Kombinuotųjų vežimų Lietuvos teritorija plėtros technologinių galimybių tyrimas ; Investigation of technological possibilities for the development of combined carriages through the territory of Lithuania
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Kombinuotųjų vežimų Lietuvos teritorija plėtros technologinių galimybių tyrimas ; Investigation of technological possibilities for the development of combined carriages through the territory of Lithuania

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VILNIUS GEDIMINAS TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY AIDAS VASILIS VASILIAUSKAS INVESTIGATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL POSSIBILITIES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED CARRIAGES THROUGH THE TERRITORY OF LITHUANIA Summary of Doctoral Dissertation Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering - 03T Vilnius „Technika“ 2004 Doctoral dissertation was prepared at Vilnius Gediminas Technical University in 2001-2004 Scientific supervisor: Prof Dr Habil Adolfas Baublys (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering – 03T) The dissertation is defended at the Council of Scientific Field of Transport Engineering at Vilnius Gediminas Technical University: Chairman: Prof Dr Habil Alvydas Pik ūnas (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering - 03T). Members: Prof Dr Habil Adolfas Baublys (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering - 03T), Prof Dr Habil Jonas Sapragonas (Kaunas University of Technology, Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering -03T), Prof Dr Habil Vytautas Paulauskas (Klaip ėda University, Technological ansport Engineering - 03T), Prof Dr Habil Leonas Povilas Lingaitis (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering - 03T).

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Published 01 January 2004
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VILNIUS GEDIMINAS TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY       AIDAS  VASILIS VASILIAUSKAS     INVESTIGATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL POSSIBILITIES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED CARRIAGES THROUGH THE TERRITORY OF LITHUANIA    Summary of Doctoral Dissertation Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering-03T            Vilnius Technika 2004
 Doctoral dissertation was prepared at Vilnius Gediminas Technical University in 2001-2004  Scientific supervisor: Prof Dr Habil Adolfas Baublys (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering  03T)  The dissertation is defended at the Council of Scientific Field of Transport Engineering at Vilnius Gediminas Technical University:  Chairman: Prof Dr Habil Alvydas Pikūnas (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering-03T). Members: Prof Dr Habil Adolfas Baublys Gediminas Technical (Vilnius University, Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering-03T), Prof Dr Habil Jonas Sapragonas(Kaunas University of Technology, Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering-03T), Prof Dr Habil Vytautas Paulauskas (Klaipėda University, Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering-03T), Prof Dr Habil Leonas Povilas Lingaitis(Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering-03T). Oponents: Prof Dr Habil Algirdas Jurkauskas(Kaunas University of Technology, Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering-03T), Associate Prof Dr Nijolė Batarlienė (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering-03T).  The dissertation will be defended at the public meeting of the Council of Scientific Field of Transport Engineering in the Senate Hall of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University at 1 p.m. on September 24, 2004. Address: Sauletekio al. 11, LT-10223 Vilnius-40, Lithuania Tel. + 370 5 274 49 52, fax. +3706 5 270 01 12, e-mail: doktor@adm.vtu.lt  The summary of the dissertation was distributed on August 24, 2004. A copy of the dissertation is available for review at the Library of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (Sauletekio al. 14, Vilnius, Lithuania)  © A. Vasilis Vasiliauskas, 2004
 
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VILNIAUS GEDIMINO TECHNIKOS UNIVERSITETAS        AIDAS  VASILIS VASILIAUSKAS      KOMBINUOTŲJŲVEIMŲLIETUVOS TERITORIJA PLĖTROS TECHNOLOGINIŲ GALIMYBIŲTYRIMAS    Daktaro disertacijos santrauka Technologijos mokslai, transporto ininerija-03T           Vilnius Technika 2004
 Disertacija rengta 2001-2004 metais Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitete.  Mokslinis vadovas: prof. habil. dr. Adolfas Baublys Gedimino technikos (Vilniaus universitetas, technologijos mokslai, transporto ininerija-03T).  Disertacija ginama Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universiteto Transporto ininerijos mokslo krypties taryboje:  Pirmininkas: prof. habil. dr. Alvydas Pikūnas Gedimino technikos (Vilniaus universitetas, technologijos mokslai, transporto ininerija-03T). Nariai: prof. habil. dr. Adolfas Baublys Gedimino technikos (Vilniaus universitetas, technologijos mokslai, transporto ininerija-03T), prof. habil. dr. Jonas Sapragonas(Kauno technologijos universitetas, technologijos mokslai, transporto ininerija-03T), prof. habil. dr. Vytautas Paulauskas (Klaipėdos universitetas, technologijos mokslai, transporto ininerija-03T), prof. habil. dr. Leonas Povilas Lingaitis(Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas, technologijos mokslai, transporto ininerija 03T). -Oponentai: prof. habil. dr. Algirdas Jurkauskas(Kauno technologijos universitetas, technologijos mokslai, transporto ininerija-03T), doc. dr. Nijolė Batarlienė (Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas, technologijos mokslai, transporto ininerija-03T).  Disertacija bus ginama vieame Transporto ininerijos mokslo krypties tarybos posėdyje 2004 m. rugsėjo 24 d. 13 val. Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universiteto senato posėdiųsalėje Adresas: Saulėtekio al. 11, LT-10223 Vilnius-40, Lietuva Tel. +370 5 274 49 52, faksas +3706 5 270 01 12 el. p. doktor@adm.vtu.lt  Disertacijos santrauka isiuntinėta 2004 m. rugpjūčio 24 d. Disertaciją peri galimaūrėti Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universiteto bibliotekoje (Saulėtekio al. 14, Vilnius) VGTU leidyklos Technika 1022 mokslo literatūros knyga © A. Vasilis Vasiliauskas, 2004 4  
 Introduction Geographical location of Lithuania determines its role as a transit country. This fact obliges to assure an efficient movement of the goods through the territory of Lithuania. One of the directions to evolve transport sector can be the development of combined road-rail transport (CT). The relevance of the dissertationis determined by the object of investigation  combined road-rail transport  which calls for a scientific background from the technological and economical point of view. Besides, development of the CT corresponds not only to main goals of Lithuanian transport development strategy, but also to objectives of the EU to assure efficient usage of transport infrastructure and improvement of quality of transport services. The purpose of the dissertation on the basis of analysis of scientific works and best practical experience in the field of CT to determine means that stipulate development of CT, arrange them according to the particularity of Lithuanian transport sector, and create a model for the development of combined carriages through the territory of Lithuania. In order to reach this purpose, followingtasks are accomplished: 1. Determined all combined road-rail transport elements and their importance; 2. of CT in the EU and technologicalInvestigated current market measures that assure development of these carriages; 3. Carried out an investigation of capabilities of Lithuanian transport system stressing an interaction of road and rail transport; 4. Created model which involves linkage of infrastructure of different transport modes in to one network and assures an optimal exploitation of infrastructure by flows of different transport modes. 5. Explained technological factors that influence possibilities to develop combined carriages through the territory of Lithuania. Scientific novelty. modeling of intermodal network Proposed with the help of virtual links which allows integrating networks of different transport modes and use them optimally for the flows of different transport modes. 5  
 Practical significance of dissertation. Created model allows presenting integrated network in way, which stresses all operations performed by different transport modes (including transshipment at terminal), and analyzing flows of different transport modes (comparison of infrastructure costs stipulated by these flows). Methods of investigation. Methods of system, functional, regression and correlation analysis as well as forecasting methods and mathematical modeling was applied in the course of investigation. Main statements of the dissertation: 1. Results of practical and theoretical estimation of combined road-rail transport in the EU. 2. Model created with the help of virtual links for the analysis and comparison of possible transport variants through the territory of Lithuania on the North-South rout. 3. Methodology for the search of optimally located terminal in the case of road and rail transport. 4. Statements and forecasts of the development of CT in Lithuania. Approbation of the work. Main theses of the dissertation were approbated in 4 scientific published works and 11 scientific conferences. Structure of the work. The work consists of introduction, 4 parts, conclusions and list of literature sources (128 scientific works), 8 annexes. The size of dissertation is 147 pages, 24 figures and 50 tables. 1. Combined transport as an object of investigation Attractiveness of country transport system depends on the level of development of transport infrastructure and ability to exploit advantages of different transport modes. In order to estimate current state of country transport system and validate its development prospects SWOT analysis of transport sector was carried out. Results were summarized in Transport and transit development strategy and allowed to formulate strategic goals for Lithuania transport policy, as well as main tools to reach these goals. 6  
 According to this strategic document, the greatest attention should be focused on the development of intermodal transport system. This request for analysis of possibilities implementing and developing combined road-rail transport. For this reasons the object of investigation is determined: Combined transport (CT)  is an intermodal transport where the major part of the European journey is by rail, inland waterways or sea and any initial and/or final leg carried out by road are as short as possible. CT is seen as an interaction, which goal is to consolidate connections between different transport modes, making at the same time whole transport system more effective. The essence of CT is intermodality, which means integration between different transport modes. This integration stipulates all the advantages of CT and helps to raise efficiency of transport services. Determined obstacles for the further development of CT deal with harmonization of technical standards in the field of transport infrastructure and equipment, lack of common development policy. Highlighted drawbacks create premises to carry out researches in these fields, first of all estimating best scientific and practical experience, and provide possible solutions. 2. Analysis of the EU experience in the field of CT After the analysis of scientific sources can be stated that CT as an object of investigation is under research for more than two decades. This concept found its roots in the business practice and only afterwards transport economists and founders of logistics science gave the theoretical basement for this process. Thats why research of CT can be defined as separate and new field of scientific research. Because of wide range of CT elements, scientific sources deal with rather different things. Analysis showed that there are several problem groups joined by common intermodality theme. It must be noted, that analysis was aggravated because of few drawbacks typical to a new science (lack of common definitions, hypothesis and concept). Because of these drawbacks the same things in different 7  
 sources obtained completely different meanings. The lack of common hypothesis, conceptions and applied methodology even increases the level of problems. Thats why in most cases solutions of problems is based on the interception of most advantageous practical experience, rather than scientifically based tools. For this reason investigation of the EU practical experience in the field of road-rail CT was carried out. First of all, the investigation stressed that: 1. There are no united statistics about CT in the EU; 2. The only and main source of statistical data is yearly reports of the separate CT operators. Neglecting these obstacles, accomplished investigation allowed presenting dynamics of CT market development (Fig. 1).  
2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 international national total   Fig 1.Dynamics of freight volumes carried by CT (period 1998-2003)  Provided data shows that national and international CT traffic in the EU develops in rather different ways. The average distance of international haulage is approximately 750 km, the average weight of
 
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 loading unit (ITU)  26 tones. The average haulage distance of national CT carriages 550 km, average tonnage  20 tones. Also, during the investigation it was determined, that depending on carriage technology, CT in the EU divides as shown in the figure 2:  
24% 9% 67%
bodies/containers semitrailers rolling road   Fig 2.CT market share depending on the carriage technology  Unaccompanied transport (containers/swap bodies and semi-trailers) covers approximately 76% of all CT market in the EU. It should be noted, that significantly increased usage of bigger loading units (40 foot containers and swap bodies of class A). The percentage of accompanied transport (rolling-road technology) in recent years saw a little growth (now it covers 24 % of CT market in the EU), thou it part in the international haulage constantly decreases. Further investigations allowed determining 3 stages of CT development: a) increase of road transport causes lots of problems, so demand of alternate means for freight transportation becomes an obvious need; b) service of accompanied CT as an alternative to road transport is being established; c) finally, the technology of unaccompanied CT is being developed.   
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  But in order that customer would choose CT it must satisfy some customer expectations. Main determined criterions that CT must satisfy in order that customer would choose it instead of road transport are: flexibility, transit time, reliability, safety and cost savings. Accomplished investigations proved that not all of these criterions so far are in favor of CT. Thats why there is a need of some technical, political and economical measures that would change current situation and make CT more attractive alternative to road transport. The main nowadays problem still remains the lack of common long term policy solving technological CT problems. Uncoordinated measures in different EU countries created great variety of technological solutions in terms of transshipment equipment, ITU and railway wagons. This means running waste of resources and time, but still there are no sign of united, competitive and attractive CT system. Estimation of given above facts led to a conclusion that further development of CT should progress according to the strategy based on the following principles: 1. Organizational support and commercial partnership. 2. Common background of informational technologies and political means. 3. Common use of the equipment. Practical experience of CT operators proved that such a strategy helps to enlarge market share of CT because of better use of existing infrastructure and equipment, and increase of attractiveness of provided services. This led to a conclusion that in order to implement combined road-territory of Lithuania there is a needrail transport through the of cooperation with foreign CT operators as well as application of provided principles that could increase attractiveness of CT. That fact highlights a need of model, which would assure optimal use of countries transport network in the case of combined carriages at the same time presenting advantages of CT.   
 
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 3. Modeling of combined carriages During few past decades a number of models dealing with transport networks were created. Unfortunately, all of them analyze network from link point of view rather than from node point of view and transport operations taking place at transshipment points were not estimated correctly. In turn this fact means awry presentation of costs stipulated by exploitation of whole network. This is especially important in case of CT, because this form of transportation cant exists without transshipment of goods. In order to fulfill this gap, the concept of virtual links for the creation of intermodal network was applied. This allowed clear visualization of all transport operations on the intermodal network. Firs step of modeling involves coupling of separate modal networks in to one common intermodal network through a certain number (at least two) of intermdal terminals (figure 3).  
 
 Fig 3.Common principle of the creation of intermodal network  
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