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Joint network-channel coding for wireless relay networks [Elektronische Ressource] / Christoph Hausl

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Technische Universit¨at Mu¨nchenLehrstuhl fu¨r NachrichtentechnikJoint Network-Channel Codingfor Wireless Relay NetworksChristoph HauslVollst¨andiger Abdruck der von der Fakult¨at fu¨r Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnikder Technischen Universit¨at Mu¨nchen zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades einesDoktor–Ingenieursgenehmigten Dissertation.Vorsitzender: Univ.–Prof. Dr.–Ing. W. UtschickPru¨fer der Dissertation:1. Univ.–Prof. R. K¨otter, Ph.D.2. Prof. S. Benedetto, Politecnico di Torino/ItalienDie Dissertation wurde am 16.06.2008 bei der Technischen Universit¨at Mu¨ncheneingereicht und durch die Fakult¨at fu¨r Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik am03.11.2008 angenommen.iiiAcknowledgmentsThis thesis was written during my time as a research and teaching assistant at the Insti-tute for Communications Engineering at the Technische Universit¨at Mu¨nchen.I am very thankful to Professor Ralf K¨otter for his support and trust and for the oppor-tunity to work at the institute. I enjoyed it very much to work under his guidance and tobenefit from his knowledge and experience. It is an honor for me to be his first doctoralcandidate in Munich.I also thank Professor Joachim Hagenauer for his support during myfirst two years at theinstitute. Moreover, I thank Professor Sergio Benedetto for acting as the co-referee, forhis interest in my work and for his suggestions and I thank Professor Wolfgang Utschickfor acting as the chairman. Additionally, I thank Dr.

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Technische Universit¨at Mu¨nchen
Lehrstuhl fu¨r Nachrichtentechnik
Joint Network-Channel Coding
for Wireless Relay Networks
Christoph Hausl
Vollst¨andiger Abdruck der von der Fakult¨at fu¨r Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik
der Technischen Universit¨at Mu¨nchen zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines
Doktor–Ingenieurs
genehmigten Dissertation.
Vorsitzender: Univ.–Prof. Dr.–Ing. W. Utschick
Pru¨fer der Dissertation:
1. Univ.–Prof. R. K¨otter, Ph.D.
2. Prof. S. Benedetto, Politecnico di Torino/Italien
Die Dissertation wurde am 16.06.2008 bei der Technischen Universit¨at Mu¨nchen
eingereicht und durch die Fakult¨at fu¨r Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik am
03.11.2008 angenommen.iii
Acknowledgments
This thesis was written during my time as a research and teaching assistant at the Insti-
tute for Communications Engineering at the Technische Universit¨at Mu¨nchen.
I am very thankful to Professor Ralf K¨otter for his support and trust and for the oppor-
tunity to work at the institute. I enjoyed it very much to work under his guidance and to
benefit from his knowledge and experience. It is an honor for me to be his first doctoral
candidate in Munich.
I also thank Professor Joachim Hagenauer for his support during myfirst two years at the
institute. Moreover, I thank Professor Sergio Benedetto for acting as the co-referee, for
his interest in my work and for his suggestions and I thank Professor Wolfgang Utschick
for acting as the chairman. Additionally, I thank Dr. Aik Chindapol for his hospitality
during my stay at Siemens Corporate Research, New Jersey, USA.
I also want to thank the colleagues and students at the institute who contributed to a
good atmosphere, especially my office mates Nicolas Du¨tsch and Oscar Gaete. Additional
thanks are due to Georg Zeitler, Jie Hou and Tobias Lutz for proofreading parts of the
thesis.
Finally, I am thankful to my family for their support, especially to my wife Rikarda.
Mu¨nchen, November 2008 Christoph Hauslv
Contents
1 Introduction 1
2 Channel Coding for Point-to-Point Communication 5
2.1 Forward Error Correction (FEC) with Channel Coding . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2 Channel Model for Wireless Signal Propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.2.1 Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.2.2 Propagation Path-Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.2.3 Fading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.2.4 Channel Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.3 Information Theory - Limits for Channel Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.4 Some Types of Channel Codes for Wireless Communication . . . . . . . . . 12
2.4.1 Convolutional Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.4.2 Parallel Concatenated Convolutional Codes - Turbo Codes . . . . . 15
2.5 Hybrid ARQ/FEC with Cross-Packet Channel Coding . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.5.1 FEC versus ARQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.5.2 Conventional Hybrid ARQ/FEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.5.3 Extension with Cross-Packet Channel Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.5.4 Code Design: Iterative Cross-Packet Channel Decoding . . . . . . . 21
2.5.5 Outage Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.5.6 Simulation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30vi Contents
3 Network Coding for Error-Free Point-to-Point Networks 31
3.1 From Routing to Network Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.2 Information-Theoretic Capacity of Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.3 Design of Network Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3.3.1 Deterministic Design of Network Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3.3.2 Randomized Network Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3.4 Network Coding and Channel Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.4.1 Separated Network Coding and Channel Coding . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.4.2 Joint Network Coding and Channel Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.4.3 Network Coding with Erasure Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
4 Wireless Networks compared to Point-to-Point Networks 38
4.1 Properties of the Wireless Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
4.2 Wireless Networks as Point-to-Point Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
4.3 Wireless Networks with Broadcast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
4.4 Wireless Networks with Broadcast and Simultaneous Multiple-Access . . . 53
4.4.1 Partial Simultaneous Multiple-Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
4.4.2 Full Simultaneous Multiple-Access. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
4.5 Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
4.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
5 Joint Routing-Channel Coding for the Relay Channel 65
5.1 From Hybrid ARQ/FEC to Distributed Channel Coding . . . . . . . . . . 66
5.2 System Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
5.3 Extension with Hierarchical Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
5.3.1 Motivation to use Hierarchical Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
5.3.2 System Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
5.4 Information-Theoretic Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72Contents vii
5.5 Outage Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
5.6 Allocation of Transmission Time to Source and Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
5.7 Simulation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
5.7.1 Results without Fading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
5.7.2 Results with Fading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
5.8 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
6 Joint Network-Channel Coding for the Multiple-Access Relay Channel 87
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
6.1.1 Diversity Gain through Network Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
6.1.2 Motivation for Joint Network-Channel Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
6.1.3 Overview over Related Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
6.2 System Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
6.3 Design for Joint Network-Channel Code: Turbo Network Code . . . . . . . 92
6.3.1 Channel Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
6.3.2 Network Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
6.3.3 Iterative Network and Channel Decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
6.3.4 Alternative Turbo Network Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
6.4 Information-Theoretic Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
6.5 Outage Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
6.5.1 Two Point-to-Point Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
6.5.2 Two Relay Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
6.5.3 Multiple-Access Relay Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
6.5.4 Multiple-Access Relay Channel with Separate Network-Channel
Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
6.6 Allocation of Transmission Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
6.7 Comparison of Relay and Multiple-Access Relay Channel . . . . . . . . . . 101
6.7.1 Achievable Sum-Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
6.7.2 Outage Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102viii Contents
6.8 Relation to Hybrid ARQ/FEC with Cross-Packet Channel Coding . . . . . 103
6.9 Simulation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
6.9.1 Reference Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
6.9.2 System Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
6.9.3 Results with Fading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
6.9.4 Results without Fading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
6.10 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
7 Joint Network-Channel Coding for the Two-Way Relay Channel 115
7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
7.1.1 Bidirectional Communication with Network Coding . . . . . . . . . 115
7.1.2 Motivation for Joint Network-Channel Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
7.2 System Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
7.3 Design for Joint Network-Channel Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
7.3.1 Channel Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
7.3.2 Network Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
7.3.3 Joint Network and Channel Decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
7.3.4 Comparison of Code Design for MARC and TWRC . . . . . . . . . 122
7.3.5 Alternative Code Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
7.4 Information-Theoretic Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
7.5 Allocation of Transmission Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
7.6 Simulation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
7.6.1 Reference Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
7.6.2 System Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
7.6.3 Comparison of Error Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
7.6.4 Comparison of Throughput . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
7.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
8 Conclusions and Outlook 138Contents ix
A Derivations 141
A.1 Derivation of (2.18) and (2.19) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
A.2 Derivation of (6.8)-(6.12) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
A.3 Derivation of (6.15)-(6.18) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
A.4 Derivation of (7.16)-(7.17) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Nomenclature 145
Bibliography 150