Land use and land use change impacts within protected areas and adjacent regions of the NE Mount Kenya [Elektronische Ressource] / von Caroline G. Mugo

-

English
207 Pages
Read an excerpt
Gain access to the library to view online
Learn more

Description

Land Use and Land Use Change Impacts within Protected Areas and Adjacent Regions of the NE Mount Kenya Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Naturwissenschaften Vorgelegt beim FB11: Geowissenschaften/Geographie der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität in Frankfurt am Main von Caroline G. Mugo aus Chogoria, Kenia Frankfurt am Main, 2007 vom Fachbereich Geowissenschaften/Geographie der Johann Wolfgang Goethe -Universität als Dissertation angenommen. Dekan: Prof. Dr. Gerhard Brey Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Jürgen Runge Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Mäckel Datum der Disputation: 29.10.2007 II Abstract NE Mount Kenya is characterised by dense population and small scale farming is the main form of land use. In the region, continual pressure on the forest resources as result of land use is a continuing problem. The NE Mount Kenya Forest Reserves (Imenti Forest Reserve, Mount Kenya Forest Reserve) play an important role in the livelihood of the neighbouring communities. However population pressure, reserve management policies, economic changes, an ineffective land tenure system and poverty are socio-economic factors contributing to land use changes and an intensification of agriculture. Illegal factors like clearing forest vegetation for firewood and grazing areas, at the expense of the protected forest areas, are present.

Subjects

Informations

Published by
Published 01 January 2008
Reads 31
Language English
Document size 25 MB
Report a problem






Land Use and Land Use Change Impacts within Protected Areas
and Adjacent Regions of the NE Mount Kenya












Dissertation
zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades
der Naturwissenschaften









Vorgelegt beim FB11: Geowissenschaften/Geographie
der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität
in Frankfurt am Main



von
Caroline G. Mugo
aus Chogoria, Kenia






Frankfurt am Main, 2007




vom Fachbereich Geowissenschaften/Geographie der
Johann Wolfgang Goethe -Universität als Dissertation angenommen.














Dekan: Prof. Dr. Gerhard Brey

Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Jürgen Runge
Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Mäckel

Datum der Disputation: 29.10.2007
II Abstract
NE Mount Kenya is characterised by dense population and small scale farming is the
main form of land use. In the region, continual pressure on the forest resources as result
of land use is a continuing problem. The NE Mount Kenya Forest Reserves (Imenti
Forest Reserve, Mount Kenya Forest Reserve) play an important role in the livelihood of
the neighbouring communities. However population pressure, reserve management
policies, economic changes, an ineffective land tenure system and poverty are socio-
economic factors contributing to land use changes and an intensification of agriculture.
Illegal factors like clearing forest vegetation for firewood and grazing areas, at the
expense of the protected forest areas, are present.
This study focuses on an interdisplinary approach to analyse socio-economic and
ecological factors in NE Mount Kenya relevant to land degradation. This includes remote
sensing data (interpretation of satellite images Landsat TM 1987 and ETM 2000)
combined with interviews from the land user’s perspective. Ethnographic research of this
type on this topic has not been done in the region before. This entailed applying both a
qualitative (giving farmers the opportunity to identify factors they perceived as important
in regard to land use) and a quantitative method of data analysis.
The Mount Kenya Forest region is distinguished by high elevation and a humid to sub-
humid climate, while the Imenti Forest region lies lower and is characterised by semi-
humid and transitional zones. Land use in the Mount Kenya Forest region is mainly
perennial thus eliminating seasonal land use changes. In the Imenti Forest region, 30% of
the farmers said they had gone through major land use changes within the last 20 years.
The major land use change consisted of a shift from residential farming in the protected
areas which offered more farming and grazing areas, to being restricted to individual
farm plots which consequently led to the intensification of cultivation thus contributing
to land degradation. The satellite images in the same region show a clear decrease in
coverage of forest vegetation and an increase in open areas in the Imenti Forest region
which the farmers explain influences the tentative land use changes in the region. On the
other hand, in the Mount Kenya forest region, there has been an increase in forest
vegetation cover which is also evident in the satellite images. Areas that were plantation
and cultivated regions in 1987 have forest cover in 2000, which the farmers stated was as
a result of their afforestation initiatives.
IIINevertheless, indicators of degradation e.g. rill and gully erosion are evident and
correlated to the intensified land use in both forest regions. The population impact in the
region apparently intensifies land use therefore the identified socio-economic factors in
the region should be given priority in integrating development projects that are directly
beneficial to park-adjacent communities according to the needs of the particular agro-
ecological zone (AEZ). Location specific research can better enhance the understanding
of the socio-economic factors influencing land use change. Furthermore, promoting
alternative income generating activities, besides the present livestock and crop farming,
can help reduce the risks of land degradation.
IVAcknowledgement

First and foremost I give honour to God Almighty who has made all things possible
through His amazing grace.
I am very grateful to my supervisor Prof. Dr. Jürgen Runge for his valuable advice and
guidance throughout this thesis. Most of all, your patience in the correcting of my
working drafts is highly appreciated. I express my gratitude to Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Mäckel
for his willingness to assess this thesis.
I wish to express my deepest gratitude to the KWS team, Dr Bagine, Mr. Kabugi and Mr.
Mutero for providing the necessary logistics and permit to carry out research within the
protected areas. I am also grateful for the GIS data and maps provided. I also express my
thanks the KWS Meru District warden J.N Gathiari and the Meru District Forest Officer
Moris Abuto for their assistance, time and interest in the research. My sincere thanks are
due to all the farmers in Meru for their co-operation during the interviews. My heartfelt
thanks go to all the KWS wardens including Lukas Gichuru, Mr Mburia and the forest
workers who guided me through the study area. I am particularly grateful to Dr. Onywere
from Kenyatta University for his valuable comments on my working draft.
The post-graduate grant for the year 2005 from the “Freunde und Förderer” of the Johann
Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main is greatly acknowledged. I am also
grateful to the Wagner Stiftung for partially financing transportation costs for my
fieldwork.
I wish to thank all my colleagues from the AG Runge: Konstantin König, Hans-Michael
Peiter, Cheikh Tidiane Anne, Mark Sangen, Marion Neumer, Eva Becker, Steffen
Niemann and Joachim Eisenberg for the pleasant working atmosphere and scientific
discussions. I am especially indebted to Steffen, Joachim and Eva for the time they took
to correct drafts/maps even at short time notices. Marion, thanks for your time, continued
support, insightful comments, and for keeping me motivated!
I also thank Christiane Berger for working with me on the initial draft of the thesis. My
sincere thanks go to Pastor Wilson for her prayers and inspiration. Faith Kihiu and Maren
Bordersen, your support and encouragement cannot go unmentioned, thank you. I wish to
express my gratitude to Paul and Alison Lobel for revising the manuscript.
VI am immensely grateful to my sister Mwari and brothers Kaburu and Nyaga for their
financial support, encouragement and their continued belief in me. You are the greatest.
Last but not least, I extend my deepest appreciation to my parents for giving me the
opportunity to pursue my studies, without them I would not be the person I am today.
Your support is never-ending. Special thanks to my father for the interest he took in my
research and devoted time and patience during my fieldwork in Meru. I also thank you
for the important networking links in Nairobi. I dedicate this thesis to my loving parents.





Frankfurt am Main, August 2007 Caroline Mugo

VITable of Contents

1 Introduction _______________________________________________________ 1
1.1 Background and Context ______________________________________________ 1
1.1.1 Land use change and Land degradation_________________________________________ 2
1.1.2 Significance of the NE Mount Kenya area ______________________________________ 3
1.2 Structure of thesis ____________________________________________________ 6
1.3 Problem statement ___________________________________________________ 7
1.3.1 The socio-economic factors__________________________________________________ 8
1.3.2 The ecological factors ______________________________________________________ 9
1.4 Research objectives 10
2 Study Area _______________________________________________________ 12
2.1 Geographical and administrative borders of the NE Mount Kenya __________ 12
2.2 Climate____________________________________________________________ 15
2.3 Drainage and Topography ____________________________________________ 19
2.4 Geology and soils____________________________________________________ 22
2.5 Vegetation _________________________________________________________ 25
3 Literature Review__________________________________________________ 29
3.1 Land use change 30
3.2 Land degradation impacts 32
3.2.1 Protected Areas and Management ____________________________________________ 33
3.2.2 Categorization of protected areas 34
3.2.2.1 Land use and protected areas ___________________________________________ 36
3.2.3 Land use conflicts ________________________________________________________ 37
3.2.4 Non-Residential Cultivation (Shamba system) __________________________________ 38
3.3 Previously applied research approaches_________________________________ 40
3.3.1 Land use mapping 41
3.3.2 Interdisciplinary approach __________________________________________________ 42
3.3.3 Indigenous knowledge approach _____________________________________________ 43
3.3.4 Land use and the economy _________________________________________________ 44
3.3.5 Poverty and land use ______________________________________________________ 45
4 Methodology 48
4.1 Fieldwork__________________________________________________________ 49
4.1.1 Methods of data collection 49
4.1.1.1 Interview selection process ____________________________________________ 50
4.1.1.2 Interview 50
4.1.2 Case studies _____________________________________________________________ 52
4.2 Data analysis _______________________________________________________ 53
4.2.1 Frequencies 53
4.2.2 Correlations 53
4.2.3 Cross tables 54
4.2.4 Remote Sensing __________________________________________________________ 54
4.2.5 GIS Tool _______________________________________________________________ 55
4.2.5.1 Satellite images _____________________________________________________ 55
4.2.6 Interpretation process 56
5 NE Mount Kenya Regional Analysis __________________________________ 59
5.1 Historical perspective of land use ______________________________________ 59
5.1.1 Pre-colonial and colonial era ________________________________________________ 60
VII5.1.1.1 The missionaries ____________________________________________________ 62
5.1.2 Independent Kenya _______________________________________________________ 63
5.2 Land tenure ________________________________________________________ 64
5.3 Socio-economic system _______________________________________________ 65
5.4 Utilization of protected areas__________________________________________ 66
5.4.1 Encroachment and illegal activities ___________________________________________ 67
5.4.2 Management ____________________________________________________________ 68
5.4.2.1 Management constraints 70
5.5 Impact of population on land use ______________________________________ 71
5.5.1 Implementation of GIS ____________________________________________________ 72
5.5.2 Use of firewood __________________________________________________________ 77
5.6 Impact of agriculture on land use 77
5.6.1 Agro-ecological zones in the study area _______________________________________ 79
5.6.2 Livestock grazing ________________________________________________________ 82
5.7 Impacts of climate on land use_________________________________________ 83
5.8 Implementation of Satellite images _____________________________________ 86
5.9 Case studies 92
5.9.1 Imenti Forest region_______________________________________________________ 93
5.9.2 Mount Kenya Forest region_________________________________________________ 95
5.10 Interview and field survey results ______________________________________ 98
5.10.1 Present land use _______________________________________________________ 98
5.10.1.1 Interview analysis ___________________________________________________ 98
5.10.2 Landownership 98
5.10.3 Major land use on the farms _____________________________________________ 100
5.10.4 Land use change ______________________________________________________ 107
5.10.4.1 Fragmentation of farms ______________________________________________ 111
5.10.4.2 Land degradation measures ___________________________________________ 112
5.10.5 Land use and degradation _______________________________________________ 113
5.10.5.1 Degradation indicators 119
5.10.5.2 Degradation and grazing 121
5.10.5.3 Grazing impacts ____________________________________________________ 123
5.10.6 Managing land to prevent degradation _____________________________________ 124
5.10.7 Household income 128
5.10.8 Major problems faced by farmers _________________________________________ 129
5.10.9 Wildlife conflicts _____________________________________________________ 131
5.10.10 Farmer perceptions of the protected areas __________________________________ 133
5.10.11 Farming in the protected areas ___________________________________________ 135
5.10.11.1 Banning of the forest utilization 136
5.10.12 Tree plantation _______________________________________________________ 137
5.10.12.1 Reasons for planting trees __________________________________________ 140
5.10.13 Endangered plant or animal species _______________________________________ 140
5.10.14 Government and agricultural support ______________________________________ 141
5.10.15 Crop irrigation and water sources _________________________________________ 142
5.11 Discussion ________________________________________________________ 145
5.11.1 Farmer perceptions of degradation ________________________________________ 145
5.11.2 Farmers’ perceptions of land use change ___________________________________ 148
5.11.3 Land use change and the protected areas 149
5.11.4 Forest reserve management policies 152
5.11.5 Population growth discussion ____________________________________________ 153
5.11.6 Agriculture __________________________________________________________ 155
5.11.6.1 Livestock keeping __________________________________________________ 156
5.11.6.2 Market policies_____________________________________________________ 157
5.11.7 Poverty _____________________________________________________________ 158
5.12 Perspectives _______________________________________________________ 159
VIII6 Conclusion ______________________________________________________ 162
7 References 174
8 Appendix _______________________________________________________ 193






IXList of Figures

FIGURE 1: KENYA POSITION _________________________________________________________ 2
FIGURE 2: NE MOUNT KENYA FOREST BORDERS_______________________________________ 4
FIGURE 3: IMPACTS OF LAND USE CHANGE ___________________________________________ 7
FIGURE 4: MAP OF STUDY AREA_____________________________________________________ 12
FIGURE 5: MERU CENTRAL ADMINISTRATIVE BORDERS ______________________________ 13
FIGURE 6: MERU CLIMATE __________________________________________________________ 16
FIGURE 7: MERU TOTAL ANNUAL RAINFALL _________________________________________ 17
FIGURE 8: MERU TEMPERATURE ____________________________________________________ 18
FIGURE 9: NE MOUNT KENYA SRTM DATA 19
FIGURE 10: GEOLOGY OF THE NE MOUNT KENYA_____________________________________ 22
FIGURE 11: VEGETATION TYPES IN THE PROTECTED AREAS ___________________________ 25
FIGURE 12: POPULATION TRENDS ___________________________________________________ 72
FIGURE 13: GIS ILLUSTRATION 1979 POPULATION DENSITY____________________________ 74
FIGURE 14: GIUSTRATION 1989 POPULATIONSIT 75
FIGURE 15: CLASSIFICATION OF LAND USE POTENTIAL IN THE MOUNT KENYA REGION _ 78
FIGURE 16: LAND AREAS UNDER COFFEE CULTIVATION IN MERU DISTRICT 1985________ 79
FIGURE 17: MERU AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES ________________________________________ 81
FIGURE 18: NORMALIZED APRIL RAINFALL ANOMALIES IN MERU, 1931 - 1989___________ 83
FIGURE 19: PRESSURES AND AIRFLOW OVER AFRICA _________________________________ 85
FIGURE 20: TM CLASSIFICATION IMENTI FOREST REGION 1987_________________________ 87
FIGURE 21: ETM CLASSIFICATION IMENTI FOREST REGION 2000 _______________________ 88
FIGURE 22: TM CLASSIFICATION MOUNT KENYA REGION 1987 90
FIGURE 23: ETM CLASSIFICATION MOUNT KENYA REGION 2000 91
FIGURE 24: MOUNT KENYA FOREST REGION FIGURE 25: IMENTI FOREST REGION ____ 99
FIGURE 26: MAJOR LAND USE IN THE IMENTI FOREST REGION________________________ 100
FIGURE 27: SOIL QUALITY CHANGE IN THE IMENTI FOREST REGION __________________ 115
FIGURE 28: SOIL QUALITY AND EXTENT OF LAND USE CHANGE -IMENTI REGION ______ 116
FIGURE 29: SOIL QUALITY AND EXTENT OF LAND USE CHANGE -MOUNT KENYA REGION
_____________________________________________________________________________ 118
FIGURE 30: MAIN ANIMALS KEPT ON FARM -IMENTI FOREST REGION _________________ 122
FIGURE 31: FERTILIZATION METHODS - IMENTI FOREST REGION______________________ 126
FIGURE 32: FARMER PROBLEMS- IMENTI FOREST REGION ____________________________ 130
FIGURE 33: FARMER BENEFITS OF ADJACENT FOREST AREAS ________________________ 134
FIGURE 34: INTERACTION OF LAND USE FACTORS RESULTING IN LAND DEGRADATION IN
THE STUDY AREA ____________________________________________________________ 150

X