IPv6 TUTORIAL
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IPv6 TUTORIAL

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Description

IPv6 TUTORIAL
Ramón Sierra Pérez
High Performance Computing facility What is IPv6?
● Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the next-generation Internet
Protocol version designated as the successor to IPv4.
● The main driving force for the redesign of Internet Protocol is the
foreseeable IPv4 address exhaustion.
● IPv6 was defined in December 1998 by the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF) with the publication of an Internet standard
specification, RFC 2460.
03/05/10 IPv6 Tutorial 2 Motivations: Why IPv6?
● Foreseeable IPv4 address exhaustion.
– Projected IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority)
Unallocated Address Pool Exhaustion: 23-Sep-2011
– Projected RIR (Regional Internet Registry) Unallocated
Address Pool Exhaustion: 09-Oct-2012
● How much space do you have?
– Is that enough?
● NAT will solve this problem?
– Can you manage a network or diagnose a problem that
is 3 layers of NAT deep?
03/05/10 IPv6 Tutorial 3 Motivations: Why IPv6?
● There are IPv6-only networks on the Internet
● Do you have programs with foreign universities?
– If they move to IPv6, where does that leave you and
those students?
● If your website & services are only accessible via
IPv4, will you ever know that opportunities you've
missed?
● Others
03/05/10 IPv6 Tutorial 4 IPv6 Addressing
03/05/10 IPv6 Tutorial 5 IPv6 Addressing Scheme
● 128 bit long addresses
128– # of IP's in IPv6: 2 =
340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456
32– # of IP's in IPv4: 2 = 4 ...

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IP v6  T U T ORIA L
Ramón Sierra Pérez High Performance Computing facility
What is IPv6?
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the next-generation Internet Protocol version designated as the successor to IPv4.
The main driving force for the redesign of Internet Protocol is the foreseeable IPv4 address exhaustion.
IPv6 was defined in December 1998 by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) with the publication of an Internet standard specification, RFC 2460.
03/05/10
IPv6 Tutorial
2
Motivations: Why IPv6?
Foreseeable IPv4 address exhaustion.
Projected IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) Unallocated Address Pool Exhaustion: 23-Sep-2011
Projected RIR (Regional Internet Registry) Unallocated Address Pool Exhaustion: 09-Oct-2012
How much space do you have?
Is that enough?
NAT will solve this problem?
03/05/10
Can you manage a network or diagnose a problem that is 3 layers of NAT deep?
IPv6 Tutorial
3
Motivations: Why IPv6?
There are IPv6-only networks on the Internet
Do you have programs with foreign universities?
If they move to IPv6, where does that leave you and those students?
If your website & services are only accessible via IPv4, will you ever know that opportunities you've missed?
Others
03/05/10
IPv6 Tutorial
4
03/05/10
IPv6 A ddr essin g
IPv6 Tutorial
5
IPv6 Addressing Scheme
128 bit long addresses
 # of IP's in IPv6: 2 128 = 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456
# of IP's in IPv4: 2 32 = 4,294,967,296
Use CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing) principles:
03/05/10
Prefix/prefix length
2001:0468:1300::/40 2001:0468:1300:1234:dead:beef:0f00:cafe/64
IPv6 Tutorial
6
Address Format
Base Format (a 128 bits Global IPv6 Address):
2001:0660:3003:0001:0000:0000:6543:210F
Compact Format:
03/05/10
2001:0660:3003:1::6543:210F
In order to avoid ambiguity, “::” can occur only once. leading zeros in a field are optional.
IPv6 Tutorial
7
IPv6 Address Types
Unicast Address:
03/05/10
Link-local:
Can only be used between nodes of the same link Cannot be routed Format: FE80:0:0:0:<interface identifier> Site-local:
Similar to Private Networks in IPv4 FEC0:0:0:0:<interface identifier> Global aggregatable address:
IPv4-compatible: i.e. 2201:0468:1300:000a::136.145.54.100/64
IPv6 Tutorial
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IPv6 Address Types
Multicast Address:
The multicast address specifies a set of interfaces, possibly at multiple locations.
Prefix: FF00::/8 Anycast Address:
03/05/10
Uses global unicast address.
One-to-nearest. More than one device share the same address.
IPv6 Tutorial
9
03/05/10
EUI-64 in IPv6 EUI = Extended Unique Identifier
IPv6 Tutorial
The first step is to convert the 48-bit MAC address to a 64-bit value. To do this, we break the MAC address into its two 24-bit halves: the Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI) and the NIC specific part. The 16-bit hex value 0xFFFE is then inserted between these two halves to form a 64-bit address.
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03/05/10
EUI-64 in IPv6
IPv6 Tutorial
The second step is to invert the universal/local (U/L) flag (bit 7) in the OUI portion of the address. A 1 in that place indicates the MAC address is unique.
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