Integrating GIS and remote sensing for assessing the impact of disturbance on habitat diversity and land cover change in a post-mining landscape [Elektronische Ressource] / by Effah Kwabena Antwi
178 Pages
English
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Integrating GIS and remote sensing for assessing the impact of disturbance on habitat diversity and land cover change in a post-mining landscape [Elektronische Ressource] / by Effah Kwabena Antwi

Downloading requires you to have access to the YouScribe library
Learn all about the services we offer
178 Pages
English

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PhD Dissertation Integrating GIS and Remote Sensing for Assessing the Impact of Disturbance on Habitat Diversity and Land Cover Change in a Post-Mining Landscape A thesis approved by the Faculty of Environmental Science and Process Engineering at the Brandenburg University of Technology in Cottbus in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of an academic degree in Ph.D. Environmental and Resource Management. By Effah Kwabena ANTWI M.Sc. Environmental and Resource Management BSc. Biological Sciences Place of Birth: Abetifi – GHANA Supervisor: Prof. Dr. rer. nat. habil. Gerhard Wiegleb Prof. Dr. rer. nat. habil., Dipl.-Math. Albrecht Gnauck 24.03.09 Date of Oral Examination: BTU Cottbus Dept. of General Ecology Impact of Disturbance on Diversity and LCC Using GIS and Remote Sensing Declarations This doctoral dissertation “Integrating GIS and Remote Sensing for Assessing the Impact of Disturbance on Habitat Diversity and Land Cover Change in Post-Mining Landscape” was completed and written independently by me ANTWI Effah Kwabena. I hereby declare that: 1. This PhD thesis was completed and written independently and that all used sources and tools are indicated in the thesis. 2. The publication of the thesis does not violate any copyright rules. All other work and/or words of others are appropriately cited or quoted. 3.

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Published 01 January 2009
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PhD Dissertation

Integrating GIS and Remote Sensing for Assessing the Impact of
Disturbance on Habitat Diversity and Land Cover Change in a
Post-Mining Landscape









A thesis approved by the Faculty of Environmental Science and Process Engineering at the
Brandenburg University of Technology in Cottbus in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the
award of an academic degree in Ph.D. Environmental and Resource Management.






By



Effah Kwabena ANTWI
M.Sc. Environmental and Resource Management
BSc. Biological Sciences








Place of Birth: Abetifi – GHANA






Supervisor: Prof. Dr. rer. nat. habil. Gerhard Wiegleb Prof. Dr. rer. nat. habil., Dipl.-Math. Albrecht Gnauck
24.03.09 Date of Oral Examination:
BTU Cottbus Dept. of General Ecology Impact of Disturbance on Diversity and LCC Using GIS and Remote Sensing

Declarations
This doctoral dissertation “Integrating GIS and Remote Sensing for Assessing the
Impact of Disturbance on Habitat Diversity and Land Cover Change in Post-Mining
Landscape” was completed and written independently by me ANTWI Effah
Kwabena. I hereby declare that:
1. This PhD thesis was completed and written independently and that all used
sources and tools are indicated in the thesis.
2. The publication of the thesis does not violate any copyright rules. All other
work and/or words of others are appropriately cited or quoted.
3. I have never applied for a doctoral degree award in BTU or any institution
before; or submitted any earlier applications to obtain permission for final
examination or publication of my doctoral degree in part or in whole.
4. There has never been an instance where my application to get permission for
final examination or publication of a doctoral degree has been cancelled,
disqualified or unsuccessful due to my attempt to deceive.
The research is an accurate and original account of my work done under the
framework of the Environmental and Resource Management doctoral program offered
by the Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus. It includes objective
discussion of results, accurate representation of underlining data and detailed
referencing of all sources and tools used.


-----------------------------------
ANTWI Effah Kwabena
Lehrstuhl Allgemeine Ökologie
Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus

iBTU Cottbus Dept. of General Ecology Impact of Disturbance on Diversity and LCC Using GIS and Remote Sensing

Acknowledgement
The study is part of the SUBICON (Fkz01LC0018), a sub-project of BMBF BIOLOG
EUROPE collaborative research project on successional change and biodiversity
conservation being investigated at the Department of General Ecology, BTU Cottbus.
SUBICON project looks into the mechanism of changes and maintenance of
biodiversity of selected functional groups in red oak ecosystem. I appreciate
constructive comments from members of research team at the Chair of General
Ecology on this dissertation.
I am deeply indebted to Prof. Dr. Gerhard Wiegleb for his encouragement, advice,
mentoring and research support throughout my master’s and doctoral degrees. I truly
appreciate Prof. Dr. Albrecht Gnauck, Dr. Rene Krawczynski, Dr. Udo Bröring and
Fr. Diana Zinke for their support patience and tolerance during my research work.
I reckon it is impossible to have my research career without the love and support of
my parents Rhoda Ofosuhe, Mr. Yaw Antwi, Mr. Agyei Sarpong, Mr. & Mrs. Kwao
Sarbah, family and friends. I dearly appreciate you all.
iiBTU Cottbus Dept. of General Ecology Impact of Disturbance on Diversity and LCC Using GIS and Remote Sensing

Dedication
This dissertation is dedicated to Mama Jane Kwao Sarbah, my wife Mary-Helina
Effah Antwi, and our child who has just gone ahead of us to the father.
iiiBTU Cottbus Dept. of General Ecology Impact of Disturbance on Diversity and LCC Using GIS and Remote Sensing

Table of Content
Content Page
Table of Content...........................................................................................................1
List of Figures...............................................................................................................6
List of Tables ..............................................................................................................11
List of Abbreviations .................................................................................................13
Abstract.......................................................................................................................14
1 Introduction.............................................................................................................16
2 Theoretical Background.........................................................................................21
2.1 Patch Dynamics and Perturbation......................................................................21
2.2 Disturbance ........................................................................................................22
2.3 Landscape Fragmentation ..................................................................................25
2.4 Landscape Heterogeneity...................................................................................27
2.5 Land Use/Land Cover Change Related to Mining.............................................28
2.6 The Rehabilitation of Mine Damaged Land ......................................................30
2.7 Biodiversity Conservation .................................................................................32
2.8 The Use of GIS and Remote Sensing in Landscape Ecology............................33
2.9 Human and Environmental Impacts on Landscape Dynamics ..........................35
2.10 Indicators of Primary Production – Biomass Accumulation ...........................36
2.11 Use of Organic Phosphate, Nitrate, Ammonia and pH as Indicators...............38
1BTU Cottbus Dept. of General Ecology Impact of Disturbance on Diversity and LCC Using GIS and Remote Sensing

2.12 Use of Landscape Metrics for Disturbance and Biodiversity Studies .............39
3 Materials and Methods...........................................................................................42
3.1 Descriptive Methodology Aspect ......................................................................42
3.1.1 Data Acquisition and Spatial Database......................................................42
3.1.2 Overview of Field Data Collections and Measurements ............................45
3.1.3 Image Classification, Change Detection and Accuracy .............................46
3.2 Study Area .........................................................................................................48
3.3 Data Acquisition and Spatial Database..............................................................59
3.4 Field Data Collections and Measurements ........................................................60
3.4.1 Soil Samples Collection ..............................................................................60
3.4.2 Climate Data (Temperature and Precipitation) Measurements .................60
3.5 Determination of the pH-value from Soil Samples............................................60
3.6 Image Classification, Change Detection and Accuracy.....................................61
3.6.1 Spatial and Remote Sensing Accuracy Issues.............................................61
3.6.2 Field-based and RS-based Biotopes in Schlabendorf.................................62
3.7 Change Detection with the Extension "Veränderung"(version 3) .....................63
3.8 Estimation Procedure for Biomass Accumulation.............................................64
3.9 Determining the Effect of Soil pH on Land Cover Change - Pseudo
Slash ( Ŧ) Approach............................................................................................65
3.10 Relationship among Land Cover Types from DCA Ordination
Analysis..............................................................................................................67
4 Results ......................................................................................................................69
4.1 Land Cover Characteristics Deduced from Landscape Metrics ........................69
2BTU Cottbus Dept. of General Ecology Impact of Disturbance on Diversity and LCC Using GIS and Remote Sensing

4.1.1 Habitat Area Characteristics of Schlabendorf Nord and
Schlabendorf Süd ...........................................................................................69
4.1.2 Edge Density Metrics of Schlabendorf Nord and Schlabendorf Süd..........71
4.1.3 Shape Metrics of Schlabendorf Nord and Schlabendorf Süd......................74
4.1.4 Diversity Metrics of Schlabe.................76
4.1.5 Total Patch Edge of Schlabe77
4.2 An Overview of Land Cover Distribution Study at the Period of 1988
and 2003 in both Study Areas............................................................................78
4.2.1 Land Cover Distribution at Schlabendorf Nord - 1988 to 2003.................78
4.2.2 Land Cover Distribution at Schlabendorf Süd - 1988 to 2003 ...................81
4.3 Detailed Land Cover Distributions and Change Analysis at Three
Different Segments (1988-1991, 1995-1998, 2000-2003) in
Schlabendorf Süd ...............................................................................................83
4.3.1 Land Cover Change Estimation at Schlabendorf Süd from 1988 to
1991 –First Segment ......................................................................................83
4.3.2 Land Cover Distribution and Change Analysis from 1995 to 1998
in Schlabendorf Süd – Second Segment.........................................................85
4.3.3 Land Cover Distribution and Change Analysis from 2000 to 2003
in Schlabendorf Süd –Third Segment.............................................................86
4.4 Detailed Land Cover Distributions and Change Analysis at Three
Different Segments (1988-1991, 1995-1998, 2000-2003) in
Schlabendorf Nord .............................................................................................88
4.4.1 Land Cover Change Estimation at Schlabendorf Nord from 1988
to 1991 –First Segment ..................................................................................88
4.4.2 Land Cover Change Estimation at Schlabendorf Nord from 1995
to 1998 –Second Segment ..............................................................................90
4.4.3 Land Cover Change Estimation at Schlabendorf Nord from 2000
to 2003 –Third Segment.................................................................................91
4.5 Detrended Correspondence Analysis - DCA .....................................................93
4.5.1 Detrended Correspondence Analysis Results at Schlabendorf Süd............93
3BTU Cottbus Dept. of General Ecology Impact of Disturbance on Diversity and LCC Using GIS and Remote Sensing

4.5.2 Detrended Correspondence Analysis Results at Schlabendorf
Nord ...............................................................................................................94
4.5.3 DCA Results at Schlabendorf Nord and Schlabendorf Süd
Compared.......................................................................................................96
4.6 Estimation of Primary Production from Normalized Difference
Vegetation Index................................................................................................98
4.7 Effect of Soil pH on Vegetation Growth and Land Cover Change ...................99
4.8 Average Behaviour Function of Climate Factors in Schlabendorf..................101
5 Discussions.............................................................................................................106
5.1 Estimation of Habitat Richness, Habitat Size and Habitat
Fragmentation from Patch Area Metrics in Schlabendorf Nord and
Schlabendorf Süd .............................................................................................106
5.2 Detecting Habitat Shape Complexity in Schlabendorf from Shape
Metrics .............................................................................................................110
5.3 Edge Density Metrics in Schlabendorf Nord and Schlabendorf Süd...............112
5.4 Estimation of Habitat Diversity in Schlabendorf Nord and
Schlabendorf Süd .............................................................................................114
5.5 Land Cover Distributions and Change in Schlabendorf ..................................116
5.5.1 Overview ...................................................................................................116
5.5.2 Land Cover Distribution and Change Analysis........................................116
5.6 Biomass Accumulation (Primary Production) in Schlabendorf.......................127
5.7 Relationships among Land Cover Changes Determine from DCA Plot..........128
5.8 Ecological Significance of the Land Cover Changes ......................................131
5.9 Reclamation of Mine Damage Areas in Schlabendorf ....................................132
4BTU Cottbus Dept. of General Ecology Impact of Disturbance on Diversity and LCC Using GIS and Remote Sensing

5.10 Causes of Land Cover Changes in Schlabendorf...........................................134
5.11 Habitat Diversity and Species Diversity in Schlabendorf..............................135
6 Conclusions, Outlook for Future Studies and Criticisms..................................140
6.1 Overall Conclusions.........................................................................................140
6.2 Outlook for Future Studies...............................................................................143
6.3 Criticisms - Strengths and Weaknesses of Methodologies..............................145
6.3.1 Landscape Metrics for Disturbance and Land Cover Analysis................145
6.3.2 Soil Sampling Method146
6.3.3 Change Detection......................................................................................146
6.3.4 Spatial and Remote Sensing Accuracy Issues...........................................146
6.3.5 DCA Ordination Analysis .........................................................................147
6.3.6 Fragmentation in the Post-mining Area ...................................................147
7 References..............................................................................................................148
8 Glossary .................................................................................................................161
10 Appendix Tables..................................................................................................164

5BTU Cottbus Dept. of General Ecology Impact of Disturbance on Diversity and LCC Using GIS and Remote Sensing

List of Figures
Figure 1 Absorption of Visible Light and Near-Infrared Radiations by
Healthy and Unhealthy Vegetation. 37
Figure 2 Diagrammatic Illustration of Landscape Metrics Computation From
Raster and Vector Dataset. 44
Figure 3 Diagrammatic Illustration of the Image Segmentation and Object-
oriented Classification Methodology. 46
Figure 4 Conceptual Model Showing the Relationship among Disturbance
and Natural Events or Anthropogenic Events. 48
Figure 5 Outlines of Schlabendorf Nord and Schlabendorf Süd on a
LANDSAT TM Image of 2000. 50
Figure 6 Final Classification of Land Cover Types in Schlabendorf Nord
1988 showing Land Cover Classes without Wetland. 53
Figure 7 Final Classification of Land
1991 showing Land Cover Classes without Wetland. 54
Figure 8 Final Classification of Land Cover Types in Schlabendorf Nord
1995 showing Land Cover Classes together with Wetland. 54
Figure 9 Final Classification of Land
1998 showing Land Cover Classes without Wetland. 55
Figure 10 Final Classification of Land Cover Types in Schlabendorf Nord
2000 showing Land Cover Classes without Wetland. 55
Figure 11 Final Classifica
2003 showing Land Cover Classes together with Wetland. 56
6