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eurostat
DIGEST OF STATISTICS
ON SOCIAL PROTECTION
IN EUROPE
Volume 2: Invalidity / Disability eurostat
STATISTISCHES AMT DER EUROPÄISCHEN GEMEINSCHAFTEN
STATISTICAL OFFICE OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
OFFICE STATISTIQUE DES COMMUNAUTÉS EUROPÉENNES
L-2920 Luxembourg - Tél. 43 01-1 - Télex: Comeur Lu 3423
Tél. 235 11 11 B-1049 Bruxelles, bâtiment Berlaymont, rue de la Loi 200 (bureau de liaison)
Eurostat hat die Aufgabe, den Informa­ It is Eurostat's responsibility to use the Pour établir, évaluer ou apprécier les
tionsbedarf der Kommission und aller différentes politiques communautaires, European statistical system to meet the
am Aufbau des Binnenmarktes Beteilig­ la Commission des Communautés euro­requirements of the Commission and all
ten mit Hilfe des europäischen statisti­ péennes a besoin d'Informations. parties involved in the development of
schen Systems zu decken. the single market.
Eurostat a pour mission, à travers le
système statistique européen, de répon­Um der Öffentlichkeit die große Menge To ensure that the vast quantity of
dre aux besoins de la Commission et de an verfügbaren Daten zugänglich zu accessible data is made widely avail­
machen und Benutzern die Orientierung able, and to help each user make proper l'ensemble des personnes impliquées
zu erleichtern, werden zwei Arten von use of this information, Eurostat has set dans le développement du marché
Publikationen angeboten: Statistische up two main categories of document: unique.
Dokumente und Veröffentlichungen. statistical documents and publications.
Pour mettre à la disposition de tous
l'importante quantité de données acces­Statistische Dokumente sind für den The statistical document is aimed at
Fachmann konzipiert und enthalten das specialists and provides the most com­ sibles et faire en sorte que chacun
ausführliche Datenmaterial: Bezugsda­ plete sets of data: reference data where puisse s'orienter correctement dans cet
ten, bei denen die Konzepte allgemein the methodology is well established, ensemble, deux grandes catégories de
bekannt, standardisiert und wissen­ standardized, uniform and scientific. documents ont été créées: les docu­
schaftlich fundiert sind. Diese Daten These data are presented in great detail. ments statistiques et les publications.
werden in einer sehr tiefen Gliederung The statistical document is intended for
Le document statistique s'adresse aux
dargeboten. Die Statistischen Doku­ experts who are capable of using their
spécialistes. Il fournit les données les
mente wenden sich an Fachleute, die in own means to seek out what they re­
plus complètes: données de référence
der Lage sind, selbständig die benötig­ quire. The information is provided on
où la méthodologie est bien connue, ten Daten aus der Fülle des dargebote­ paper and/or on diskette, magnetic tape,
standardisée, normalisée et scientifique. nen Materials auszuwählen. Diese Daten CD-ROM. The white cover sheet bears a
Ces données sont présentées à un sind in gedruckter Form und/oder auf stylized motif which distinguishes the
niveau très détaillé. Le document statis­Diskette, Magnetband, CD-ROM verfüg­ statistical document from other publica­
tique est destiné aux experts capables bar. Statistische Dokumente unterschei­ tions.
de rechercher, par leurs propres den sich auch optisch von anderen
The publications proper tend to be com­ moyens, les données requises. Les Veröffentlichungen durch den mit einer
piled for a well-defined and targeted informations sont alors disponibles sur stilisierten Graphik versehenen weißen
Einband. public, such as educational circles or papier et/ou sur disquette, bande
political and administrative decision­ magnétique, CD-ROM. La couverture
Die zweite Publikationsart, die Veröffent­ makers. The information in these docu­ blanche ornée d'un graphisme stylisé
lichungen, wenden sich an eine ganz ments is selected, sorted and annotated démarque le document statistique des
bestimmte Zielgruppe, wie zum Beispiel to suit the target public. In this instance, autres publications.
an den Bildungsbereich oder an Ent­ therefore, Eurostat works in an advisory
Les publications proprement dites peu­
scheidungsträger in Politik und Verwal­ capacity.
vent, elles, être réalisées pour un public
tung. Sie enthalten ausgewählte und auf
bien déterminé, ciblé, par exemple l'en­Where the readership is wider and less die Bedürfnisse einer Zielgruppe abge­
seignement ou les décideurs politiques well defined, Eurostat provides the infor­stellte und kommentierte Informationen.
ou administratifs. Des informations mation required for an initial analysis, Eurostat übernimmt hier also eine Art
such as yearbooks and periodicals sélectionnées, triées et commentées en
Beraterrolle.
which contain data permitting more in- fonction de ce public lui sont apportées.
depth studies. These publications are Eurostat joue, dès lors, le rôle de con­Für einen breiteren Benutzerkreis gibt
available on paper or in Videotext data­ seiller. Eurostat Jahrbücher und periodische
Veröffentlichungen heraus. Diese enthal­ bases.
Dans le cas d'un public plus large, moins
ten statistische Ergebnisse für eine erste
défini, Eurostat procure des éléments To help the user focus his research, Analyse sowie Hinweise auf weiteres
Eurostat has created 'themes', i.e. a nécessaires à une première analyse, les
Datenmaterial für vertiefende Untersu­
subject classification. The statistical annuaires et les périodiques, dans les­
chungen. Diese Veröffentlichungen
documents and publications are listed quels figurent les renseignements adé­
werden in gedruckter Form und in
by series: e.g. yearbooks, short-term quats pour approfondir l'étude. Ces
Datenbanken angeboten, die in Menü­
trends or methodology in order to facili­ publications sont présentées sur papier
technik zugänglich sind.
tate access to the statistical data. ou dans des banques de données de
Um Benutzern die Datensuche zu type vidéotex.
erleichtern, hat Eurostat Themenkreise,
Y. Franchet Pour aider l'utilisateur à s'orienter dans
d. h. eine Untergliederung nach Sachge­
Director-General ses recherches, Eurostat a créé les
bieten, eingeführt. Daneben sind sowohl
thèmes, c'est-à-dire une classification
die Statistischen Dokumente als auch
par sujet. Les documents statistiques et
die Veröffentlichungen in bestimmte
les publications sont répertoriés par
Reihen, wie zum Beispiel „Jahnbücher",
série — par exemple, annuaire, conjonc­„Konjunktur", „Methoden", unterglie­
ture, méthodologie — afin de faciliter
dert, um den Zugriff auf die statistischen
l'accès aux informations statistiques.
Informationen zu erleichtern.
Y. Franchet
Y. Franchet
Directeur général
Generaldirektor DIGEST OF STATISTICS
ON SOCIAL PROTECTION
IN EUROPE
Volume 2: Invalidity / Disability
Theme
Population and social conditions
Series
Studies and analyses
STATISTISCHES DOKUMENT D STATISTICAL DOCUMENT D DOCUMENT STATISTIQUE
Auf Recycling-Papier gedruckt D Printed on recycled paper D Imprimé sur papier recyclé The contents of this publication do not necessarily reflect the official opinions of the
institutions of the European Communities.
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication.
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1992
ISBN 92-826-3720-4
© ECSC-EEC-EAEC, Brussels · Luxembourg, 1992
Reproduction is authorized, except for commercial purposes, provided the source is
acknowledged.
Printed in Belgium CONTENTS
Part I INTRODUCTION
1. Objectives 6
2. Classifications
3. Method used to compile the Digest 7
4. Presentation of data
5.1. Invalidity/Disability function: Content 9
5.2.: Definitions of types of benefit
Part II COUNTRY TABLES: Benefit expenditure and number of beneficiaries
Belgium 14
Denmark8
Germany 22
Greece6
Spain 30
France
Ireland
Italy , . 4
Luxembourg 4
The Netherlands 5
Portugal
United Kingdom8
Part III ANALYSIS AND COMPARATIVE TABLES
1. Trends in aggregate benefit expenditure 69
2. Aggregate benefit expenditure and GDP 7
3. Per-capitate1
4. Breakdown by type of benefit
4.1.n into basic, supplementary compulsory and means-tested schemes 7
4.2. Voluntary schemes2
4.3. Benefits in cash and in kind
4.4. Breakdown by type of cash benefit
4.5. Supplementary details3
5. Proposed future work
6. Comparative tables
1. Amounts of benefit by type -1988 74
2. Index of amounts of benefit by type: national currencies at 1985 prices 75
3. Trends ins oft in national currencies at 1985 prices6
4. Amounts of benefit asa % of GDP and per capita-19808
5.s oft asa % of GDP and per89
6. Structure by groups of schemes -1988 80
7. Supplementary schemes -19881
8. Benefits in cash and in kind by groups of schemes-1988
9. Structure by type of cash benefit -19883
f
Part IV DESCRIPTIVE FORMS BY TYPE OF BENEFIT
Belgium 86
Denmark 10
Germany9
Greece 11
Spain 121
France 134
Ireland 148
Italy 157
Luxembourg 17
The Netherlands 18
Portugal 19
United Kingdom 202 Part I INTRODUCTION At regular intervals Eurostat publishes* ' aggregated c) National benefit types are classified in three groups
data on current social protection expenditure and re­ of schemes:
ceipts*2', which are compiled and presented using the - Basic schemes - first "pillar"
ESSPROS methodology*3'. One classification of the - Supplementary schemes - second "pillar"
benefits is by "functions", in other words by risk covered. - Means-tested welfare schemes
These correspond to the ESSPROS groups of schemes.
The Digest of Statistics on Social Protection in Eu­
rope - of which this publication represents Volume II As a reminder, but without repeating the full definitions
devoted to the invalidity/disability function - provides in the methodology, the basic schemes (paragraph 317)
more detailed information and data on total benefits paid are schemes which, pursuant to the provisions of laws
and on the numbers of beneficiaries. or regulations, provide for primary protection against one
or more risks.
N.B. In this volume, where the term "invalidity func­
tion" is used, it refers to the invalidity/disability The supplementary schemes, also known as com­
function. plementary in the ESSPROS methodology (paragraph
326), are schemes which presuppose that, in the case
1. Objectives in question, primary benefits are being granted under a
basic scheme.
The purpose of the Digest of Statistics on Social Protec­
tion in Europe is to obtain, in respect of each function, a It has to be noted, however, that when the same scheme
breakdown by type of benefits paid and the correspond­ grants benefits composed of a basic amount and a
ing numbers of beneficiaries. supplement proportional to earnings (e.g. the invalidity
pension in the United Kingdom, made up of a flat-rate
This breakdown, specific to each function and common amount and an earnings-related component (SERPS))
to all member states, should allow more accurate Euro­ or a basic amount and a supplement depending on
pean comparisons (cf. Part III) and in-depth national personal circumstances (e.g. the invalidity pension in
analyses (cf. Part II) to be undertaken in parallel, and the Denmark), all of these benefits are classified in the first
two approaches to be combined. "pillar".
The fact sheets describing the main features of national The means-tested welfare schemes are known as
benefits (cf. Part IV) for a given function - i.e. the agency "schemes relating to other forms of social protection" in
which provides the benefits, the conditions governing the ESSPROS (paragraph 329). The schemes covered by
granting of the benefits and the method of calculating this group are those which aim to provide a minimum
them - will be of great assistance in interpreting the data. income to invalids without sufficient means.
Finally, data collection at two different levels - that is, at Only benefits which are specifically designed for dis­
the level of the "agencies" or administrative units in the abled people (e.g. the "Complementary allowance to the
case of ordinary ESSPROS statistics, and at the level of minimum guaranteed income" in Belgium) are classified
national benefits in the case of data in the Digest, en­ under the means-tested welfare schemes. When such
ables valuable data cross-checking. benefits are paid according to rules which apply to the
whole population as a last resort, they are classified
2. Classifications
under the general neediness function* ' (e.g. "Sozial-
hilfe" in Germany or "Algemene Bijstand" in The Nether­
ESSPROS classifies social protection benefits as fol­
lands).
lows*^:
- by country
The first two groups of schemes in the ESSPROS are
- by function (or social risk)
subdivided into national, general, special (themselves
- by scheme (or grouping of administrative
subdivided) and voluntary schemes (paragraph 316). So
units referred to as agencies)
as not to overburden the tables, and since the Digest is
- by type of benefit (general types, identical
not aimed at an institutional analysis of the schemes,
for all functions).
these subdivisions were not included here.
The classification and presentation of statistical results
On the other hand, it seemed important to make a
in the Digest are based on this ESSPROS classification,
distinction, in the case of supplementary schemes, be­
subject to the following clarifications:
tween compulsory and voluntary schemes which is not
made specifically in the current ESSPROS methodo­
a) Each volume of the Digest contains data (benefits paid
logy*6).
and numbers of beneficiaries) for one of the twelve
functions. Volume II covers invalidity as defined in point
Supplementary protection is regarded as compulsory
5.1 below of this introduction.
when:
- established by law or regulation
b) The data are presented by country (Part II), and
-d by convention or collective agreement
summarized in comparative tables (Part III).
(employers/unions) or within a profession, and made obligatory by the public authorities. The fact that the holds are presented. These types are generic (for
scheme is subject to legislation (determining conditions example, invalidity pension, medical care...) and group
etc.) or that the public authorities recognize the scheme, national benefits covering the same risks as laid down
does not mean that the scheme as such is compulsory. by law or a specific regulation: e.g. in tables 1 and 2 for
France, in the case of the "invalidity pension" heading in
Supplementary protection is regarded as voluntary the first "pillar", the pensions of railway employees
when: (SNCF) and of employees in industry and trade (CNAV)
- established by an agreement at sectoral or at company are national benefits.
level, or by voluntary decision of the employer, as long
as the scheme is not made obligatory by the public The various types of benefits and their definitions are
authorities. listed in point 5.2 below of this introduction. The national
- established by a joint decision of the persons con­ benefits are the subject of fact sheets (Part IV).
cerned as long as the scheme is not made obligatory by
the public authorities. It can be concluded from the foregoing that the Digest is
based on the ESSPROS methodology, but with some
For example, in the case of the invalidity function, the adaptations of the grouping of benefits at the level of
following national types of benefits fall within compulsory schemes and types.
supplementary schemes: the WAO (employees in pri­
3. Method used to compile the Digest vate and public enterprises) or ABP (civil servants)
schemes in The Netherlands, or the TEAM retirement
Eurostat requested an expert from each country's na­scheme in Greece. Benefits paid by mutual benefit
tional administration to supply detailed data regarding funds, pension funds, etc. are classified as voluntary.
the amounts of benefits paid and the numbers of benefi­
ciaries in respect of each function, for the period 1980-Voluntary supplementary schemes have been broken
1990, the data being accompanied by corresponding fact down according to the terms of financing. This further
sheets. breakdown can at first sight appear to result in an unbal­
anced structure. It has been introduced to underline the
Based on an analysis of this raw material, Eurostat significance of this rapidly expanding side of social pro­
compiled an initial classification of benefits for a given tection, to help collect data by defining the content and,
function common to all countries, starting with the old as it turns out, to highlight statistical gaps in this area, in
age function, then proceeding to the invalidity function. fact exhaustive data in this area are available only in a
The national benefits were subsequently allocated to this few Community countries. The great variety of systems
classification. The data breakdowns were rearranged, and the multitude of institutions providing this kind of
and the data and the fact sheets were completed. benefit makes the collection and processing of data
difficult even at national level.
This work was undertaken in close cooperation with the
Member States. The link with the ordinary ESSPROS Four methods of financing have been considered here:
statistics was maintained throughout the procedure. Fur­
thermore, certain corrections will be made to the ES­- self-administered pension funds, i.e. funds managed
SPROS statistics based on the results of this work. either by the plan sponsor or by an institution or trust
established for this purpose;
This volume has undoubtedly benefited from the experi­- group insurance contracts, where the plan sponsor's
ence acquired during the preparation of Volume I of the commitment to provide supplementary coverage is guar­
Digest, dealing with the old age function, which has anteed by a policy taken out with an insurance company;
already been published. It is expected to be updated and - book reserves, entered by the employer into the liability
improved in two years time. Further volumes, dealing side of the company's balance sheet to guarantee future
with the remaining functions, are being prepared. fulfilment of the pension promise made to the company's
employees*7'. This method of funding is well established
4. Presentation of data
in Germany;
- other supplementary pension arrangements, such as
This introduction, containing definitions of the invalidity
those financed in the framework of Mutual Societies.
function and the types of benefits specific to it, is followed
by country tables for the years 1980 to 1990*8' (Part II).
d) The types of benefits considered in this Digest being
These tables provide two series of data, i.e. the sum of
specific to each function, differ from the types of benefits
benefits paid expressed in national currency (Table 1)
in ESSPROS (paragraph 605) which are common to all
and the number of beneficiaries by national benefit
the functions, and are therefore more general (see
type*9) (Table 2).
classification plan on next page).
Part III contains an analysis of the data on the basis of
This change reflects the attempt to obtain uniform classi­
comparative tables. This part of the publication gives an
fications for all countries in the way best suited to provide
overview of the trends and of the structure of benefit
a cross-country analysis by function. The 'types" in the
expenditure on invalidity in the Community as a whole
Digest and in ESSPROS differ therefore not in concept,
and in each of the Member States.
but in the level at which the benefits enjoyed by house­DIGEST - VOL II: INVALIDITY ESSPROS
SCHEMES SCHEMES
Basic Basic (1st pillar)
. National
. General
. Special
- statutory
- other occupational
- for victims of political
events and natural disasters
- other special
. Voluntary
Complementary or supplementary Supplementary (2nd pillar)
. National . Compulsory
. General
. Special . Voluntary
- statutory - self-administered funds
- other occupational - Insured funds
- for victims of political - book reserves
events and natural disasters - other (especially mutual associations)
- other special
. Voluntary
Relating to other forms of social protection Means-tested
TYPES OF BENEFIT TYPES OF BENEFIT
(same for all functions) (specific to invalidity function)
Cash benefits Cash benefits
. income maintenance invalidity pension
- long term periodic lump sum benefit
- shorttermc benefit to promote employment of the disabled
- paid once only (remuneration and training allowance)
. to compensate for special expenditure other cash benefit
- long term periodic
- short termc
- paid once only
. other
- long term periodic
- shorttermc
- paid once only
Benefits In kind Benefits in kind
. reimbursement medical care
- medical care rehabilitation
home help - social assistance
- other reimbursement miscellaneous concessions
. directly provided benefits other benefit in kind
- medical care
- social assistance
- other direct benefits
Part IV contains fact sheets describing the main charac­ It should be noted that in order to facilitate the compari­
son of structures, the tables list all types of benefits, both teristics of national benefit types for the invalidity func­
when the data are not available (indicated by a colon ":") tion. The information concerns the agencies which
but also when they do not exist in the Member State in provide the benefits, the conditions governing award of
question (indicated by a hyphen "-"). the benefits and the method of calculating them.