IPv6 Tutorial
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IPv6 Tutorial

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Description






IPv6 Tutorial
Yves Legrandgérard
Thomas Carlu
Bernard Tuy
IPv6 Addressing
G6 Tutorial 28JRES 2003 -Lille
Addressing scheme
RFC 3513 (obsoletes RFC 2373)
128 bit long addresses
– Allow hierarchy
– Flexibility for network evolutions
Use CIDR principles:
– Prefix / prefix length
• 2001:660:3003::/48
•:3003:2:a00:20ff:fe18:964c/64
– Aggregation reduces routing table size
Hexadecimal representation
Interfaces have several IPv6 addresses
G6 Tutorial 29JRES 2003 -Lille
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IPv6 Addresses
Loopback ::1 Unicast
Link local FE80:…. Multicast
Site local FEC0:…. Anycast
Global
– Official: 2001:…
– 6bone: 3FFE:…
– IPv4 mapped
specific to IPv4/IPv6
– IPv4 compatible
integration
– 6to4: 2002::…
G6 Tutorial 32JRES 2003 -Lille
Interface Identifier
64 bits to be compatible with IEEE 1394 (FireWire)
Eases auto-configuration
IEEE defines the mechanism to create an EUI-64
from IEEE 802 MAC addresses (Ethernet, FDDI)
24 bits 24 bits
u g u g v vendorendor sseerialrial num numberber
24 bits 16 bits 24 bits
u g vendor 0xFFFE serial number
0 g vendor 0XFFFE serial number
1 7 8
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Interface Identifier (2)
Links with non global identifier (e.g, the
Localtalk 8 bits node identifier) → fill first left
bits with 0
For links without identifiers, there are different
ways to proceed (e.g, tunnels, ...

Subjects

Informations

Published by
Reads 96
Language English
Document size 1 MB

Exrait

JRES 2003 -Lille
IPv6 Tutorial
Yves Legrandgérard Thomas Carlu Bernard Tuy
IPv6 Addressing
G6 Tutorial
Addressing scheme
„RFC 3513 (obsoletes RFC 2373) „128 bit long addresses  Allow hierarchy  Flexibility for network evolutions „Use CIDR principles:  Prefix / prefix length  2001:660:3003::/48  2001:660:3003:2:a00:20ff:fe18:964c/64  Aggregation reduces routing table size „Hexadecimal representation „Interfaces have several IPv6 addresses
JRES 2003 -LilleG6 Tutorial
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IPv6 Addresses
„Lbpookca::1„Unicast „Link localF.E80:„Mstcatiul „Site local.:0CEF„tsacynA „Global  Official: 2001:  6bone: 3FFE:
 IPv4 mapped IPv4 compatiblespecific to IPv4/IPv6  6to4: 2002::integration
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G6 Tutorial
Interface Identifier „64 bits to be compatible with IEEE 1394 (FireWire) „Eases auto-configuration „IEEE defines the mechanism to create an EUI-64 from IEEE 802 MAC addresses (Ethernet, FDDI) 24 bits24 bits u g vendorserial number
24 bits 2416 bits bits u g vendor 0xFFFEserialnumber
0 g vendor 0X numberFFFE serial 1 7 8 JRES 2003 -Lille
G6 Tutorial
Interface Identifier (2)
„Links with non global identifier (e.g, the Localtalk 8 bits node identifier)fill first left bits with 0 „For links without identifiers, there are different ways to proceed (e.g, tunnels, PPP): Choose the identifier of another interface  Random number  Manual configuration „THEN :Invert IEEE EUI-64 u bit to become an interface identifier
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Interface Identifier (3) (Privacy issues) „IEEE 24bits OUI can be used to identify HW: http://standards.ieee.org/regauth/oui/oui.txt „Identifier can be used to trace a user:Interface  The prefix changes, but the interface ID remains the same,  Psychological issue. „Possibility to change Interface ID (RFC 3041 PS):  If local storage, use MD5 algorithm  Otherwise draw a random number
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G6 Tutorial
Anycast Addresses(RFC 2526)  Anycast IDs are defined in RFC 2526  Anycast addresses have been defined for routers only so far  Subnet prefix = unchanged  Anycast ID = highest 128 interface ID values  2 different scenarios: | 64 bits | 57 bits | 7 bits | +---------------------------------+------------------+------------+ | subnet prefix | 1111110111...111 | anycast ID | +---------------------------------+------------------+------------+ | interface identifier field |
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| n bits | 121-n bits | 7 bits | +---------------------------------+------------------+------------+  | subnet prefix | 1111111111...111 | anycast ID | +---------------------------------+------------------+------------+ | interface identifier field |  Anycast address of all home agent in 2001:660:3001:4002::/64 2001:660:3001:4002:FDFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFE -> home agents anycast ID JRES 2003 -LilleG6 Tutorial 37
Multicast Addresses
11111111FlagScopeGroup ID 8 bits 4 bits 4 bits 112 bits
Flag bits:0R P TScope 0 :Reserved T= 0 : 1Interface-local permanent addresses (managed by IANA)2 :Link-local T 3= 1: Subnet-local transient multicast addresses4: Admin-local P= 1 >T 5 := 1Site-local derived from unicast prefix (RFC3306)8 :Organization-local R= 1 >P >= 1T := 1 EGlobal embedded RP addresses (I-D)F :Reserved JRES 2003 -Lille 38G6 Tutorial
IPv6 Addresses(continued)
48 bits 80 bits 001 TLA NLA SLA Interface ID 3 bits 13 bits 32 bits 16bits 64 bits EUI64 Public Topology Private Topology
TLA : Top Level Aggregator => (/16) NLA : Next Level Aggregator => (/48) SLA : Site Level Aggregator => (/64) JRES 2003 -LilleG6 Tutorial
RFC 3587: Aggregatable Global Unicast (obsoletes RFC 2374)
3 13 8 24 16 64 001TLA Interface IDRes NLA SLA
3 45 16 64 001etbnSualobGlIDitgnruoifxperInterface ID
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G6 Tutorial
RFC 2471: Aggregatable Test Addresses
3 13x 1632 - x 64 001TLA Interface IDNLA SLA „Used in the 6bone „TLA value is 0x1FFE => Prefix = 3FFE::/16 „pTLAin the NLA part assigned byngtranswg http://www.6bone.net/6bone_pTLA_list.html 58 × ::/24 INNER/US-VA 3FFE:0000::/24 TELEBIT/DK 3FFE:0100::/24 SICS/SE 3FFE:0200::/24 G6/FR03E:FF34/2::00 JOIN/DE 3FFE:0400::/24 56 × ::/283FFE:8xyz::/28 24 × ::/323FFE:4xyz::/32 (2003/03/28) JRES 2003 -LilleG6 Tutorial
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Production Addressing Scheme (4)
345 16
FP IANA/RIR/LIR EU
Site topo-Public topology logy /48
Network portion /64
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G6 Tutorial
64 bits
Interface ID
Interface
Host portion /64
IPv6 associated Protocols
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G6 Tutorial
New Protocols
„New features specified in IPv6 Protocol (RFC 2460 DS)
„Neighbor Discovery (ND) (RFC 2461 DS)
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„Auto-configuration :  Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (RFC 2462 DS)  DHCPv6: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (RFC 3315 PS)  Path MTU discovery (pMTU) (RFC 1981 PS)
JRES 2003 -Lille 50G6 Tutorial
New Protocols (2)
„MLD (Multicast Listener Discovery) (RFC 2710 PS)  Multicast group management over an IPv6 link  Based on IGMPv2  MLDv2 (equivalent to IGMPv3 in IPv4) „ICMPv6 (RFC 2463 DS) "Super" Protocol that :  Covers ICMP (v4) features (Error control, Administration, )  Transports ND messages  Transports MLD messages (Queries, Reports, )
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G6 Tutorial
Solicited Node Multicast Address: Recall: IPv4
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„Correspondence @IPv4 unicast  MAC made by ARP „Request ARP broadcasted (ethernet FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF)
HARDWARE ADDRESS TYPE PROTOCOL ADDRESS TYPE HARRD LEN PADDR LEN OPERATION SENDER HADDR (4 premiers Octets) SENDER HADDR (2 derniers Octets) SENDER PADDR (2 premiers Octets) SENDER PADDR (2 derniers Octets) TARGET HADDR (2 premiers Octets) TARGET HADDR(4 derniers Octets) TARGET PADDR (les 4 Octets) JRES 2003 -LilleG6 Tutorial
Solicited Node Multicast Address : And now IPv6 „IPv6 uses for that the protocol NDP (Network Discovery Protocol) which uses the solicited multicast
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G6 Tutorial
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Solicited Node Multicast Address : A Solicited multicast Address
Concatanation of the prefix FF02::1:FF00:0/104 with the last 24 bits of the IPv6 address
Example: „10a066:0:2444:0001:020F:1F:221FE24:87c1 „FF:0000:0000:0001:0:20FF0000:000000:00/0014
„FF00:00:00:100FF:0020:00000000:024:87c1
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G6 Tutorial
Solicited Node Multicast Address : Multicast with ethernet
„Ethernet supports multicast (not always implemented) „8th bit of the MAC address at 1 „For IPv6 : @MAC 33-33-xx-yy-zz-kk „xx-yy-zz-kk are the last 32 bits of the IPv6 address Example: „Unic0120660:10:04:a0:2004421:21FF:FE24:87c1 „Mc sol00000:00000:00:0:1000:00FFFF200:24:87c1 „Eth33-33-FF-24-87-c1
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G6 Tutorial
Solicited Node Multicast Address : The resolution of address in detail
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A B  A wants to send a datagram to B (A knows the IPv6 address of B)  A buids the solicited multicast address of B  A sends a message « neighbor sollicitation » to the solocited multicast address of B JRES 2003 -Lille 56G6 Tutorial
Solicited Node Multicast Address : Solicitation message of a neighbor
Type=135 Code=0 checksum reserved
Unicast address of B
Option (physical address of A)
JRES 2003 -LilleG6 Tutorial
Solicited Node Multicast Address : Announce of a neighbor
A
B
„When the machine B receives the datagram « neighbor request »
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G6 Tutorial
Solicited Node Multicast Address : Announce of a neighbor
Type=136 Code=0 checksum RSO----- reserved
Unicast address of B
Option (physical address of B)
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Neighbor Discovery „IPv6 nodes which share the same physical medium (link) use Neighbor Discovery (ND) to:  discover their mutual presence  determine link-layer adresses of their neighbors  find routers  maintain neighbors reachability information (NUD)  not directly applicable to NBMA (Non Broadcast Multi Access) networksÎND uses multicast for certain services.
JRES 2003 -LilleG6 Tutorial
Neighbor Discovery (2)
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„Protocol features:  Router discovery  Prefix(es) discovery  Parameters discovery (link MTU, Max Hop Limit, ...)  Address autoconfiguration  Address resolution  Next Hop determination  Neighbor Unreachability Detection  Duplicate Address Detection  Redirect JRES 2003 -LilleG6 Tutorial
Neighbor Discovery (3): Comparison with IPv4
„It is the synthesis of:  ARP  R-Disc  ICMP redirect ...
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Neighbor Discovery (4)
„ND specifies 5 types of ICMP packets: Router Advertisement(RA) :  periodic advertisement (of the availability of a router) which contains: » list of prefixes used on the link (autoconf) » a possible value for Max Hop Limit (TTL of IPv4) » value of MTU Router Solicitation(RS) :  the host needs RA immediately (at boot time)
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Neighbor Discovery (5)
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Neighbor Solicitation(NS): to determine the link-layer @ of a neighbor  or to check its unreachability also used to detect duplicate addresses (DAD) Neighbor Advertisement(NA):  answer to a NS packet  to advertise the change of physical address tirecRed:  Used by a router to inform a host of a better route to a given destination
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G6 Tutorial
Neighbor Discovery example: Address Resolution
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At boot time, every IPv6 node has to join 2 special multicast groups for each network interface:  All-nodes multicast group:ff02::1  Solicited-node multicast group:ff02:1:ffxx:xxxx(derived from the lower 24 bits of the nodes address)
H1: IP1, MAC1 H2: IP2, MAC2 NSD3=Multi(IP2)D2=? MAC2 ?S3 = IP1 S2 = MAC1
NAD3 = IP1D2 = MAC1S3 = IP2S2 = MAC2 JRES 2003 -LilleG6 Tutorial
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Path MTU discovery(RFC 1981) „Derived from RFC 1191, (IPv4 version of the protocol) „Path = set of links traversed by an IPv6 packet between source and destination „link MTU = maximum lengh (in bytes) of a packet that can be transmited on the link without fragmentation „pMTU) = min { link MTU } for aPath MTU (or given path „Path MTU Discovery = automatic pMTU discovery for a given path JRES 2003 -LilleG6 Tutorial
Path MTU discovery(2)
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„Protocol operation  makes assumption that pMTU = link MTU to reach a neighbor (first hop)  if there is an intermediate router such that link MTU < pMTUÎit sends an ICMPv6 message: "Packet size Too Large"  source reduces pMTU by using information found in the ICMPv6 message
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G6 Tutorial
Auto-configuration
„Hosts should be plug & play „Uses ICMPv6 messages (Neighbor Discovery) „When booting, the host asks for network parameters:  prefix  default router  hop limit ...
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