LUCIA [Elektronische Ressource] : development of a comprehensive information architecture process model for websites / Arno Reichenauer
408 Pages
English
Downloading requires you to have access to the YouScribe library
Learn all about the services we offer

LUCIA [Elektronische Ressource] : development of a comprehensive information architecture process model for websites / Arno Reichenauer

-

Downloading requires you to have access to the YouScribe library
Learn all about the services we offer
408 Pages
English

Description

LUCIA: Development of a Comprehensive Information Architecture Process Model for Websites Arno Reichenauer A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy of the University of Regensburg Faculty of Humanities II (Psychology and Education) University of Regensburg, Germany January 2005 LUCIA: Development of a Comprehensive Information Architecture Process Model for Websites Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung der Doktorwürde der Philosophischen Fakultät II (Psychologie und Pädagogik) der Universität Regensburg vorgelegt von Arno Reichenauer aus Freising 2005 Erstgutachter: Prof. Dr. Alf Zimmer Zweitgutachter: Prof. Dr. Helmut Lukesch Summary Web-specific usability deficiencies of websites have multiple implications: End users have been shown to suffer from disorientation and information input overload when interacting with large information systems, resulting in frustration, computer “rage”, and user abandon-ment. Such symptoms quickly turn into monetary losses for the sponsoring organization. Thus, an organization employing 1000 knowledge workers has been shown to lose up to US$ 2.5 million per year, due to its employees’ inability to retrieve information on its intranet websites (Feldman & Sherman, 2001).

Subjects

Informations

Published by
Published 01 January 2005
Reads 6
Language English
Document size 8 MB

Exrait



LUCIA: Development of a
Comprehensive Information Architecture
Process Model for Websites

Arno Reichenauer


A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
of the
University of Regensburg



Faculty of Humanities II (Psychology and Education)
University of Regensburg, Germany


January 2005


LUCIA: Development of a
Comprehensive Information Architecture
Process Model for Websites




Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung der Doktorwürde
der Philosophischen Fakultät II (Psychologie und Pädagogik)
der Universität Regensburg
vorgelegt von



Arno Reichenauer
aus Freising


2005 Erstgutachter: Prof. Dr. Alf Zimmer
Zweitgutachter: Prof. Dr. Helmut Lukesch
Summary
Web-specific usability deficiencies of websites have multiple implications: End users have
been shown to suffer from disorientation and information input overload when interacting
with large information systems, resulting in frustration, computer “rage”, and user abandon-
ment. Such symptoms quickly turn into monetary losses for the sponsoring organization.
Thus, an organization employing 1000 knowledge workers has been shown to lose up to US$
2.5 million per year, due to its employees’ inability to retrieve information on its intranet
websites (Feldman & Sherman, 2001). These deficiencies can be traced back to root causes
which operate and thus have to be resolved at the level of the underlying website development
and maintenance processes. Current Information Architecture (IA) processes, while in fact
concerned to some extent with all of these root causes, currently fail to address them methodi-
cally.
Thus, to improve both business and end user goal achievement in web-based information
systems, the objective of this research was to develop a novel and unified IA Process Model
describing the development of a website’s IA system (= the elements of an information sys-
tem which together define the organization of and the access to its information). The results-
driven approach for developing the process model involved a thorough initial analysis of IA
system components, their dependencies, as well as their deficiencies for both end users and
content providers. The impact of IA system deficiencies on end user goal achievement was
determined through re-analysis of raw data from usability tests performed on intranet websites
of the Siemens AG. For the first time, however, IA system deficiencies were also analyzed in
terms of their effect on the performance of content providers (authors, editors, content manag-
ers) by conducting focused field interviews with 25 content providers. For the six components
of the thereby developed IA System Model, more than 80 generic IA system deficiencies were
identified that impede end users’ or content providers’ goal achievement. In addition, through
focused interviews with domain experts and literature reviews, more than 50 internal (i.e.,
within IA system components) and 25 external (i.e., from IA-extrinsic entities) dependencies
of IA system component were discovered.
Combining this IA System Model with results from literature reviews on current IA proc-
esses, process deficiencies, and applied methods, the optimized IA Process Model was devel-
oped. It was evaluated by carrying out IA expert focus groups both in Germany and the US, and by executing a real-life IA project according to the model. Unlike any available website
development process, this model for the first time:
1. Explicitly integrates standard IA processes with Database Design processes, thereby
ensuring technical feasibility, minimizing design changes due to technical constraints,
and allowing for deliberate trade-off decisions.
2. Actively involves content providers as a second major user group of an IA system
(next to end users), which ensures feasibility and usability of the IA system for them,
and thus high-quality content. As such, it integrates IA and Content Management
processes.
The IA Process Model comprises an accessible description of the overall process flow, de-
tailed specifications of individual process steps, and additional practical tools, which ensure
scalability of the model to given project conditions, effective use of individual methods, and
efficient interdisciplinary collaboration in web teams. It has been successfully applied in a
validation project covering the redesign of a Siemens internet website. Results of the project,
as well as from the expert focus groups, confirmed the IA Process Model to deliver effective
and efficient IA process instances in variable conditions. It has been shown to be capable of
accounting for and resolving present deficiencies of web-based information systems and their
root causes, and thus provides a unique and powerful instrument to handle future challenges
posed on developing web-based information systems.
Acknowledgements
This dissertation was developed in collaboration with Prof. Dr. Alf Zimmer, former head of
the department for Experimental and Applied Psychology at the University of Regensburg /
Germany, and the Competence Center for User Interface Design of the Siemens AG, Munich /
Germany. It was funded by the Corporate Technology department of the Siemens AG.
I would like to express my gratitude to Dr. Tobias Komischke, my supervisor at Siemens
during most of the thesis. The practical advice, encouragement, and friendship he was always
willing to give allowed me to constantly keep on track during this long-term effort. I am also
grateful to Dr. Helmut Degen, my initial supervisor at Siemens, whose analytical skills and
enduringness during the early stages of the thesis pushed me to completely understand the
problem and eliminate any flaws in the research approach.
Special thanks are due to Prof. Dr. Alf Zimmer, my doctoral advisor at the University of
Regensburg, for the encouraging discussions and administrative support throughout the thesis.
I also acknowledge the head of Siemens’ Competence Center for User Interface Design, Dr.
Stefan Schoen, for the support of any kind he naturally granted to me, as well as his predeces-
sor, Prof. Dr. Heidi Krömker, who initially accepted me as a PhD student at Siemens.
My thanks go out to all my colleagues at Siemens’ Competence Center for User Interface
Design in Munich and User Interface Design Center in Princeton, US, for many valuable dis-
cussions and for their practical advice and support. I would like to especially thank Catherine
Forsman, as well as Phil Arco, for their much appreciated input and support throughout the
thesis. Thanks are also owed to all participants in interviews and workshops during the thesis,
as well as the department SBS T&S of the Siemens AG, for the beneficial collaboration in the
validation project of the thesis.
Special thanks to my parents, Gertraud and Rudolf Reichenauer, whose enduring support
during all of my educational career made it possible for me to achieve this.
Finally, my deeply felt thanks to Bianca Boneberger for her love, understanding, and pa-
tience during sometimes troubled, but always exciting times.
Munich, January 2005
Arno Reichenauer Table of Contents i

Table of Contents
1 INTRODUCTION 1
2 BACKGROUND 5
2.1 The Discipline of Information Architecture ........................................................5
2.1.1 The History of Information Architecture 5
2.1.2 Definitions of Inform7
2.1.2.1 Wurman’s Conception of Information Architecture 7
2.1.2.2 Library-IA (a.k.a. “Small IA”) and User Experience Design 8
2.1.2.3 Excursus: Roots of IA (I): Library & Information Science (LIS) 9
2.1.2.4 Interaction-IA and “Big IA” 10
2.1.2.5 oots of IA (II): Psychology and HCI 11
2.1.2.6 Conclusion on Information Architecture Definitions 18
2.1.3 The System of Information Architecture 19
2.1.3.1 Components of an Information Architecture System 19
2.1.3.2 Excursus: Metadata and Controlled Vocabularies 21
2.1.3.3 Conclusion on Components of an Information Architecture System 23
2.1.4 The Process of Information Architecture 24
2.1.4.1 Basic Top-Down Information Architecture Process 24
2.1.4.2 Basic Integrated IA Process (Top-Down & Bottom-Up IA Combined) 26
2.1.4.3 IA Incorporated in a User-Centered Website Development Process 28
2.1.4.4 Conclusion on IA Processes 31
2.1.5 Methods and Deliverables of Information Architecture 31
2.1.5.1 Introduction 31
2.1.5.2 Card Sorting
2.1.5.3 Content Inventory 33
2.1.5.4 Wireframes 35
2.1.5.5 Blueprints 37
2.1.6 The Impact of Information Architecture 38
2.1.6.1 Introduction 38
2.1.6.2 Impact on End Users of Information Systems
2.1.6.3 Impact on Business Performance 39
2.1.6.4 Impact on Development of Information Systems 40
2.1.6.5 Impact on Management of Content in Information Systems 40
2.1.7 The Future of Information Architecture 40
2.2 Related Disciplines in Website Development.....................................................44
2.2.1 Corporate Strategy 45
2.2.1.1 Basics of Corporate Strategy
2.2.1.2 Where Information Architecture and Corporate Strategy Meet 46
2.2.2 Interaction Design 47
2.2.2.1 Basics of Interaction Design
2.2.2.2 Where Informand Interaction Design Meet 48
2.2.3 Information Design 49
2.2.3.1 Basics of Information Design ii Tables

2.2.3.2 Where Information Architecture and Information Design Meet 50
2.2.4 Corporate Branding & Visual Design 51
2.2.4.1 Basics of Corporate Branding and Visual Design 51
2.2.4.2 Where Information Architecture and Corporate Branding / Visual Design Meet 54
2.2.5 Database Design & System Development 55
2.2.5.1 Basics of Database Design and System Development 55
2.2.5.2 Where Information Architecture and Database Design Meet 57
2.2.6 Usability Engineering & User-Centered Design 58
2.2.6.1 Basics of Usability Engineering and User-Centered Design 58
2.2.6.2 Excursus: User Interface Design 74
2.2.6.3 Where Information Architecture and Usability Engineering Meet 75
2.2.7 Content Management 77
2.2.7.1 Basics of Content Management
2.2.7.2 Where Information Architecture and Content Management Meet 78
2.2.8 Conclusion on Information Architecture and Related Disciplines 80
2.3 Web-Specific Deficiencies from an End User Perspective ............................... 81
2.3.1 Introduction 81
2.3.2 Symptoms of Web-Specific Deficiencies
2.3.2.1 The Web as an Information Space 81
2.3.2.2 Navigating the Web 82
2.3.2.3 Technical Constraints of the Web 89
2.3.3 Root Causes for Web-Specific Deficiencies 91
2.3.4 Case Study: Siemens Employee Portal 92
2.3.4.1 The SEP as an Information Space 94
2.3.4.2 Navigating the SEP 95
2.3.4.3 Technical Constraints of the SEP 97
2.3.4.4 Conclusion: SEP Deficiencies and Respective Causes 97
2.3.5 Consequences of Web-Specific Deficiencies 97
2.3.5.1 Introduction 97
2.3.5.2 Psychological Consequences for the End User
2.3.5.3 Economic Consequences for the Organization 100
3 RESEARCH APPROACH 105
3.1 Outline of the Chapter ...................................................................................... 105
3.2 Purpose and Scope of the Thesis ...................................................................... 105
3.3 Objective of the Thesis 107
3.4 Outline of the Research Approach................................................................... 111
4 REALIZATION 113
4.1 Step 1: System Analysis..................................................................................... 113
4.1.1 Introduction and Overall Objectives 113
4.1.2 Step 1.1: IA System Components 113
4.1.2.1 Outline and Objectives 113
4.1.2.2 Methods and Materials 114
4.1.2.3 Results: IA System Model V0.1: Components 116
4.1.3 Step 1.2: Deficiencies of IA System Components 117