Investigation of the regional internet network infrastructure dependability ; Regionų interneto tinklo infrastruktūros patikimumo tyrimai
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English

Investigation of the regional internet network infrastructure dependability ; Regionų interneto tinklo infrastruktūros patikimumo tyrimai

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VILNIUS GEDIMINAS TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY Rytis RAINYS INVESTIGATION OF THE REGIONAL INTERNET NETWORK INFRASTRUCTURE DEPENDABILITY SUMMARY OF DOCTORAL DISSERTATION TECHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES, ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING (01T) Vilnius 2011 Doctoral dissertation was prepared at Vilnius Gediminas Technical University in 2007–2011. Scientific Supervisor Prof Dr Habil Algimantas KAJACKAS (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Electrical and Electronic Engineering – 01T). The dissertation is being defended at the Council of Scientific Field of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at Vilnius Gediminas Technical University: Chairman Prof Dr Dalius NAVAKAUSKAS (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Electrical and Electronic Engineering – 01T). Members: Prof Dr Habil Antanas ČENYS (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Informatics Engineering – 07T), Prof Dr Habil Gintautas DZEMYDA (Vilnius University, Technological Sciences, Electrical and Electronic Engineering – 01T), Prof Dr Habil Romanas MARTAVIČIUS (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Electrical and Electronic Engineering – 01T), Assoc Dr Jonas RIMAS (Kaunas University of Technology, Technological Sciences, Informatics Engineering – 07T).

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Published 01 January 2012
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VILNIUS GEDIMINAS TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
Rytis RAINYS
INVESTIGATION OF THE REGIONAL INTERNET NETWORK INFRASTRUCTURE DEPENDABILITY
SUMMARY OF DOCTORAL DISSERTATION TECHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES, ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING (01T)
Vilnius
 2011
Doctoral dissertation was prepared at Vilnius Gediminas Technical University in 2007–2011 . Scientific Supervisor Prof Dr Habil Algimantas KAJACKAS(Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Electrical and Electronic Engineering – 01T). The dissertation is being defended at the Council of Scientific Field of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at Vilnius Gediminas Technical University: Chairman Prof Dr Dalius NAVAKAUSKAS(Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Electrical and Electronic Engineering – 01T).Members: Prof Dr Habil AntanasENYS(Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Informatics Engineering – 07T), Prof Dr Habil Gintautas DZEMYDA(Vilnius University, Technological Sciences, Electrical and Electronic Engineering – 01T), Prof Dr Habil Romanas MARTAVIIUS(Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Electrical and Electronic Engineering – 01T), Assoc Dr Jonas RIMAS(Kaunas University of Technology, Technological Sciences, Informatics Engineering 07T). Opponents: Assoc Prof Dr Šarnas PAULIKAS(Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Electrical and Electronic Engineering – 01T), Prof Dr Habil Rimantas ŠEINAUSKAS(Kaunas University of Technology, Technological Sciences, Informatics Engineering – 07T). The dissertation will be defended at the public meeting of the Council of Scientific Field of Electrical and Electronic Engineering in the Senate Hall of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University at 10 a. m. on 12 of December 2011. Address: Saultekio al. 11, LT-10223 Vilnius, Lithuania. Tel.: +370 5 274 4952; fax +370 5 270 0112. e-mail: doktor@vgtu.lt The summary of the doctoral dissertation wasdistributed on 11 of November 2011. A copy of the doctoral dissertation is available for review at the Library of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (Saultekio al. 14, Vilnius, Lithuania). © Rytis Rainys, 2011
VILNIAUS GEDIMINO TECHNIKOS UNIVERSITETAS
Rytis RAINYS
REGIONINTERNETO TINKLO INFRASTRUKTROS PATIKIMUMO TYRIMAI
DAKTARO DISERTACIJOS SANTRAUKA
TECHNOLOGIJOS MOKSLAI, ELEKTROS IR ELEKTRONIKOS INŽINERIJA (01T)
Vilnius
 2011
Disertacijarengta2007–2011metaisVilniausGediminotechnikos universitete. Mokslinis vadovas prof. habil. dr. Algimantas KAJACKAS(Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas, technologijos mokslai, elektros ir elektronikos inžinerija – 01T). Disertacija ginama Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universiteto Elektros ir elektronikos inžinerijos mokslo krypties taryboje: Pirmininkas prof. dr. Dalius NAVAKAUSKAS(Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas, technologijos mokslai, elektros ir elektronikos inžinerija – 01T). Nariai: prof. habil. dr. AntanasENYS(Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas, technologijos mokslai, informatikos inžinerija – 07T),prof. habil. dr. Gintautas DZEMYDA universitetas, (Vilniaus technologijos mokslai, elektros ir elektronikos inžinerija – 01T),prof. habil. dr. Romanas MARTAVIIUS(Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas, technologijos mokslai, elektros ir elektronikos inžinerija – 01T),doc. dr. Jonas RIMAS(Kauno technologijos universitetas, technologijos mokslai, informatikos inžinerija – 07T). Oponentai: doc. dr. Šarnas PAULIKAS(Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas, technologijos mokslai, elektros ir elektronikos inžinerija – 01T), prof. habil. dr. Rimantas ŠEINAUSKAS(Kauno technologijos universitetas, technologijos mokslai, informatikos inžinerija – 07T).Disertacija bus ginama viešame Elektros ir elektronikos inžinerijos mokslo krypties tarybos posdyje 2011 m. gruodžio 12 d. 10 val. Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universiteto senato posdžisalje. Adresas: Saultekio al. 11, LT-10223 Vilnius, Lietuva. Tel.: (8 5) 274 4952; (8 5) 274 4956; faksas (8 5) 270 0112. el. paštas doktor@vgtu.lt Disertacijos santrauka išsiuntinta 2011 m. lapkriio 11 d. Disertacij perži galimarti Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universiteto bibliotekoje (Saultekio al. 14, LT-10223 Vilnius, Lietuva). VGTU leidyklos „Technika“ 1927-M mokslo literatros knyga. © Rytis Rainys, 2011
Introduction Scope of the problem. Information and communication technologies (ICT) are a significant tool for development of innovation and the social and economic wellbeing of a country. The ICT and specifically Internet innovations are widely utilized in e. business, e. banking, e. governance services, etc. The Internet network becomes a national infrastructure of utmost importance. Therefore the increasing intensity of cyber-attacks and the potential technological disruptions of the Internet raise the demand for active studying of the Internet security and operational dependability. In a scope of this work Internet network dependability is the topic of Electrical and Electronic Engineering science. The existing Internet network infrastructure has formed stochastically, without any systematic analysis of data flows and throughputs and without any systematic network project. The regional Internet networks consist of randomly interconnected sub-networks, which form a complex interconnected communications scheme with a big number of nodes. It is not known whether the throughputs of network nodes and connecting cables are sufficient in case of faults of individual nodes and channels or in case of accidental increase of data flows or cyber attacks. For the purpose of evaluating the possibilities and dependability of the Internet network on the national level, it is necessary to perform comprehensive systematic examination of the entire network infrastructure. For many years the Internet network has been operated in the increasing cyber attacks and security incidents conditions. With the first serious threats to security of the Internet the Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) model was developed. The model is still being improved. However it was noticed that the CERT model, being efficient for resolving individual security incidents, is not the absolute method for resolution of the Internet network security and dependability issues. Topicality of the work. The research of the global Internet has been performed continuously since the very creation of the network. The studies cover the analysis of the network elements, i. e. the autonomous systems and methods for optimization of the networks interconnection topology. However there have not been any systematic studies of the ways for researching and analyzing the Internet network of the state or a region, formed of stochastically interconnected sub-networks, as one common system. The study attempts to resolve the problem and develop a new direction for the Internet studies. The
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performed research and developed methodologies supplement the Internet studies tools and methodologies. The aim of the study is to search for the ways for evaluation of the dependability of a regional Internet network and to develop a methodology for identification of the indicators of continuity and retaining of quality of the Internet activities. The results of solution of the problem have a great significance for development of the practice of evaluation of dependability of the Internet network activities. The studies of the Internet network infrastructure were performed and the metrics for evaluation of dependability of the Internet network were developed. The methods, based by the column theory, network modeling and statistical analysis, allow for resolving the network analysis tasks in cases where the model of the object is complex or its sub-networks are interconnected randomly and where the statistical characteristics of the network are not fully known. The results are relevant for the national and international telecommunications supervision and regulatory institutions, since they help to evaluate the existing dependability of the Internet network infrastructure and create the preconditions for the telecommunications regulatory institutions to apply scientific methods for controlling the dependability of the Internet network infrastructure. The study is also relevant for the national defense institutions. Telecommunications and the Internet are a national resource. Since the impact of cyber-attacks on the functioning of the Internet network has been increasing and the NATO electronic space has announced the fifth defense dimension, the issue of ensuring the Internet security must become a part of the national defense plan. Object of the researchThe object is the regional Internet network. infrastructure (geographically described combination) composed of interconnected autonomous systems (AS) and local networks. Investigated real Lithuanian Internet network consist of 40 AS, 27 local networks, 7 International AS and 490 interconnection lines (including 373 peering and 117 transittypes of connections). Aim of the workto study and analyze the Internet. The objective is network of the state or a region, formed of the stochastically interconnected sub-networks, as one common system and search for the ways for identification of the indicators of dependability of the system and continuity of services.
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Tasks of the work. In order to reach the goal the following tasks attempted to resolve: 1.To develop a topological scheme of the Internet network and to formulate the model and tools for the topological analysis. 2.To identify the critical elements of the Internet network infrastructure, whose violations would result in a significant degradation of network functionality. 3.To develop a model for monitoring of the critical elements of the Internet network infrastructure and its operation algorithm. 4.To model the topology of the state Internet network infrastructure and to test it vulnerability by simulating cyber-attacks. 5.To formulate the methodical recommendations for strengthening the dependability of the Internet network infrastructure. Methodology used in the research. Graph theory, statistical analysis, network modeling and simulation and experimental methodology approaches were used. Scientific novelty. The following results, important for telecommunications were obtained: 1.The methodology for analyzing the Internet network topology in terms of dependability of the network infrastructure activities was developed. The topology of Lithuania’s Internet network was outlined and the vulnerability indicators were evaluated. 2.The metrics for identification of the critical elements of the Internet network infrastructure were developed. By applying the said metrics the region’s Internet networks results were obtained. 3.The model of the Internet network infrastructure topology was analyzed by applying cyber-attack simulation experiments. 4.The model for monitoring the critical elements of the Internet network infrastructure and its operation algorithm were proposed. Practical value. developed metrics is universal and can be used for The studies of dependability of the infrastructure of different Internet network areas/regions, identification of the critical elements within the Internet network infrastructures and their further monitoring. The national telecommunications networks regulatory and supervising authorities, referring to the methods, described in the study, can practically evaluate the dependability and security of the Internet network.
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The results of studies were analyzed at the Communications Regulatory Authority of the Republic of Lithuania (RRT) and are planned to be used for performing the national regulation of electronic communications. The model for monitoring the critical elements of the Internet network infrastructure has been tested by RRT and an operational demo version was developed. Summaries of the results were provided to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the European Networks and Information Security Agency (ENISA), European countries’ regulatory authorities and the Ministry of National Defense of the Republic of Lithuania. Defended propositions1.real regional Internet networks are, in essence, a totality ofThe stochastically interconnected autonomous systems and the throughput of their lines and nodes do not always correspond to the information traffic flows. 2.of the Internet network infrastructure better could beThe vulnerability described by critical elements: the critical and-critical nodes and critical andĸ-critical lines. 3.Because of dynamic Internet infrastructure, constantly updated regional network structure model is necessary for internet monitoring and dependability evaluation. 4.Real time monitoring of critical network elements and cyber attacks simulation experiments are complimentary methods for the supervision of the status of the regional internet network and analysis of cyber attacks influence. The scope of the scientific work. scientific work consists of the The general characteristic of the dissertation, 5 chapters, conclusions, list of literature, list of publications and annexes. The total scope of the dissertation – 84 pages, 9 formulas, 21 pictures, 7 tables, 91 references and 2 annexes. 1. Overview of the Security Incidents Management Model The Internet, which is one of the most developed ICT networks, is also the one most susceptible to cyber-attacks. The CERT model, developed for the purpose of performing studies of security incidents and responding to incidents, occurring in electronic communications networks, especially in case of a potential risk to functioning of the network or security of the data is overviewed. The role of CERT for the purpose of managing security incidents
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on the Internet is evidenced both by other authors and within the framework of the present study. West-Brown, Killcrece, Alberts, Wii, Kossakowski and many others researches are continuously working in the field of development of the CERT model. As cyber incidents are changing as well as Internet is growing, researches seek to invent new variants or improve CERT model. Carnegie Mellon University (US) stands as a centre of investigations of the CERT model already for several decades. Academia in Lithuania has also experience in the field of cyber security researches. Research Laboratory of Security of Information Technologies established by the lead of prof. A.enys within the Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU). Kaunas University of Technology does investigations of security incidents and vulnerabilities through the implemented CERT team at the academia network. Prof. A. Kajackas (VGTU) is leading researches of Internet infrastructure resilience and quality of service while prof. J. Skudutis (VGTU) works in the field of cyber incidences defensive measures. In this study an optimized CERT model for a regional Internet network is outlined. Proposed model developed for security incidents management on the national level, in the conditions with no direct relation to networks administration. The use of the CERT model, which can be characterized as a detect-clean-recovery system is purely responsive, i. e. the action is performed against the incident fact. Therefore the effect of CERT is short-term. The CERT model, being an efficient tool for resolving incidents, does not create the necessary preconditions for the resolution of the overall issue of evaluation of security and dependability of the Internet network. There comes a need to develop new, proactive/preventive measures, which would create the conditions for minimizing or neutralizing the impact of cyber incidents on the Internet. Further on, the task of resolution of the Internet security and dependability analysis issue by examining the Internet network infrastructure itself is to study and analyze the Internet network of the state or a region, formed of stochastically interconnected sub-networks, as one common system and search for the ways for identification of the indicators of dependability of the system, continuity of activities and retaining of quality of the services. In order to reach the said goal, first of all, it is necessary to outline the scheme of the Internet network topology and select the models and tools for analysis. Upon evaluating the topology, the next task is the analysis of connectivity of the Internet network in order to identify the critical network elements, whose violations would result in the loss of functionality of the entire network. After the critical elements of the Internet network are established,
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attempts will be made to develop the model for their monitoring and perform cyber-attack simulation tests. The experience, accumulated when performing the studies and the obtained results will create the preconditions for formulation of methodological recommendations for strengthening the dependability of the Internet network infrastructure. 2. Internet Infrastructure Topology Assessment For the purpose of a further analysis each ASiis formally described by graphGi(V, U), comprising a setVof vertices together with a setUof edges. The vertices correspond to the nodes of a real Autonomous Systems (AS) and the edges correspond to the connecting communication lines. The initial analysis of the topological structure of the Internet can be performed by employing the graphs metrics: node degree, node degree distribution and clustering. Node degree. The degree of a vertex deg(v) of a graph is the number of edges incident to the vertex. The degree of vertex of the graph is the numberk of the communication lines between ASiand other AS.Node degree distribution. It is the probability distribution of nodes degrees over the whole network. The degree distributionP(k) of a network is then defined to be the fraction of nodes in the network with degreek. Thus if there arennodes in total in a network andnkof them have degreek, we have P(k)=nk/n. When dividing the constituents of the network into the hierarchical structure, there is a need for initial data on each Internet Service Provider (ISP) and the graphGi(V,U), characterizing its network, specifyingNiandMiand evaluating the parameters of the lines, connecting the AS.
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0,2
0 0 10 20k30 40 50 Fig. 1.Nodes degree distribution for transit types of connections
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Clustering. If theithedge of graph and all its direct edges neighborskiare taken, connected nodes network could have maximum links equalki(ki–1)/2. If graph vertex between edgeskinumber isEi, clustering coefficient forithedge is Ci. For the regional Internet networkCi be calculated as average of all should nodes within networkCi. C2Ei. (1) iki(ki1) The identification of the region Internet AS topology is the necessary approximation towards the evaluation of dependability of the network infrastructure. When describing the hierarchical structure of the Lithuanian Internet network, the Customer type AS identified as most spread (81 %). The classification of types of communications has shown that Peering type connections between the AS prevail in the infrastructure (76 %). Nodes degree distribution in Fig. 1 shows that 48% of nodes has only 1 Transit type connectionP(k)=0.48 and 28 % has 2P(k)=0.28. We observed two outstanding nodes with 25 and 47 Transit type connections. It allows for the conclusion that the AS topology of Lithuanian Internet network contains small number of nodes with sufficient connections of the Transit type. We assume that the node with dominant connections amount has great influence on the network topology and has impact to the dependability of the region internal interconnection. Clustering coefficient for Lithuanian Internet network calculated to be CLTto Transit type interconnections network is=0.23. Dividing Carttisn=0.05 and for PeeringCeeirgnp=0.17. As fully connected graph should haveCi=1, Lithuanian Internet network connectivity should be improved to achieve better dependability level. 3. Estimation of Critical Components of Internet Infrastructure When analyzing the Internet network, a graph theory is usually applied. A segment of Internet network is represented by a graphGnet, at the vertex of which is AS. A stationary network status is represented by a connected graph. Such graph contains at least one route between theithAS and any other AS belonging toGnet. The article published presents the topology and the respective graph of the Lithuanian National Internet Network infrastructure. By the rule node characterisation ascritical node (Vc) whose failure or malicious behavior disconnects or significantly degrades the performance of the network.
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