Jakarta Tomcat 4 and 5: Configuration and Usage Tutorial
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Jakarta Tomcat 4 and 5: Configuration and Usage Tutorial

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Jakarta Tomcat 4 and 5: Configuration and Usage Tutorial
Configuring & Using Apache Tomcat
A Tutorial on Installing and Using
Tomcat 4 or 5 for Servlet and JSP Development
Note: this older writeup covers Tomcat version 4.0
and 5.0. For a newer writeup that covers Tomcat 5.5,
please see the Apache Tomcat 5.5 tutorial.
Training Courses: JSP, Servlets, Jakarta Struts, JSF, AJAX, & Java
5
Customized JavaServer Jakarta Struts Onsite TrainingProgramming with Faces (JSF)&
Courses at Your Servlets & JSP & Apache Advanced JSP LocationJune 20-23, 2006 MyFacesJune 26-30, Dates Flexible. 2006 July 11-13, 2006 Any country
Contents
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Jakarta Tomcat 4 and 5: Configuration and Usage Tutorial
Set Up the Development
Environment
Introduction Compile & Test Simple Servlets
Executive Summary Establish a Deployment Method
Install the JDK Download Preconfigured Tomcat
Install & Configure Tomcat Versions
Test the Server Get More Info
JSP, Servlet, Struts, JSF, & Java
Training Courses
Introduction
Following is a guide to installing and configuring Apache Tomcat for use
as a standalone Web server (for development) that supports servlets 2.3
and JSP 1.2 (Tomcat 4) or servlets 2.4 and JSP 2.0 (Tomcat 5). (Note:
Tomcat is sometimes referred to as "Jakarta Tomcat" since the Apache
Java effort is known as ...

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Contents
Configuring & Using Apache Tomcat
A Tutorial on Installing and Using Tomcat 4 or 5 for Servlet and JSP Development
Note: this older writeup covers Tomcat version 4.0 and 5.0. For a newer writeup that covers Tomcat 5.5, please see the Apache Tomcat 5.5 tutorial .
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Customized Onsite Training Courses at Your  Location Dates Flexible. Any country
Jakarta Struts JavaServer Programming with & Faces (JSF) Servlets & JSP Advanced JSP & Apache June 20-23, 2006 June 26-30, MyFaces 2006 July 11-13, 2006
Training Courses: JSP, Servlets, Jakarta Struts, JSF, AJAX, & Java 5
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Core Servlets & JSP 2/E
More Servlets & JSP The information here is adapted from the introductory setup and configuration chapter of Core Servlets and JavaServer Pages, 2nd Edition, Volume 1 from Sun Microsystems Press and Prentice Hall. For the book table of contents, index, source code, etc., please see http://volume1.coreservlets.com/ . For information on servlets, JSP, Apache Struts,
l      Set Up the Development Environment  l      Compile & Test Simple Servlets  l      Establish a Deployment Method  l      Download Preconfigured Tomcat Versions  l      Get More Info  l      JSP, Servlet, Struts, JSF, & Java Training Courses  
l      Introduction  l      Executive Summary  l      Install the JDK  l      Install & Configure Tomcat  l      Test the Server  
Following is a guide to installing and configuring Apache Tomcat for use as a standalone Web server (for development) that supports servlets 2.3 and JSP 1.2 (Tomcat 4) or servlets 2.4 and JSP 2.0 (Tomcat 5). (Note: Tomcat is sometimes referred to as " Jakarta Tomcat" since the Apache Java effort is known as "The Jakarta Project").
Introduction
The examples here assume you are using Windows, but they can be easily adapted for Solaris, Linux, and other versions of Unix. I've gotten many reports of successful use on MacOS X, but don't know the setup details. Except when I refer to specific Windows paths (e.g., C:\blah\blah ), I use URL-style forward slashes for path separators (e.g., install dir/webapps/ROOT ). Adapt as necessary. _
Integrating Tomcat as a plugin within the regular Apache server or a commercial Web server (for deployment) is more complicated that what is described here. Although such integration is valuable for a deployment scenario (see http://jakarta.apache.org/tomcat/tomcat-5.0-doc/ ), my goal here is to show how to use Tomcat as a development server on your desktop. Regardless of what deployment server you use, you'll want a standalone server on your desktop to use for development.
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Executive Summary
I give extremely detailed instructions in the following sections. If JSP, Servlet, Struts, & you're pretty experienced and just want a short summary, this section will probably be enough for you. You can also download JSF Training preconfigured Tomcat versions that incorporate all of the Looking for hands-on training? modifications of this tutorial and include sample development Tired of inexperienced directories, shortcuts, and autoexec.bat files. instructors teaching someone else's course materials? Want a choice of public or onsite courses? Check out courses.coreservlets.com . Distinctive features: l      Personally developed and taught by Marty Hall , an experienced developer, award-winning instructor, 4-time JavaOne speaker, and author of Core Servlets and JSP , More Servlets and JSP , and this Tomcat tutorial. l      Available onsite at your  organization or at public venues . l      Well-tested, having been used by Marty for courses for dozens of clients in the USA, Canada, Australia, Japan, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines.
JSF, and Java training courses (either at public venues or on-site at your company) taught by the author of the book and this Tomcat tutorial, please see http://courses.coreservlets.com . To report errors or omissions in this writeup or to inquire about on-site training courses on servlets/JSP/Struts/JSF/Java, please contact Marty Hall at hall@coreservlets.com .
1. Install the JDK. Make sure JDK 1.3 or 1.4 is installed and your PATH is set so that both " java -version " and " javac -help " give a result. 2. Configure Tomcat.  1. Download the software. Go to http://jakarta.apache.org/site/binindex.cgi and download and unpack the zip file for the current release build of Tomcat 4 or 5. Also see the preconfigured Tomcat versions . 2. Set the JAVA HOME variable. Set it to refer to the _ base JDK directory, not the bin subdirectory. 3. Enable the ROOT context. Edit _ f server.xml install dir/con / and uncomment this line: <Context path="" docBase="ROOT" debug="0"/> . Not necessary in Tomcat 4.0.3 and earlier. In most versions of Tomcat 5, the element is missing the trailing slash and you need to add it. 4. Turn on servlet reloading. Edit install_dir/conf/server.xml and add the following just above the entry for the ROOT context from the previous step: <DefaultContext reloadable="true"/>  5. Change the port to 80. Edit install_dir/conf/server.xml  and change the port attribute of the Connector element from 8080 to 80. 6. Enable the invoker servlet. Go to install_dir/conf/web.xml (not .../server.xml ) and uncomment the servlet and servlet-mapping elements that map the invoker  
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servlet to /servlet/* . In Tomcat 4, you only need to uncomment the servlet-mapping  element, and this is not necessary at all prior to Tomcat 4.1.12. 7. Change the DOS memory settings. If you are on Windows 98/Me and get an "Out of Environment Space" error message when you start the server, right-click on _ tup. , select Properties, select Memory, and change the Initial install dir/bin/star bat Environment entry from Auto to at least 2816. Repeat the process for _ y on re sion of Windows. install dir/bin/shutdown.bat . Not necessar cent ver 8. Set the CATALINA_HOME variable. Optionally, set CATALINA HOME to refer to the _ top-level Tomcat installation directory. Not necessary unless you copy the startup scripts instead of making shortcuts to them. 3. Test the server.  1. Verify that you can start the server. Double-click install_dir/bin/startup.bat and try accessing http://localhost/ . 2. Check that you can access your own HTML & JSP pages. Drop some simple HTML and JSP pages into install_dir/webapps/ROOT and access them with http://localhost/filename . 4. Set up your development environment.  1. Create a development directory. Put it anywhere except within the Tomcat installation hierarchy. 2. Make shortcuts to the Tomcat startup & shutdown Scripts. Put shortcuts to install_dir/bin/startup.bat and install_dir/bin/shutdown.bat in your development directory and/or on your desktop. 3. Set your CLASSPATH . Include the current directory ("."), the servlet/JSP JAR file(s) ( install_dir/common/lib/servlet.jar for Tomcat 4, install_dir/common/lib/servlet-api.jar  and install_dir/common/lib/jsp-api.jar for Tomcat 5) and your main development directory from Step 1. 4. Bookmark the servlet & JSP javadocs. Add install_dir/webapps/tomcat-docs/servletapi/index.html (Tomcat 4 and 5) and install_dir/webapps/tomcat-docs/jspapi/index.html (Tomcat 5 only) to your bookmarks/favorites list. 5. Compile and test some simple servlets.  1. Test a packageless servlet. Compile a simple servlet, put the .class file in install_dir/webapps/ROOT/WEB-INF/classes , and access it with http://localhost/servlet/ServletName . 2. Test a servlet that uses packages. Compile the servlet, put the .class file in install_dir/webapps/ROOT/WEB-INF/classes/packageName , and access it with http://localhost/servlet/packageName.ServletName . 3. Test a servlet that uses packages and utility classes. Follow the same procedure as the second step above. This third step verifies that the CLASSPATH includes the top level of your development directory. 6. Establish a simplified deployment method.  1. Copy to a shortcut. Make a shortcut to install_dir/webapps/ROOT . Copy packageless .class files directly there. With packages, copy the entire directory there.
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Jakarta Tomcat 4 and 5: Configuration and Usage Tutorial 2. Use the -d option of javac . Use -d to tell Java where the deployment directory is. 3. et your IDE take care of deployment. Tell your IDE where the deployment directory is L and let it copy the necessary files. 4. Use ant or a similar tool. Use the Apache make -like tool to automate copying of files. Install the JDK Your first step is to download and install Java. The servlet 2.3 specification (JSP 1.2) requires JDK 1.2 or later; the servlet 2.4 spec (JSP 2.0) requires JDK 1.3 or later; J2EE 1.4 (which includes servlets 2.4 and JSP 2.0) requires JDK 1.4 or later. I recommend you simply get the latest Java version: JDK 1.4. See the following sites for download and installation information. l      Windows, Linux, and Solaris:  http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.4.2/download.html . Be sure you download the full Software Development Kit (SDK) from entries in the righthand column , not just the JRE (Java Runtime Environment). The JRE is only for running already-compiled .class  files, and lacks a compiler. l      Other platforms:  http://java.sun.com/cgi-bin/java-ports.cgi . Once you've installed Java, confirm that everything including your PATH is configured properly by opening a DOS window and typing " java -version " and " javac -help ". You should see a real result both times, not an error message about an unknown command. Or, if you use an IDE, compile and run a simple program to confirm that the IDE knows where you installed Java. Configure Tomcat Configuring Tomcat involves nine steps: JSP, Servlet, Struts, & 1. Downloading the Jakarta Tomcat software.  JSF Training 2. Setting t _HOME variable.  Looking for hands-on training? he JAVA 3. Enabling the ROOT context.  Tired of inexperienced 4. Telling Tomcat to reload servlets when they are modified. instructors teaching someone 5. Changing the port from 8080 to 80.  eclhsoei'sc ec oofu rpsue blmiact eorri aolnss?i teW ant a 6. Enabling the invoker servlet  courses? Check out  7. Changing the DOS memory settings. (Win98/Me only) courses.coreservlets.com . 8. Setting the CATALINA_HOME variable. (Optional) Distinctive features: 9. Using a preconfigured version of Tomcat with these changes l      Personally developed and already made. (Optional) taught by Marty Hall , an 10. Using the Windows .exe installer instead of the .zip file (Not experienced developer, http://www.coreservlets.com/Apache-Tomcat-Tutorial/Tomcat-5.0-and-4.0.html (5 of 23) [8/9/2006 9:32:32 AM]
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Recommended)  
Alternatively, you can use my preconfigured Tomcat versions . These versions already have the port changed to 80, servlet reloading enabled, and the invoker servlet turned on. The preconfigured versions also come with a sample development directory and autoexec.bat file.
award-winning instructor, 4-time JavaOne speaker, and author of Core Servlets and JSP , More Servlets and JSP , and this Tomcat tutorial. l      Available onsite at your  organization or at public venues . Go to http://jakarta.apache.org/site/binindex.cgi and download the l      Well-tested, having been used by Marty for courses z2i.p3 )f iolre  fToor mthce c5u r(rJeSnPt  r2e.l0e; asseer vblueitlsd  2o.f4 )T. oSmavcea tt h4 e( JzSipP  f1il.e2 ;o sne ryvoluetr s PC for dozens of clients in the and unzip it iantt o a location of your choice. You specify the top-levelUSA, Canada, Australia,  Japan, Puerto Rico, and directory (e.g., C:\ ) and the zip file has embedded subdirectories the Philippines. (e.g., jakarta-tomcat-4.1.29 or jakarta-tomcat-5.0.27 ). Thus, C:\jakarta-tomcat-4.1.29 is a common resultant installation directory for Tomcat 4. Note: from this point forward, I'll refer to that location as install_dir . For Windows, there is also a .exe installer; I prefer the .zip file, but see the .exe installer section for notes on the differences between the two.
1. Download the Apache Tomcat Software
Details of each step are given below. If Tomcat is already running, restart it after performing these steps.
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_ 2. Set the JAVA HOME Variable
On Windows XP, you could also go to the Start menu, select Control Panel, choose System, click on the Advanced tab, press the Environment Variables button at the bottom, and enter the JAVA HOME  _ variable and value directly. On Windows 2000 and NT, you do Start, Settings, Control Panel, System, then Environment. If you prefer, you can use C:\autoexec.bat on those versions of Windows also (unless a system administrator has set your PC to ignore it).
_ _  set JAVA HOME=C:\j2sdk1.4.2 05
Next, you must set the JAVA_HOME environment variable to tell Tomcat where to find Java. Failing to properly set this variable prevents Tomcat from handling JSP pages. This variable should list the base JDK installation directory, not the bin subdirectory. For example, if you are on Windows 98/Me and installed the JDK in C:\j2sdk1.4.2_05 on your C drive, you might put the following line in your C:\autoexec.bat file.
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3. Enable the ROOT Context.
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The ROOT context is the default Web application in Tomcat, and is convenient to use when you are first learning about servlets and JSP (although you'll use your own Web applications once you're more experienced; see Section 2.11 of the book for details). The default Web application is already enabled in Tomcat 3, Tomcat 4.0.1-4.0.3, some versions of Tomcat 4.1, and Tomcat 5.0.20 and later. Skip this step if you are using the latest version of Tomcat 5, or my preconfigured Tomcat versions . But, in the versions in between (Tomcat 4.1.12 through 5.0.19), it is disabled by default. To enable it in those versions, make a backup copy of the original version of install_dir/conf/server.xml , then uncomment the following line:
 <Context path="" docBase="ROOT" debug="0"/>
Note that in most early versions of Tomcat 5, the commented out entry distributed with Apache Tomcat is in error: it is missing the trailing slash (i.e., <Context ... debug="0" > instead of the proper <Context ... debug="0" / > ). So, you will need to insert the slash. You can also: l      Download my modified server.xml for Tomcat 4. Incorporates all of the changes of this tutorial. From Tomcat 4.1.29, but should work on most versions of Tomcat 4. Right-click or shift-click on the link to download the file. l      Download my modified server.xml for Tomcat 5. From Tomcat 5.0.27, but should work on most versions of Tomcat 5. Right-click or shift-click on the link to download the file. l      Use my preconfigured Tomcat versions. Tomcat 4.1.29 or 5.0.27 with all server.xml and web.xml changes, plus the sample HTML, JSP, Java files.
The next step is to tell Tomcat to check the modification dates of the class files of requested servlets and reload ones that have changed since they were loaded into the server's memory. This slightly degrades performance in deployment situations, so is turned off by default. However, if you fail to turn it on for your development server, you'll have to restart the server every time you recompile a servlet that has already been loaded into the server's memory. Since this tutorial discusses the use of Tomcat for development , this change is strongly recommended.
To turn on servlet reloading, edit install_dir/conf/server.xml and add a DefaultContext subelement to the main Host (Tomcat 5.0.20 and later) or Service (Tomcat 5.0.19 and earlier) element and supply true for the reloadable attribute. For example, in Tomcat 5.0.27, search for this entry:
 <Host name="localhost" debug="0" appBase="webapps"  ...>
4. Turn on Servlet Reloading
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5. Change the Port to 80
To change the port, edit install_dir/conf/server.xml and change the port attribute of the Connector  element from 8080 to 80, yielding a result similar to that below. Note that the exact form of the Connector element varies in different Tomcat versions. Just search for a non-comment occurrence of "8080".
Assuming you have no other server already running on port 80, you'll find it convenient to configure Tomcat to run on the default HTTP port (80) instead of the out-of-the-box port of 8080. Making this change lets you use URLs of the form http://localhost/blah instead of http://localhost:8080/blah . Note that you need admin privileges to make this change on Unix. Also note that some versions of Windows XP automatically start IIS on port 80. So, if you use XP and want to use port 80 for Tomcat, you may need to disable IIS (see the Administrative Tools section of the Control Panel).
Be sure to make a backup copy of server.xml before making the above change. You can also: l      Download my modified server.xml for Tomcat 4. Incorporates all of the changes of this tutorial. From Tomcat 4.1.29, but should work on most versions of Tomcat 4. Right-click or shift-click on the link to download the file. l      Download my modified server.xml for Tomcat 5. From Tomcat 5.0.27, but should work on most versions of Tomcat 5. Right-click or shift-click on the link to download the file. l      Use my preconfigured Tomcat versions. Tomcat 4.1.29 or 5.0.27 with all server.xml and web.xml changes, plus the sample HTML, JSP, and Java files.
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 <DefaultContext reloadable="true"/>
You can also: l      Download my modified server.xml for Tomcat 4. Incorporates all of the changes of this tutorial. From Tomcat 4.1.29, but should work on most versions of Tomcat 4. Right-click or shift-click on the link to download the file. l      Download my modified server.xml for Tomcat 5. From Tomcat 5.0.27, but should work on most versions of Tomcat 5. Right-click or shift-click on the link to download the file. l      Use my preconfigured Tomcat versions. Tomcat 4.1.29 or 5.0.27 with all server.xml and web.xml changes, plus the sample HTML, JSP, Java files.
 <Connector port="80" ...  maxThreads="150" minSpareThreads="25" maxSpareThreads="75"  ...  ... />
and then insert the following immediately below it:
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The invoker servlet lets you run servlets without first making changes to your Web application's deployment descriptor (i.e., the WEB-INF/web.xml file). Instead, you just drop your servlet into WEB-INF/classes and use the URL http://host/ servlet / ServletName (or http://host/webAppName/servlet/ServletName once you start using your own Web applications; see Section 2.11 of the book for details on Web apps). The invoker servlet is extremely convenient when you are learning and even when you are doing your initial development. But, as discussed in the book, you do not want it on at deployment time. Up until Apache Tomcat 4.1.12, the invoker was enabled by default. However, a security flaw was uncovered whereby the invoker servlet could be used to see the source code of servlets that were generated from JSP pages. Although this may not matter in most cases, it might reveal proprietary code to outsiders, so, as of Tomcat 4.1.12, the invoker was disabled by default. The Jakarta project has since fixed the problem, but they still disable the invoker servlet by default. You almost certainly want to enable it when learning, but you should disable it again before deploying any real applications.
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 <servlet>  <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name>  <servlet-class>  org.apache.catalina.servlets.InvokerServlet  </servlet-class>  ...  </servlet>
 ...
You can also: l      Download my modified web.xml for Tomcat 4. Incorporates all of the changes of this tutorial. From Tomcat 4.1.29, but should work on most versions of Tomcat 4. Right-click or shift-click on the link to download the file.
To enable the invoker servlet, uncomment the following servlet and servlet-mapping  elements in install dir/conf/web.xml . Note that the filename is web .xml , not server .xml as in the previous _ bullets. Also, do not confuse this Apache Tomcat-specific web.xml file with the standard one that goes in the WEB-INF directory of each Web application. Finally, remember to make a backup copy of the original version of this file before you make the changes.
 <servlet-mapping>  <servlet-name>invoker</servlet-name>  <url-pattern>/servlet/*</url-pattern>  </servlet-mapping>
6. Enable the Invoker Servlet
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If you use Windows 98/Me, you may also have to change the DOS memory settings for the startup and shutdown scripts. If you get an "Out of Environment Space" error message when you start the server, you will need to right-click on install_dir/bin/startup.bat , select Properties, select Memory, and change the Initial Environment entry from Auto to at least 2816. Repeat the process for install_dir/bin/shutdown.bat . This step is not necessary in more recent versions of Windows.
7. Change DOS Memory Settings (Win 98/Me Only)
l      Download my modified web.xml for Tomcat 5. From Tomcat 5.0.27, but should work on most versions of Tomcat 5. Right-click or shift-click on the link to download the file. l      Use my preconfigured Tomcat versions. Tomcat 4.1.29 or 5.0.27 with all server.xml and web.xml changes, plus the sample HTML, JSP, Java files.
If you are using Microsoft Windows, you can download a .exe installer instead of the .zip file discussed in this tutorial. In my opinion, it is not worth the bother to do so, but some people like it. If you use it, note these differences: l      It will prompt you for the desired port. It will ask you what port it should run on, and make the changes in server.xml for you. However, since you still need to edit server.xml to enable servlet reloading and the invoker servlet, this is not much of a help. l      It will set JAVA HOME for you. The installer hunts for your Java installation and tries to set _ JAVA_HOME appropriately. This is a convenience, albeit a minor one. l      It will setup Start Menu entries. In particular, instead of using startup.bat and shutdown.bat ,
If you are going to make copies of the Tomcat startup or shutdown scripts, it is also helpful to set the CATALINA_HOME environment variable to refer to the top-level directory of the Apache Tomcat installation (e.g., C:\jakarta-tomcat-5.0.27 ). This variable identifies the Tomcat installation directory to the server. However, if you are careful to avoid copying the server startup scripts and you use only shortcuts (called "symbolic links" on Unix/Linux) instead, you are not required to set this variable. I recommend using shortcuts and not bothering with CATALINA_HOME .
_ 8. Set the CATALINA HOME
9. Using the Preconfigured Tomcat Versions (Optional)
Please see the separate section on installing Tomcat versions with all changes already made.
10. Using the Windows .exe Installer
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