ountries Ireland England & Wales New Zealand Ic eland Northern Ireland Estonia Netherlands DenmarkMexic o Switzerland Belgium USA Canada Australia¹ Sweden NorwayAverage Poland Bulgaria16% Sc otland Germany LuxembourgFinland Italy Greec eFranc e Austria Portugal Hungary JapanSpain 0 5 10 15 20 25perc entage of population 16 and older Notes:Insurve . ear recedin the es of offences in the onses from victims of at least one out of the 10 t Based on res eneral, a difference less than 2.5 ercenta e oints between two countries is not statisticall si nificant. 1. Questions on sexual assault incidents were excluded from the surve in Australia. Thus, their national rate is estimated to be 1% lower. SourceUNICRI and UNODC, (2007) 'Universit , : Van Di k, Van Kesteren, Paul Smit, Tilbur an, ohn Criminal Victimisation in International Pers ective: Ke Findin s from the 20042005 ICVS and EU ICS'. For almost all countries artici atin in the ICVS, the offences with the hi hest victimization rates were theft of ersonal ro ert , theft from a car and theft of a bic cle. In Canada, the hi hest victimization rate was for theft from a vehicle. Nearl 5% of ersons a ed 16 and over had ro ert taken from their vehicle. Canadians reported a lower proportion of victimization incidents to the police compared to the avera e of the 30 countries artici atin in the ICVS Not all incidents of criminal victimization are re orted to the olice. Across all artici atin countries, sli htl more than half the o ulation (53%) re orted a victimization incident to the olice. This rate is based on the re ortin of five offence t es com rised of theft from a car, theft of a bic cle, bur lar , attem ted bur lar and theft of ersonal ro ert . Accordin to the ICVS, Canada, alon with Finland and Luxembour , ranked relativel low with res ect to the re ortin of one of those incidents to the olice (Chart 2). With a rate below the international avera e, 48% of Canadian victims of such crime incidents in 2004 re orted the incident to the olice. Austria and Bel ium had the hi hest re ortin rates (70% and 68% res ectivel ) on the international scale. Victims in Mexico were much less likel to re ort their victimization incidents to the olice com ared to all other countries surveyed (16%). The next lowest rate of reporting to the police was in Iceland (40%).
Statistics Canada — Catalogue no. 85002X, vol. 28, no. 10
Juristat Article — An international perspective on criminal victimisation Chart 2Com ared to other countries artici atin in the ICVS, less victimization incidents were re orted to the police in Canada, 20042005 Partic ipating c ountries Austria BelgiumSweden Switzerland Sc otland Germany England & Wales Denmark Northern IrelandNetherlands Hungary New Zealand Japan Franc e Norway Australia AveragePortugal 53%Ireland Italy USA Greec e Luxembourg FinlandCanada Spain Poland Estonia Ic eland Mexic o 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 perc entage of inc idents reported to the polic eNotes:es of offences (theft from a car, theft of a bic onses from victims of at least one out of the 5 t Based on res cle, bur lar , attem ted bur lar and theft of ersonal ro ert ) in the ear recedin the surve . In eneral, a difference less than 4 ercenta e oints between two countries is not statisticall si nificant. Source: Van Dijk, Jan, John Van Kesteren, Paul Smit, Tilburg University, UNICRI and UNODC, (2007) 'Criminal Victimisation in International Perspective: Key Findings from the 20042005 ICVS and EU ICS'. Accordin to the results of the ICVS, thou h Canadians re orted a lower ro ortion of incidents to the olice, when the did re ort, the were satisfied with the olice res onse. In cases where Canadians re orted theft from a car, bur lar , robber , sexual offences or assault, twothirds re orted that the were satisfied with how the olice res onded. Additionall , in 2004, 86% of Canadians a ed 16 and over believed in 2004 that the olice were doin a ood or excellent ob at controllin crime in their area. Canada, alon with Finland and the United States, were amon the artici atin countries in the ICVS whose o ulation was the most satisfied with the ob done b the olice. Summar Canada did not stand out from other countries artici atin in the ICVS  criminal victimization rates were ver close to the international avera es for the 30 artici atin countries in the ICVS. Like the o ulations of other countries, Canadians were mainl victims of crimes a ainst ro ert . The re ortin rates to the olice of incidents in which Canadians were a victim were below the international avera e. However, the findin s show that Canadians have a ositive o inion re ardin the ob done b the olice with res ect to crime. While Canada has artici ated in ever c cle of the ICVS, there is also a national surve of victimization, conducted b Statistics Canada ever five ears since 1988. The General Social Surve on victimization, carried out on a lar er scale than the ICVS, draws on a sam le of 25,000 res ondents a ed 15 and over. The surve roduces more detailed statistics on the victimization incidents ex erienced b the o ulation (based on ei ht t es of offences) and on trends in victimization. It looks at risk factors associated with victimization and rates of re ortin to the olice, and it evaluates the fear of crime as well as ublic erce tions of crime and the criminal ustice s stem.
Statistics Canada — Catalogue no. 85002X, vol. 28, no. 10
Juristat Article — An international perspective on criminal victimisation Methodolo The International Crime Victimization Surve is coordinated b the United Nations Office on Dru s and Crime (UNODC). Surve com anies in different countries are selected b UNODC to conduct the surve . Data collection in Canada was conducted b Le er Marketin , a surve com an in Montreal and a member of the Gallu International Association. Canada has artici ated in all five c cles as a result of the Research and Statistics Division in the De artment of ustice havin taken the lead in coordinatin the surve . A total of 2,000 ersons a ed 16 or older were selected at random from across Canada for interviewin . All interviews were conducted b tele hone, usin the Com uter Assisted Tele hone Interviewin (CATI) method. The lan ua e of the interview was either En lish or French. A retest was com leted on Se tember 22 and 23, 2004. Subse uentl , all initial and followu interviews were com leted between Se tember 24 and October 30, 2004. In order to ensure a hi h res onse rate and to address the otential concerns of surve res ondents, a 1800 hotline located in the De artment of ustice Canada was set u . In addition, the Canadian Police Information Centre (CPIC) informed olice de artments across Canada that such a surve was bein conducted. The surve res onse rate was 60%. In Canada, a total number of 4,162 tele hone numbers were called for ICVS. Onl 8 3,324 numbers were classified as "relevant or eli ible contacts". Of those, 1,324 were refusals and 2,000 were com leted interviews. The res onse rate is result of the number of com leted res onses b the total number of eligible contacts. Data limitations It is im ortant to note that the ICVS data are estimates. The are based on information collected from a small fraction of the population. The sample sizes ranged from 1,000 to just over 7,000 respondents (Table 1). A sin le res ondent can re resent an where from 1,000 to over 200,000 eo le, de endin on the countr . As a result, the data are sub ect to sam lin error. The size of the sam lin error de ends on man factors, includin the sam le size, the ercenta e observed, and the level of confidence chosen. The sam lin error for the ICVS, usin a 90% confidence interval, is shown in Table 2. As an exam le of how this table should be used, consider the overall victimization rate for Canada. The ICVS estimates that 17.2% of the o ulation was victimized in 2004. Usin the table, for a sam le of 2,000 and an observed ercenta e of 20, the sam lin error is 1.5. This means that the 90% confidence interval is between 15.7% and 18.7% (17.2 ±1.5). The inter retation of the confidence interval is as follows: if re eated sam les of this size were drawn, each one leadin to a new confidence interval, then in 90% of the sam les, the confidence interval would include the true value for the o ulation. Because the results are sub ect to sam lin error, the difference between some fi ures will not be statisticall si nificant.
8. Numbers were not relevant for a variety of reasons including nonexistent telephone numbers, calls not answered, non response due to language barrier and nonresidential numbers.
Statistics Canada — Catalogue no. 85002X, vol. 28, no. 10
Juristat Article — An international perspective on criminal victimisation Data tables Table 1 Countries that artici ated in the 20042005 c cle of the International Crime Victim Surve and sam le sizes Countries Year of the surve Sam le 1 Luxembour 2005 800 United States 2004 1,001 Bul aria 2004 1,100 Estonia 2004 1,678 2 En land and Wales 2005 1,775 Iceland 2005 1,909 1 Denmark 2005 1,984 Canada 2004 2,000 New Zealand 2004 2,000 Northern Ireland 2005 2,002 1 Ireland 2005 2,003 1 Austria 2005 2,004 1 United Kin dom 2005 2,004 1 Netherlands 2005 2,010 Scotland 2005 2,010 1 Portu al 2005 2,011 1 Sweden 2005 2,012 1 Bel ium 2005 2,014 1 France 2005 2,016 1 Greece 2005 2,020 1 Ital 2005 2,023 1 German 2005 2,025 1 S ain 2005 2,034 Ja an 2004 2,086 1 Hun ar 2005 2,103 Mexico 2004 2,116 1 Finland 2005 2,500 Switzerland 2005 3,898 Norwa 2004 3,996 Poland 2005 5,013 Australia 2004 7,001 1. The data for these countries come from the Euro ean Surve and Safer (2005 EU ICS), Brussels, Gallu Euro e. 2. Data for En land and Wales are extracted from the UnitedKin dom sam le. Source:Van Di k, ohn, Smit, Paul, Tilbur an, Van Kesteren, UNICRI, UNODC, (2007)Universit , 'Criminal Victimisation in International Pers ective: Ke Findin s from the 20042005 ICVS and EU ICS'.
Statistics Canada — Catalogue no. 85002X, vol. 28, no. 10