Making decisions under conflict with a continuous mind [Elektronische Ressource] : from micro to macro time scales / by Stefan Scherbaum

Making decisions under conflict with a continuous mind [Elektronische Ressource] : from micro to macro time scales / by Stefan Scherbaum

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  Making decisions under conflict with a continuous mind: from micro to macro time scales  DISSERTATION  for the degree of Doctor rerum naturalium (Dr. rer. nat.)   presented to the Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences of Technische Universität Dresden   by M.Sc. Stefan Scherbaum    Reviewer:  Prof. Dr. Thomas Goschke (Dresden, Germany)   Prof. Dr. Alexander Strobel     Doctoral defense:  October 26th 2010   Contact: stefan.scherbaum@psychologie.tu‐dresden.de    Statement The presented work is a cumulative dissertation. In accordance with § 8 (1) of the doctorate regulations from march 20th 2000 of the Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences of Technische Universität Dresden, it has been prepared as a self‐contained work. All chapters were composed specifically for this dissertation. In addition to the empirical papers (chapters 5 – 7), the theoretical background of the work is comprehensively reflected in the introduction (chapter 1 – 3) and the first, theoretical paper (chapter 4). A conjoint evaluation and critical consideration of all studies and results and a discussion of theoretical implications are provided in the general discussion (chapter 8) and conclusion (chapter 9).  Paper 1 (chapter 4): Scherbaum, S., Dshemuchadse, M., & Kalis, A. (2008). Making decisions with a continuous mind. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, Vol. 8(4), pp. 454‐474. Paper 2 (chapter 5): Scherbaum, S., Fischer, R.

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Makingdecisionsunderconflictwithacontinuousmind:frommicrotomacrotimescales
DISSERTATION
forthedegreeofDoctorrerumnaturalium(Dr.rer.nat.)presentedtotheDepartmentofMathematicsandNaturalSciencesofTechnischeUniversitätDresdenbyM.Sc.StefanScherbaumReviewer:Prof.Dr.ThomasGoschke(Dresden,Germany)Prof.Dr.AlexanderStrobel(Dresden,Germany)Doctoraldefense:October26th2010Contact:stefan.scherbaum@psychologie.tudresden.de
Statement
Thepresentedworkisacumulativedissertation.Inaccordancewith§8(1)ofthedoctorate
regulationsfrommarch20th2000oftheDepartmentofMathematicsandNaturalSciences
ofTechnischeUniversitätDresden,ithasbeenpreparedasaselfcontainedwork.All
chapterswerecomposedspecificallyforthisdissertation.Inadditiontotheempirical
papers(chapters57),thetheoreticalbackgroundoftheworkiscomprehensively
reflectedintheintroduction(chapter13)andthefirst,theoreticalpaper(chapter4).A
conjointevaluationandcriticalconsiderationofallstudiesandresultsandadiscussionof
theoreticalimplicationsareprovidedinthegeneraldiscussion(chapter8)andconclusion
(chapter9).
Paper1(chapter4):Scherbaum,S.,Dshemuchadse,M.,&Kalis,A.(2008).Making
decisionswithacontinuousmind.Cognitive,Affective,&BehavioralNeuroscience,Vol.8(4),
pp.454474.
Paper2(chapter5):Scherbaum,S.,Fischer,R.,Dshemuchadse,M.,&Goschke,T.
(submitted).Thedynamicsofcognitivecontrol:evidenceforwithintrialconflictadaptation
fromfrequencytaggedEEG.Psychophysiology.
Paper3(chapter6):Scherbaum,S.,Dshemuchadse,M.,Fischer,R.,&Goschke,T.(2010).
HowDecisionsEvolve:TheTemporalDynamicsofActionSelection.Cognition,Vol.115(3)
2010,pp.407416.
Paper4(chapter7):Scherbaum,S.,Dshemuchadse,M.,Ruge,H.,&Goschke,T.
(submitted).Dynamicgoalstates:adaptingcognitivecontrolatdifferenttimescales
withoutconflictmonitoring.PsychologicalReview.
I
BriefContents
Statement ....................................................................................................................................................... I Brief........I.........I.I.....................................................................................................................ntteonC......s. Contents ........................................................................................................................................................V Figures..........................................................................XI............................................................................... Chapter1.....ntro1I........................................................ctdun.io................................................................ Chapter2 Decisionmakingunderconflict .............................................................................................3 Chapter3 Investigatingdecisionmakingunderconflictdynamically.............................................14 Chapter4 Makingdecisionswithacontinuousmind ........................................................................17 Chapter5 Thedynamicsofcognitivecontrol:evidenceforwithintrialconflictadaptationfromfrequencytaggedEEG ........................................................................................................56 Chapter6 Howdecisionsevolve:thetemporaldynamicsofactionselection.................................77 Chapter7 Dynamicgoalstates:adaptingcognitivecontrolatdifferenttimescaleswithoutconflictmonitoring........................................................................................................................97 Chapter8 Generaldiscussion ...............................................................................................................115 Chapter9 Conclusionandoutlook ......................................................................................................123References ..................................................................................................................................................130 DeutscheZusammenfassung ..................................................................................................................153 AppendixISupplementarymaterialforchapter.................5........59.1.................................................... AppendixIIModelformulasforchapter7 ...........................................................................................163
III
Contents
Statement............................................................................................................................................ I BriefContents................................................................................................................................. III Contents.............................................................................................................................................V Figures ..............................................................................................................................................IX Chapter1Introduction .............................................................................................................. 1 Chapter2Decisionmakingunderconflict............................................................................ 3 2.1Decisionmaking,modules,andstages................................................................................. 4 2.2Decisionmakingunderconflictandcognitivecontrol....................................................... 6 2.3Amoduleforcoordinatingdecisionmakingunder8conflict ............................................. 2.4Adynamicapproachtodecisionmakingunderconflict ................................................. 10 2.4.1Theprincipleofcontinuity............................................................................................ 10 2.4.2Theprincipleofrecurrentcoupling............................................................................. 12 Chapter3Investigatingdecisionmakingunderconflictdynamically.......................... 14 3.1.1Theoreticalaims.............................................................................................................. 15 3.1.2Empiricalaims ................................................................................................................ 15 Chapter4Makingdecisionswithacontinuousmind ...................................................... 17 4.1Abstract ................................................................................................................................... 17 4.2Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 17 4.3Interdisciplinaryresearchondecisionmaking.................................................................. 18 4.3.1Neuroeconomics............................................................................................................. 19 4.3.2Challengesfortheneuroeconomicapproach............................................................. 20 4.3.2.1Anexample:intertemporal21choice ........................................................................ 4.3.2.2Thetwosystemsapproach ..................................................................................... 23 4.3.2.3Processesoftimeperceptionandrewardanticipationinintertemporalchoice ................................................................................................................................................ 25 4.3.2.4Integrationefforts .................................................................................................... 26 4.4ADSTinformedapproachtodecisionmaking................................................................. 27 4.4.1Fromselforganizedcognitiontocontinuousselforganizeddecisionmaking .... 28 4.4.2PrinciplesofDSTandtheirapplicationtodecisionmaking.................................... 30 4.4.2.1Systems,variables,andstatespace ....................................................................... 30
V
4.4.2.2Attractors,multistability,andtrajectories............................................................ 31 4.4.2.3Collectivevariables.................................................................................................. 34 4.4.2.4Controlparameters,bifurcations,andphasetransitions ................................... 35 4.4.2.5Hysteresis.................................................................................................................. 36 4.4.2.6Perturbationsandcriticality................................................................................... 37 4.4.2.7Metastabilityandintermittency............................................................................. 39 4.4.3ResearchstrategiesforaDSTinformedapproachtointertemporal40choice .......... 4.4.3.1Variabilityinthedynamicdecisionsystem ......................................................... 41 4.4.3.2Watchingcontinuouschangesovertime:trajectories ........................................ 42 4.4.3.3Nonlinearinfluencesofcontrolparameters:hysteresis.................................... 43 4.4.3.4Usingperturbationstodetectpropertiesofthesystem ..................................... 44 4.4.3.5Consideringindividualitytocomplementaggregation..................................... 45 4.4.4AssemblingtheDSTinformedapproach ................................................................... 46 4.4.4.1ADSTinformedapproachtointertemporalchoice ........................................... 46 4.4.4.2ADSTinformedneuroeconomics......................................................................... 48 4.4.4.3Acommonlanguage,offeringnewtools ............................................................. 48 4.4.4.4Dynamicstructure,nonlinearity,continuityandselforganization:newprinciplesforthedecidingbrain ....................................................................................... 49 4.5Discussion ............................................................................................................................... 51 4.5.1Theoretical51objections .................................................................................................... 4.5.2Thepracticalobjection:54complexity ............................................................................. 4.6Conclusion .............................................................................................................................. 55 Chapter5Thedynamicsofcognitivecontrol:evidenceforwithintrialconflictadaptationfromfrequencytaggedEEG........................................................................ 56 5.1Abstract ................................................................................................................................... 56 5.2Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 56 5.3Methods................................................................................................................................... 60 5.3.1Participants...................................................................................................................... 60 5.3.2ApparatusandStimuli .................................................................................................. 60 5.3.3Design .............................................................................................................................. 61 5.3.4Procedure......................................................................................................................... 62 5.3.5Dataacquisitionandanalysis ....................................................................................... 63 5.465Results ..................................................................................................................................... 5.4.1Response65times ............................................................................................................... 5.4.2SSVEPamplitudes.......................................................................................................... 66 5.5Simulation ............................................................................................................................... 68 5.6Discussion ............................................................................................................................... 71 Chapter6Howdecisionsevolve:thetemporaldynamicsofactionselection.............. 77 6.1Abstract ................................................................................................................................... 77 6.2Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 77 6.3Experiment1........................................................................................................................... 79
6.3.1Methods ........................................................................................................................... 80 6.3.1.1Participants ............................................................................................................... 80 6.3.1.2ApparatusandStimuli............................................................................................ 80 6.3.1.3Procedure .................................................................................................................. 80 6.3.1.4DataPreprocessing .................................................................................................. 82 6.3.2Results.............................................................................................................................. 82 6.3.3Discussion........................................................................................................................ 87 6.4Experiment2........................................................................................................................... 88 6.4.1Methods ........................................................................................................................... 89 6.4.1.1Participants ............................................................................................................... 89 6.4.1.2ApparatusandStimuli............................................................................................ 89 6.4.1.3Procedure .................................................................................................................. 89 6.4.1.4DataPreprocessing .................................................................................................. 90 6.4.2Results.............................................................................................................................. 90 6.4.3Discussion........................................................................................................................ 94 6.5GeneralDiscussion ................................................................................................................ 94 Chapter7Dynamicgoalstates:adaptingcognitivecontrolatdifferenttimescaleswithoutconflictmonitoring............................................................................................ 97 7.1Abstract ................................................................................................................................... 97 7.2Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 97 7.3Conflictadaptationwithoutconflictmonitoring............................................................ 100 7.4Simulations ........................................................................................................................... 102 7.4.1Modelandhypotheses................................................................................................. 102 7.4.2Simulatedparadigm .................................................................................................... 104 7.4.3Simulation1 .................................................................................................................. 105 7.4.4ResultsSimulation1..................................................................................................... 105 7.4.5Simulation2 .................................................................................................................. 109 7.4.6ResultsSimulation2..................................................................................................... 110 7.5Discussion ............................................................................................................................. 112 Chapter8Generaldiscussion .............................................................................................. 115 8.1Summaryoftheoreticalresults .......................................................................................... 116 8.2Summaryofempiricalfindings ......................................................................................... 117 8.3Discussionofempiricalfindings ....................................................................................... 120 Chapter9Conclusionandoutlook ..................................................................................... 123 9.1Implicationsofthedynamicapproachtodecisionmakingunderconflict ................. 123 9.1.1Investigatingmicrotimescalesandintegratingacrosstimescales ...................... 124 9.1.2Investigatinginteraction125dynamics ........................................................................... 9.2Currentandfutureprojects ................................................................................................ 127 9.2.1Thedynamicsofdecisionmakingunderconflict.................................................... 127 9.2.2Makingitreal:thedynamicsofvaluebaseddecisionmaking .............................. 128
VII
9.3Theresultingdynamicpicture:aselforganizingbalancesolvingdilemmasofdecisionmaking ......................................................................................................................... 129 References ...................................................................................................................................... 130 DeutscheZusammenfassung ..................................................................................................... 153 AppendixISupplementarymaterialforchapter5 ................................................................ 159 AppendixIIModelformulasforchapter7.............................................................................. 163
Figures
Figure1.Conflictrelatedeffectsatdifferenttimescales.......................................................................14 Figure2.Thecoreprocessingstagesofdecisionmaking .....................................................................20 Figure3.Thestatespaceofadynamicdecisionsystem .......................................................................32 Figure4.Thestatespaceofadynamicdecisionsystemwithtwounequallyvaluedoptions. .......33 Figure5.Thereducedstatespaceofthedynamicdecisionsystem ....................................................35 Figure6.Abifurcationdiagram ...............................................................................................................36 Figure7.Abifurcationdiagramillustratinghysteresis. .......................................................................37 Figure8.Perturbationofthesystem................................38........tats...e.................................................... Figure9.Smallperturbation .....................................................................................................................39 Figure10.Ametastabledecisionsystem.................................................................................................40 Figure11.ThesetupofaDSTinformedexperiment ............................................................................44 Figure12.Experimentalsetup(A)andhypothesizedSSVEPwaveforms(B). ..................................61 Figure13.Responsetimes. ........................................................................................................................66 Figure14SSVEPamplitudecontrasts......................................................................................................68 Figure15.SSVEPamplitudecontrastsofsimulatedsurrogatedata. ..................................................70 Figure16.GrandaverageSSVEPtopographiesfor12Hz(A)and9Hz(B). .....................................71 Figure17.Setupoftheexperiment. .........................................................................................................81 Figure18.SummaryofRTandmousedata............................................................................................83 Figure19.Regressorweightsandtrajectoryangleovertime...............................................................86 Figure20.SummaryofRTandmousedata............................................................................................92 Figure21.Regressorweightsandtrajectoryangleovertime...............................................................93 Figure22.Outlineofthemodelinaconflicttasksituationasimplementedhere. .........................103 Figure23.RTresultsofsimulation1. ....................................................................................................106 Figure24.Activationtrajectoriesattheinputlevel. ............................................................................107 Figure25.Activationtrajectoriesattheresponselevel. ......................................................................108 Figure26.Statespaceofthegoallayersubsystem. .............................................................................109 Figure27.Resultsofparameterchangesonthestabilityofgoalactivations...................................111 Figure28.Correlationofconflictandcontrolinthenexttrial. ..........................................................113 Figure29.RegressiononRTintheSimontaskofchapter6...............................................................118 Figure30.DynamicsinsimulatedSSVEPsandmousetrajectories...................................................121
IX