Investigations on possibilities to improve the antiphytopathological potential of soils against the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii and the citrus nematode Tylenchulus semipenetrans [Elektronische Ressource] / von Hazem Abdelnabby
167 Pages
English
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Investigations on possibilities to improve the antiphytopathological potential of soils against the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii and the citrus nematode Tylenchulus semipenetrans [Elektronische Ressource] / von Hazem Abdelnabby

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167 Pages
English

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Investigations on possibilities to improve the antiphytopathological potential of soils against the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii and the citrus nematode Tylenchulus semipenetrans Von der Fakultät für Lebenswissenschaften der Technischen Universität Carolo-Wilhelmina zu Braunschweig zur Erlangung des Grades eines Doktors der Naturwissenschaften (Dr. rer. nat.) genehmigte D i s s e r t a t i o n von Hazem Abdelnabby aus Qaliubiya, Egypt 1. Referent : Prof. Dr. Dr. Ewald Schnug 2. : Prof. Dr. Otto Larink 3. Referent : Prof. Dr. Dirk Selmar eingereicht am : 04.07.2006 mündliche Prüfung (Disputation) am : 28.09.2006 2006 To Abeer, Rana, Mohamed and Tasneem, my lovely family! ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my deepest thanks to my mentor, Prof. Dr. Dr. Ewald Schnug, head of the Institute of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL) in Germany for initially accepting me as a PhD candidate and later on for his guidance, helpful encouragement and continuous support during the practical stages of the experiments and during the preparation of the thesis. As well I also acknowledge the efforts of Prof. Dr Otto Larink and Prof. Dr. Dirk Selmar who were generous with their precious time and advices.

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Published 01 January 2006
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Investigations on possibilities to improve the antiphytopathological potential of soils against the cyst nematodeHeterodera schachtiiand the citrus nematodeTylenchulus semipenetrans Von der Fakultät für Lebenswissenschaften der Technischen Universität Carolo-Wilhelmina zu Braunschweig zur Erlangung des Grades eines Doktors der Naturwissenschaften (Dr. rer. nat.) genehmigte D i s s e r t a t i o n von Hazem Abdelnabby aus Qaliubiya, Egypt
1.Prof. Dr. Dr. Ewald SchnugReferent : 2.Referent : Prof. Dr. Otto Larink 3.Referent : Prof. Dr. Dirk Selmar eingereicht am : 04.07.2006 mündliche Prüfung (Disputation) am : 28.09.2006  2006
To Abeer, Rana, Mohamed and Tasneem,  my lovely family!
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my deepest thanks to my mentor, Prof. Dr. Dr. Ewald Schnug, head of the Institute of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL) in Germany for initially accepting me as a PhD candidate and later on for his guidance, helpful encouragement and continuous support during the practical stages of the experiments and during the preparation of the thesis. As well I also acknowledge the efforts of Prof. Dr Otto Larink and Prof. Dr. Dirk Selmar who were generous with their precious time and advices. I am thankful to Prof. Dr. Robert Kreuzig for consenting to be my examiner. Similarly, I wish to express my special gratitude and appreciation to Dr. Kirsten Stöven for her sincere help, diligent effect, valuable ideas and remarks during the research work. I am grateful to Dr. Holger Lilienthal for his help and valuable advices during all stages of the research work. I thank also all the colleagues of the Institute of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science (FAL) for their assistance and friendship, that made me feel home. All my appreciation and acknowledge to Prof. Dr. Abbas Kheir, Professor of Nematology, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Prof. Dr. Fawzy Shalaby and Prof. Dr. Abdelrahman Alberry, Professors of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture at Moshtohor, Banha University in Egypt for their guidance, enlightening discussions and help during the experiments in Egypt. Special thank to Prof. Dr. Gad Rady, Professor of Zoology, Faculty of Agriculture at Moshtohor, Banha University in Egypt for his continuous encouragement and help. The scholarship award and financial support of the Egyptian government are greatly acknowledged.
Table of contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I
Table of contents .............................................................................................................I List of abbreviations ....................................................................................................III List of tables ................................................................................................................. IV List of figures................................................................................................................ VI 1 Introduction................................................................................................................. 1 1.1 Background ................................................................................................................ 1 1.2 Objectives .................................................................................................................. 5 2 Materials and methods ............................................................................................... 6 2.1 Sampling procedures.................................................................................................. 6 2.2 Biological methods .................................................................................................... 6 2.2.1 Nematode propagation in soil ............................................................................6 2.2.2 Inoculation procedures.......................................................................................7 2.2.3 Nematode extraction, counting and identification .............................................7 2.3 Vegetative Measurements .......................................................................................... 8 2.4 Nematode control strategies....................................................................................... 8 2.4.1 Organic and inorganic fertilisers........................................................................8 2.4.2 Organic and amino acids....................................................................................9 2.4.3 Microbial agents.................................................................................................9 2.4.4 Navel orange on resistant rootstocks ...............................................................10 2.4.5 Plant extracts ....................................................................................................10 2.4.6 Carbofuran .......................................................................................................12 2.5 Experimental design................................................................................................. 12 2.5.1 Greenhouse experiment of cyst nematode control strategy - CYNCOS..........12 Enhancing the antiphytopathological potential of the soil against cyst nematodes........................................................................................................12 2.5.2 Greenhouse experiment of the citrus nematode control strategy -CINCOS...15 Enhancing the antiphytopathological potential of the soil against citrus nematodes........................................................................................................15 2.5.3 Greenhouse experiment of citrus rootstocks susceptibility to the infection with citrus nematodes - ROSSUS ....................................................................17 Application of citrus rootstocks as citrus nematode control strategy.......................17
Table of contents
II
2.5.4 Field experiment with citrus trees – FECIT.....................................................18 Timing of application................................................................................................18 2.6 Statistical analysis.................................................................................................... 18 3 Results ........................................................................................................................ 19 3.1 Enhancing the antiphytopathological potential of soil against the sugar beet cyst nematodeHeterodera schachtii............................................................................... 19 3.1.1 Organic and inorganic fertilisers......................................................................19 3.1.2 Microbial agents...............................................................................................24 3.1.3 Plant extracts ....................................................................................................29 3.2 Enhancing the antiphytopathological potential of soil against the citrus nematodeTylenchulus semipenetrans...................................................................... 39 3.2.1 Organic and inorganic fertilisers......................................................................39 3.2.2 Organic and amino acids..................................................................................43 3.2.3 Microbial agents...............................................................................................47 3.2.4 Plant extracts ....................................................................................................52 3.3 Application of different rootstocks as a mean to control citrus nematode .............. 61 3.3.1 Relative susceptibility of citrus rootstocks ......................................................61 3.3.2 Application of Navel orange scions on resistant rootstocks against citrus nematode ..........................................................................................................66 3.4 The suitable application time of nematode control strategies.................................. 70 4 Discussion .................................................................................................................. 72 4.1 Evaluation of the approaches used to enhance the antiphytopathological potential of soil against the sugar beet cyst nematodeHeterodera schachtiiand the citrus nematodeTylenchulus semipenetrans...................................................... 74 4.2 Evaluation of different rootstocks as a mean to control citrus nematodes .............. 87 4.3 Determination of the most suitable application time for nematode control strategies .................................................................................................................. 89 5 Summary/ Zusammenfassung ................................................................................. 91 6 References.................................................................................................................. 97 7 Appendix.................................................................................................................. 112
List of Abbriviations
Conc. Ct DS DSMZ EM ES FAA FAO Fig. Filtr. ft g GFM h Imm. stage ind. Inoc. IPM IU J2 KCAL NOCV NOPT OMF Nt OSS PCAL PDA Pf Pi P.R.I. PTB PV rpm Tab. Treat. USDA WC WHCmax wt.
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS Concentration Total Carbon Developmental Stages Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen Egg mass Experimental Soil Formalin Acetic Acid Alcohol Food Agricultural Organisation of the United Nation Figure Filtrate feet gram Gliotoxin Fermentation Medium hour Immature stage individual Inoculated Integrated Pest Management International Unit Second Stage Juvenile Potassium by Calcium-Acetate-Lactal (CAL)-extraction Navel Orange onCitrus volkameriana Navel Orange onPoncirus trifoliata Optimum mineral fertilisation containing essential nutrients Total Nitrogen Organic Soil Substance Phosphorus by CAL-extraction Potato Dextrose Agar Final population Initial Population Population Reproduction Index Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt Prominence Value round per minute Table Treatment United States Department of Agriculture Water Content Maximum Water Holding Capacity Weight
III
List of Tables
IV
LIST OF TABLES Tab. 2.1: Chemical characteristics of the experimental soil ..............................................13 Tab. 2.2: Experimental design ofHeterodera schachtiicontrol strategy ..........................14 Tab. 2.3: Experimental design ofTylenchulus semipenetranscontrol strategy ................16 Tab. 3.1: Reproductivity ofHeterodera schachtiiinfecting sugar beet seedlings as influenced by addition of organic and inorganic fertilisers................................20 Tab. 3.2: Growth response of sugar beet seedlings infected withHeterodera schachtiias influenced by the addition of organic fertilisers ............................................24 Tab. 3.3: Reproductivity ofHeterodera schachtiiinfecting sugar beet seedlings as influenced by addition of microbial agents ........................................................25 Tab. 3.4: Growth response of sugar beet seedlings infected withHeterodera schachtiias influenced by the addition of microbial agents..............................................29 Tab. 3.5: Reproductivity ofHeterodera schachtiiinfecting sugar beet seedlings as influenced by addition of ethyl acetate botanical extracts .................................31 Tab. 3.6: Growth response of sugar beet seedlings infected withHeterodera schachtiias influenced by the addition of ethyl acetate extracts of plants ........................34 Tab. 3.7: Reproductivity ofHeterodera schachtiiinfecting sugar beet seedlings as influenced by addition of hexane botanical extracts ..........................................35 Tab. 3.8: Growth response of sugar beet seedlings infected withHeterodera schachtiias influenced by the addition of hexane extracts of plants.................................38 Tab. 3.9: Reproductivity ofTylenchulus semipenetransinfluenced by the addition of organic and inorganic fertilisers .........................................................................40 Tab. 3.10: Growth response of citrus seedlings infected withTylenchulus semipenetransand treated with organic and inorganic fertilisers ....................43 Tab. 3.11: Reproductivity ofTylenchulus semipenetransinfecting citrus seedlings influenced by organic and amino acids as foliar spray application..................44 Tab. 3.12: Growth response of citrus seedlings infected withTylenchulus semipenetransas influenced by foliar spray application of organic and amino acids.......................................................................................................47 Tab. 3.13: Reproductivity ofTylenchulus semipenetransinfecting citrus seedlings as influenced by microbial bio-agents ..................................................................49 Tab. 3.14: Growth response of citrus seedlings infected withTylenchulus semipenetrans.............................................52treated with microbial bio-agents
List of Tables V Tab. 3.15: Reproductivity ofTylenchulus semipenetransinfecting citrus seedlings as influenced by the addition of botanical extracts produced using ethyl acetate 53 Tab. 3.16: Growth response of citrus seedlings infected withTylenchulus semipenetransas influenced by the addition of botanical extracts produced using ethyl acetate ............................................................................................56 Tab. 3.17: Reproductivity ofTylenchulus semipenetransinfecting citrus seedlings as influenced by the addition of botanical extracts produced using hexane.........57 Tab. 3.18: Growth response of citrus seedlings infected withTylenchulus semipenetransas influenced by the addition of botanical extracts produced using hexane. ....................................................................................................60 Tab. 3.19: Reproductivity ofTylenchulus semipenetransasinfluenced by using different citrus rootstocks. ................................................................................62 Tab. 3.20: Growth response of citrus rootstocks asinfluenced by the infection of the citrus nematodeTylenchulus semipenetrans................................................... 64 Tab. 3.21: Reproductivity ofTylenchulus semipenetransinfluenced by using navel orange scion on resistant rootstocks ................................................................ 67 Tab. 3.22: Growth response of navel orange scions on resistant rootstocks infected withTylenchulus semipenetrans. .....................................................................69 Tab. 3.23: Seasonal fluctuation of Citrus nematode associated with citrus trees in Qaliubiya governorate (2002-2003) ................................................................ 70 Tab. 3.24: Seasonal fluctuation of Citrus nematode associated with citrus trees in Qaliubiya governorate (2003-2004) ................................................................ 71
List of figures
VI
LIST OF FIGURES Fig. 1.1: The soil food web ......................................................................................................... 3 Fig. 1.2: Chemical structure of the most popular phytochemicals with nematotoxic activity (from Chitwood, 2002) ................................................................................................. 4 Fig. 2.1: Sampling strategy (from feeder roots around the citrus trees)...................................... 6 Fig. 2.2: Processes of the whip graft technique......................................................................... 10 Fig. 2.3: Tree of life (Thuja orientalis) ..................................................................................... 11 Fig. 2.4: The yellow oleander (Thevetia neriifolia) .................................................................. 11 Fig. 2.5: Carbofuran structural formula .................................................................................... 12 Fig. 2.6: Greenhouse experiment of the cyst nematode control strategy – CYNCOS .............. 14 Fig. 3.1: Number of cysts ofHeterodera schachtiiinfecting sugar beet seedlings as influenced by organic and inorganic fertilisers............................................................21 Fig. 3.2: Population reductions ofHeterodera schachtiias influenced by organic and inorganic fertilisers ......................................................................................................21 Fig. 3.3: Population build-up ofHeterodera schachtiias influenced by organic and inorganic fertilisers ..................................................................................................................... 22 Fig. 3.4: Number of cysts ofHeterodera schachtiiinfecting sugar beet seedlings as influenced by fungi filtrates .........................................................................................26 Fig. 3.5: Population reductions ofHeterodera schachtiias influenced by fungi filtrates ........ 26 Fig. 3.6: Population build-up ofHeterodera schachtiias influenced by fungi filtrates ........... 27 Fig. 3.7: Number of cysts ofHeterodera schachtiiinfecting sugar beet seedlings as influenced by ethyl acetate extracts of plants ..............................................................31 Fig. 3.8: Population reductions ofHeterodera schachtiias influenced by ethyl acetate extracts of plants ..........................................................................................................32 Fig. 3.9: Population build-up ofHeterodera schachtiias influenced by ethyl acetate extracts of plants ..........................................................................................................32 Fig. 3.10: Number of cysts ofHeterodera schachtiiinfecting sugar beet seedlings as influenced by hexane extracts of plants .................................................................... 36 Fig. 3.11: Population reductions ofHeterodera schachtiias influenced by hexane extracts of plants......................................................................................................................36 Fig. 3.12: Population build-up ofHeterodera schachtiias influenced by hexane extracts of plants ......................................................................................................................... 37
List of figures VII Fig. 3.13: Numbers of eggs per g root of navel orange recovered fromTylenchulus semipenetransas influenced by organic and inorganic fertilisers ............................ 41 Fig. 3.14: Population reductions ofTylenchulus semipenetransas influenced by organic and inorganic fertilisers ................................................................................................... 41 Fig. 3.15: Numbers of eggs per g root of navel orange recovered fromTylenchulus semipenetransas influenced by amino and organic acids ........................................ 45 Fig. 3.16: Population reductions ofTylenchulus semipenetransas influenced by amino and organic acids ............................................................................................................. 45 Fig. 3.17: Numbers of eggs per g root recovered fromTylenchulus semipenetransas influenced by microbial agents ................................................................................. 50 Fig. 3.18: Population reductions ofTylenchulus semipenetransas influenced by microbial agents ........................................................................................................................ 50 Fig. 3.19: Numbers ofeggs per g root recovered fromTylenchulus semipenetransas influenced by ethyl acetate extracts of plants ........................................................... 54 Fig. 3.20: Population reductions ofTylenchulus semipenetransas influenced by ethyl acetate extracts of plants ............................................................................................54 Fig. 3.21: Numbers ofeggs per g root recovered fromTylenchulus semipenetransas influenced by hexane extracts of plants .................................................................... 58 Fig. 3.22: Population reductions ofTylenchulus semipenetransas influenced by hexane extracts of plants. ...................................................................................................... 58 Fig. 3.23: Rate of penetration ofTylenchulus semipenetrans.... 63on different citrus rootstocks Fig. 3.24: Population build-up ofTylenchulus semipenetranson different citrus rootstocks... 63 Fig. 3.25: Numbers of eggs per g root ofTylenchulus semipenetranson different citrus rootstocks .................................................................................................................. 63 Fig. 3.26: Effect of citrus nematodes inoculation on shoot height and root length of citrus rootstocks .................................................................................................................. 65 Fig. 3.27: Effect of citrus nematodes inoculation on shoots and roots dry weight of citrus rootstocks .................................................................................................................. 65 Fig. 3.28: Numbers ofeggs per g root recovered fromTylenchulus semipenetransas influenced by navel orange scions on resistant rootstocks ....................................... 67 Fig. 3.29: Population reductions ofTylenchulus semipenetransas influenced by navel orange scions on resistant rootstocks .........................................................................68