In-situ Atomic Layer Deposition growth of Hf-oxide [Elektronische Ressource] / Konstantin Karavaev. Betreuer: Dieter Schmeißer
67 Pages
English
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In-situ Atomic Layer Deposition growth of Hf-oxide [Elektronische Ressource] / Konstantin Karavaev. Betreuer: Dieter Schmeißer

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67 Pages
English

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In-situ Atomic Layer Deposition growth of Hf-oxide Von der Fakultät für Mathematik, Naturwissenschaften und Informatik der Brandenburgischen Technischen Universität Cottbus zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Doktor der Naturwissenschaften (Dr. rer. nat.) genehmigte Dissertation vorgelegt von Diplom-Physiker Konstantin Karavaev geboren am 03.02.1982 in Kemerovo, Russland Gutachter: Prof. Dr. rer. nat. habil. Dieter Schmeier Gutachter: Prof. Dr. rer. nat. habil. Ehrenfried Zschech Gutachter: Prof. Dr. rer. nat. habil. Christian Pettenkofer Tag der mundlichen Prufung: 17 Juni 2010 Tag der mundlichen Prufung: 20 Juni 2010 To my parents and my girlfriend AnnabelAcknowledgementsThis thesis is based on the experimental work carried out in the Chair Applied Physicsand Sensors, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus and BESSY, during theyears 2006-2009.I wish to express my deep gratitude to my supervisor Professor Dieter Schmeisserfor his support, encouragement and advice during this work. I would like to thankmy coauthors Dr. Massimo Tallarida for sharing his experience and immeasurablehelp throughout the course of this work. For technical help and assistance, I wish toacknowledge Mr. Guido Beuckert and Mrs. Ioanna Paloumpa. The whole personnelin the Chair Applied Physics and Sensors, Brandenburg University of TechnologyCottbus.

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In-situ Atomic Layer Deposition growth of Hf-oxide

Von der Fakultät für Mathematik, Naturwissenschaften und Informatik
der Brandenburgischen Technischen Universität Cottbus

zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades

Doktor der Naturwissenschaften
(Dr. rer. nat.)

genehmigte Dissertation

vorgelegt von



Diplom-Physiker

Konstantin Karavaev

geboren am 03.02.1982 in Kemerovo, Russland


Gutachter: Prof. Dr. rer. nat. habil. Dieter Schmeier


Gutachter: Prof. Dr. rer. nat. habil. Ehrenfried Zschech


Gutachter: Prof. Dr. rer. nat. habil. Christian Pettenkofer



Tag der mundlichen Prufung: 17 Juni 2010 Tag der mundlichen Prufung: 20 Juni 2010




To my parents and my girlfriend AnnabelAcknowledgements
This thesis is based on the experimental work carried out in the Chair Applied Physics
and Sensors, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus and BESSY, during the
years 2006-2009.
I wish to express my deep gratitude to my supervisor Professor Dieter Schmeisser
for his support, encouragement and advice during this work. I would like to thank
my coauthors Dr. Massimo Tallarida for sharing his experience and immeasurable
help throughout the course of this work. For technical help and assistance, I wish to
acknowledge Mr. Guido Beuckert and Mrs. Ioanna Paloumpa. The whole personnel
in the Chair Applied Physics and Sensors, Brandenburg University of Technology
Cottbus.
The International Graduate School at BTU Foundation are acknowledged for the
nancial support. My warmest thanks belong to my family, especially my mother
Tamara Karavaeva, my father Sergey Karavaev and my girlfriend Anna Monakhova
and my friends for their support.
Cottbus, December 2009
Karavaev Konstantin
iiiAbstract
We have grown HfO on Si(001) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using HfCl ,2 4
TEMAHf, TDMAHf and H O as precursors. The early stages of the ALD were2
investigated with high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray absorption
spectroscopy. We observed the changes occurring in the Si2p, O1s, Hf4f, Hf4d, and
Cl2p (for HfCl experiment) core level lines after each ALD cycle up to the complete4
formation of two layers of HfO . The investigation was carried out in situ giving the2
possibility to determine the properties of the grown lm after every ALD cycle or
even after a half cycle.
This work focused on the advantages in-situ approach in comparison with ex-situ
experiments. The study provides to follow the evolution of the important properties
of HfO : contamination level, density and stoichiometry, and in uence of the exper-2
imental parameters to the interface layer formation during ALD.
Our investigation shows that in-situ XPS approach for ALD gives much more infor-
mation than ex-situ experiments.
vContents
Abstract v
Contents vii
1 Introduction 1
1.1 MOSFET performance and scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 High-k gate dielectric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3 In-situ approach of investigation high-k oxide . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2 Basics 9
2.1 Atomic Layer Deposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.2 X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3 Experimental 15
3.1 The ALD in-situ system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.2 In-situ XPS and XAS system at BESSY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.3 Used Precursors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4 Results and discussion 21
4.1 Ex-situ investigation of industrial layers of Hf-oxide on Si by X-ray
Photoelectron Spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.2 Investigation of in-situ layers by XPS, XAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.2.1 Quantitative analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.2.2 Evolution of interfaces HfO /SiO /Si . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 2
4.2.3 Model of growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.2.4 Physical properties in-situ prepared layers of Hf-oxide . . . 30
4.2.5 Contamination content in the HfCl experiment . . . . . . . 354
4.3 In-situ study of individual steps of ALD process . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5 Conclusions 41
vii